Centro Universitario Augusto Motta
Recent publications
Objective Exercise has been demonstrated to be beneficial for improving physical capacity and quality of life in people with scleroderma, although knowledge of its impact on the respiratory system is limited. This study evaluated the impact of therapist-oriented home rehabilitation (TOHR) on impulse oscillometry (IOS) and lung ultrasound (LUS) findings in patients with scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Results Twelve women with scleroderma underwent spirometry, IOS, and LUS before and after performing TOHR. Regarding spirometry, a normal pattern and restrictive damage were observed in five (41.7%) and seven (58.3%) participants pre-TOHR and post-TOHR, respectively. For IOS, an abnormal result was detected in nine (75%) pre-TOHR participants and six (50%) post-TOHR participants. Heterogeneity of resistance between 4–20 Hz (R4-R20) > 20% of the predicted value was observed in eight (66.7%) pre-TOHR participants and three (25%) post-TOHR participants ( P = 0.031). An abnormal LUS result was observed in nine (75%) participants both pre-TOHR and post-TOHR. The main change observed was B-lines > 2, which was noted in nine (75%) participants both pre-TOHR and post-TOHR. Our findings suggest that TOHR for women with scleroderma-associated ILD improves the resistance and reactance measured by IOS, including small airway disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT05041868 Registered on: 13th September 2021.
This work aims to develop a didactic activity in the emergency remote teaching model through the PET (Tutorado Study Plan) for students to the 9th grade from the public network of the state of Minas Gerais. In addition, the proposal promotes awareness of various problems that will awaken students' ability to cooperate in preserving the environment. Keywords: Emergency Remote Teaching; Environmental Education, School Practice; Local Development.
Background Chronic low back pain is a public health problem, and there is strong evidence that it is associated with a complex interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Cognitive functional therapy (CFT) is a promising new intervention that deals with potentially modifiable multidimensional aspects of pain (e.g., provocative cognitive, movement, and lifestyle behaviors). Methods To investigate the efficacy of CFT compared with a sham intervention for pain intensity and disability post-intervention (immediately after the last session) in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP). This study is a randomized controlled trial in which 152 (18–60 years old) patients with CLBP will be enrolled. The patients will be randomly allocated to receive (1) CFT intervention or (2) sham intervention. The experimental group will receive individualized CFT in a pragmatic manner (5 to 7 sessions) based on the clinical progression of the participants. The sham group will attend six sessions: consisting of 30 min of photobiomodulation using a detuned device and more than 15 min of talking about neutral topics. Patients from both groups also will receive an educational booklet (for ethical reasons). Participants will be assessed pre and post-intervention, 3 months, and 6 months after randomization. The primary outcomes will be pain intensity and disability post-intervention. The secondary outcomes will be: pain intensity and disability at 3- and 6-month follow-up, as well as self-efficacy, global perceived effect of improvement, and functioning post-intervention, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. The patients and the assessor will be blinded to the treatment administered (active vs. sham). Statistical analysis The between-group differences (effects of treatment), as well as the treatment effect for the primary and secondary outcomes, and their respective 95% confidence intervals will be calculated by constructing linear mixed models. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, the current study will be the first to compare CFT vs. sham intervention. Sham-controlled RCTs may help to understand the influence of non-specific factors on treatment outcomes. Considering complex interventions as CFT, it is imperative to understand the impact of contextual factors on outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04518891 . First Posted: August 19, 2020.
Objective The purpose of this study was to illustrate the applicability of mediation analysis in the manual therapy field by assessing whether pain intensity, duration of pain, or the change in systolic blood pressure mediated the heart rate variability (HRV) of patients with musculoskeletal pain who received manual therapy. Methods A secondary data analysis from a 3-arm, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled, assessor-blinded, superiority trial was performed. Participants were randomized into spinal manipulation, myofascial manipulation, or placebo groups. Cardiovascular autonomic control was inferred from resting HRV variables (low-high frequency power ratio; LF/HF) and blood pressure responsiveness to a sympathoexcitatory stimulus (cold pressor test). Pain intensity and duration were assessed. Mediation models analyzed whether pain intensity, duration, or blood pressure independently affected the improvement of the cardiovascular autonomic control of patients with musculoskeletal pain after intervention. Results The first assumption of mediation was met for LF/HF with statistical evidence of a total effect of spinal manipulation, as compared with placebo on HRV outcomes (β = 0.77 [0.17-1.30]); second and third assumptions showed no statistical evidence of a relationship between the intervention and pain intensity (β = –5.30 [–39.48 to 28.87]), pain intensity, and LF/HF (β = 0.00 [–0.01 to 0.01]). Conclusion In this study of causal mediation analysis, the baseline pain intensity, duration of pain, and responsiveness of the systolic blood pressure to a sympathoexcitatory stimulus did not mediate the effects of the spinal manipulation on the cardiovascular autonomic control of patients with musculoskeletal pain. Accordingly, the immediate effect of spinal manipulation on the cardiac vagal modulation of patients with musculoskeletal pain may more likely be related to the intervention rather than the mediators investigated.
Background and objectives: The neuromuscular system is responsible for performing adequate muscle activities to maintain postural balance. Since COVID-19 can cause damage to this system, long-term sequelae might alter control of postural stability. This study aimed to evaluate the postural balance of patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) who were not hospitalized and to evaluate the correlations of changes in postural balance with general fatigue, muscle strength, and quality of life (QoL). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which 40 patients with PCS and 40 controls underwent balance assessment through the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Tinetti Balance Scale (TBS). They were evaluated for general fatigue by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale, handgrip strength (HGS), and quality of life (QoL) by the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Results: When compared to controls, patients with PCS had lower BBS and TBS scores (p = 0.001 for both). The FACIT-F score was lower in PCS patients (p = 0.0001). HGS was slightly lower in the PCS patients, but not statistically significant (p = 0.09). Regarding QoL, PCS patients showed worse evaluations in five dimensions of the SF-36 (physical functioning, physical role limitations, bodily pain, general health perceptions, and mental health). Both the BBS and TBS scores had statistically significant positive correlations with the FACIT-F score, HGS, and two SF-36 dimensions (physical role limitations and emotional role limitations). Conclusions: Patients with PCS show worse postural balance than controls, which is associated with general fatigue, lower HGS, and poor QoL. Postural balance assessment should be considered in the follow-up and rehabilitation of PCS.
Introduction: Exercise programmes have been used to prevent injuries in military personnel, as they can reduce modifiable risk factors for injuries. Our aim was to review the literature to evaluate the effects of different exercise protocols on the prevention of injuries in military personnel. Methods: A systematic literature review examined the effects of different exercise protocols on the prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in the military. Several databases were explored to find experimental studies that investigated the effects of prevention programmes on the risk of injury. We have extracted from the studies: profile of participants, sample size, study design and characteristics of the control group (CG), the type of intervention and the relative risk (RR) in the experimental group and CG, with their significance levels. For data analysis, we used the RevMan V.5.3 software. The measure of RR was investigated. The risk of publication bias was analysed with Begg's test. Results: A total of 13 694 titles and studies were recovered from the databases and by manual search. After the removal of duplicate titles and studies that did not meet the eligibility criteria, 17 studies were selected. The protocols were composed of neuromuscular training, stretching, agility training or combined exercises. The meta-analysis showed that injury prevention exercise programmes reduced the risk of musculoskeletal injuries in military personnel by 14% (RR=0.86; 95% CI=0.76 to 0.98). Conclusion: Injury prevention exercise programmes promoted a slight reduction in the risk of musculoskeletal injuries in military personnel. Level of evidence: Very low. Trial registration number: CRD 42017077946.
Background and Objectives: To estimate the association between admission functional outcomes and exposure to physiotherapy interventions with mortality rate in intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients with cardiovascular diseases and new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort including 100 ICU inpatients (mean (standard deviation), age 75 (16) years) split into COVID-19+ or COVID-19−. The association of in-ICU death with admission functional outcomes and physiotherapy interventions was investigated using univariable and multivariable regression models. Results: In total, 42 (42%) patients tested positive for COVID-19. In-ICU mortality rate was 37%, being higher for the COVID-19+ group (odds ratio, OR (95% CI): 3.15 (1.37–7.47), p = 0.008). In-ICU death was associated with lower admission ICU Mobility Scale score (0.81 (0.71–0.91), p = 0.001). Restricted mobility (24.90 (6.77–161.94), p < 0.001) and passive kinesiotherapy (30.67 (9.49–139.52), p < 0.001) were associated with in-ICU death, whereas active kinesiotherapy (0.13 (0.05–0.32), p < 0.001), standing (0.12 (0.05–0.30), p < 0.001), or walking (0.10 (0.03–0.27), p < 0.001) were associated with in-ICU discharge. Conclusions: In-ICU mortality was higher for inpatients with cardiovascular diseases who had COVID-19+, were exposed to invasive mechanical ventilation, or presented with low admission mobility scores. Restricted mobility or passive kinesiotherapy were associated with in-ICU death, whereas active mobilizations (kinesiotherapy, standing, or walking) were associated with in-ICU discharge in this population.
Background: Changes in lifestyle, a carbohydrate-rich diet, and decreased physical activity are part of the context that led to an obesity pandemic. Treating obesity is a task that requires multidisciplinary care; however, in many cases, conventional therapy has no effect, requiring surgical intervention. This, in turn, is not without risks and causes important changes in lung function. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of electroanalgesia through conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the pain and lung function in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery. Methods: This is a controlled and blinded clinical trial with 66 subjects who underwent bariatric surgery. The participants were randomized into 2 groups as follows: an intervention group treated with TENS (n = 33) and a placebo group (n = 33). The participants underwent 4 TENS sessions, and the effect on pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS pain). Lung function was measured by spirometry. Results: There were no differences between the 2 groups regarding time of surgery and time of mechanical ventilation. Compared to placebo, TENS reduced pain in the intervention group (p = 0.001). Regarding the effect of electroanalgesia on pulmonary function, the spirometric parameters were similar between the groups. However, regarding muscle strength between the preoperative and postoperative periods, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) was maintained in the intervention group and decreased in the placebo group (p = 0.03). Compared with that in the intervention group, the respiratory rate in the placebo group increased during the application of TENS (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Electroanalgesia reduces pain in patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Importantly, in these patients, the MIP is maintained between the preoperative and postoperative periods. However, electroanalgesia does not contribute to improvements in spirometric data. This trial is registered with NCT04800640.
Objectives: This systematic review examined studies that used mediation analysis to investigate the mechanisms of action of cognitive-behavioral, mind-body and exercise-based interventions for pain and disability in people with chronic primary musculoskeletal pain. Methods: We searched five electronic databases for articles that conducted mediation analyses of randomized controlled trials to either test or estimate indirect effects. Results: We found 17 studies (n=4423), including 90 mediation models examining the role of 22 putative mediators on pain or disability, of which 4 partially mediated treatment effect; 8 had mixed results and 10 did not mediate treatment effect. The conditions studied were chronic whiplash-associated pain, chronic low back pain, chronic knee pain and mixed group of chronic primary musculoskeletal pain. Discussion: We observed that several of the studies included in our systematic review identified similar mechanisms of action, even between different interventions and conditions. However, methodological limitations were common. In conclusion, there are still substantial gaps with respect to understanding how cognitive-behavioral, mind-body and exercise-based interventions work to reduce pain and disability in people with chronic primary musculoskeletal pain.
To evaluate the ability of tracheal sound analysis (TSA) to detect airflow obstruction, particularly in patients with acromegaly. A simulated analysis compared free airflow conditions with airflow through orifice plates 6, 8, 10 and 12 mm in diameter. Based on these results, TSA and spirometry examinations were performed on controls (n = 17) and patients with acromegaly (n = 17). The simulated study showed that airway obstruction and airflow values increased the values of power and a progressive displacement of the spectral distribution towards higher frequencies. In agreement with the simulation, airway obstruction in patients with acromegaly also resulted in increased values of power (p < 0.002) and displacement of the spectral distribution (p < 0.01). Significant associations were observed between the TSA parameters and the spirometry indices of obstruction (p < 0.02). In addition, the TSA parameters achieved adequate diagnostic accuracy (AUC ≥ 0.887). The present study provides evidence that TSA during resting breathing would provide adequate biomarkers of early upper airway changes in patients with acromegaly. TSA is carried out during spontaneous ventilation, requires little from the patient, and is fast and inexpensive. Taken together, these practical considerations and the results of the present study suggest that TSA may improve lung function tests for patients with acromegaly. Summary of the study, overall design flow and the main results obtained.
Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a multifaceted syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation. Despite the existing controversies regarding the appropriate training modality, it is widely accepted that supervised cardiac rehabilitation (CR) interventions lead to pro-inflammatory biomarkers reduction and cellular adhesion molecules in patients with CHF. Aim: To quantify the effects of 12-week group-based high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIAIT)/modified group-based HIAIT intervention (m-Ullevaal) vs. moderate continuous training (MICT) on serum levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers. Design: Single-blind, two-arm, prospective randomized controlled trial conducted on CHF outpatients performing group-based CR interventions throughout a 12-week period. Setting: Medical Center of Outpatient Rehabilitation and Sport Medicine, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Population: A total of 120 outpatients of both genders, mean age of 63.73 ± 6.68 years, with stable CHF (NYHA classes II to IIIB, were randomly assigned to HIAIT/ m-Ullevaal (N. = 60) or to MICT (N. = 60) group. Methods: Functional exercise capacity (FEC) of the eligible subjects was evaluated through 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and peak oxygen uptake. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, after 12 weeks follow-up for analyses of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and cellular adhesion molecules (CAM). Results: Significant decreases in the serum levels of CRP (P = 0.029), TNF-α (P = 0.036), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (P = 0.040), were observed after 48 training sessions in the group-based HIAIT/m-Ullevaal intervention, except for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which was higher in the MICT (P = 0.034). FEC was significantly inversely related to CRP (r = -0.72, p < 0.05), and the levels of VCAM-1 (r = - 0.68, P< 0.05). Conclusions: Both group-based CR interventions (HIAIT/m-Ullevaal and MICT) significantly reduced the serum levels of CRP, TNF- α, ICAM-1 and VCAM in patients with CHF. However, selected pro-inflammatory biomarkers changes and CAMs favorably decreased in the group-based HIAIT/m-Ullevaal intervention. The responses on serum levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers and CAMs are dependent upon the type, intensity, and CR intervention duration. Clinical rehabilitation impact: The group-based high-intensity aerobic interval training reduces significantly the pro-inflammatory biomarkers and cellular adhesion molecules in patients with chronic heart failure.
Background Stroke is the foremost cause of death and disability worldwide. Improving upper extremity function and quality of life are two paramount therapeutic targets during rehabilitation. Aim of the study To investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with trunk-targeted proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions of subjects with subacute stroke. Methodology Fifty-four subjects with subacute stroke were divided into three groups using block randomization. All three groups received rehabilitation sessions lasting 90 min in duration, four times per week, for 6 weeks. Group 1 ( n = 18) received conventional physical therapy (CPT); group 2 ( n = 18) received CPT, trunk-targeted PNF, and sham tDCS; and group 3 ( n = 18) received CPT, trunk-targeted PNF, and bihemispheric motor cortex stimulation with tDCS. Changes in motor impairment, motor activity, and health-related quality of life assessments were outcome measures. Results A two-way linear mixed model analysis revealed interaction effects (group × time) for all outcome measurements (Trunk Impairment Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Recovery after stroke upper extremity subsection, Wolf Motor Function Test, 10-Meter Walk Test, and the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life scale; all p < 0.01 or lower). Overall, post–pre mean differences demonstrate more substantial improvement in the active tDCS group, followed by sham stimulation associated with the PNF group and the group that received CPT alone. Conclusion Trunk-targeted PNF combined with bihemispheric tDCS along with CPT engender larger improvements in upper extremity and trunk impairment, upper limb function, gait speed, and quality of life in the subacute stroke population.
This paper analyzes the impact of methane emissions taxation on the recovery of the investments required for implementing technologies that use biogas energy in small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Brazil. It is based on the hypothesis that the adoption of a national methane emission tax policy would encourage small WWTPs to become sustainable power plants. The procedure involved 173 anaerobic plants to analyze: (a) methane production; (b) available useful energy; (c) investments and avoided costs for implementing STHIL system (thermal drying sludge) and motor generator (electricity generation); (d) financial impact for two scenarios (C1: no emissions tax; C2: with tax). Positive environmental and financial results were observed for WWTPs, varying according to the period of time analyzed for both technologies. Investments must be made in cogeneration in anaerobic WWTPs for achieving satisfactory results. Taxation must not be viewed simply as a punitive instrument; on the contrary, it should be seen as a tool to encourage continuous process improvement. The circular economy may support the enlargement of the wastewater collection and treatment system, guaranteeing widespread sanitation conditions in urban areas. However, the actual implementation of a methane emission tax in Brazil still requires many rounds of discussion among sanitation companies, government, and civil society, to establish emission limits, and unit taxes, as well as to consolidate a carbon trade to follow through with this decision in the sanitation sector.
Background: The central sterile supply department (CSSD) is wrongly seen as a place in the hospital environment that does not require skills and physical effort, being commonly a hospital sector for the relocation of functionally-readapted professionals. However, CSSD is a work environment that demands professional experience and presents itself as a sector that does not have a healthy work environment. This study aims to evaluate the frequency of comorbidities and functionally-readapted people among nursing professionals allocated to a CSSD and, also, to seek the perception of these professionals about the ergonomic risks and the degree of difficulty to perform activities within a CSSD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that analyzed the opinions of nursing professionals who work in the CSSD of public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants aged ≥18 years were included. Results: Seventy-two nursing professionals were consecutively evaluated. It was observed that 43 of them (59.7%) had never worked in a CSSD. The most prevalent comorbidity in the present study was chronic rhinosinusitis, observed in more than half of the sample, although it is interesting to note the high frequency of participants with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) and repetitive strain injuries (RSI). There is a relationship between previous work in a CSSD and the ability to identify surgical tweezers by visual recognition (p=0.031). There is a relationship between the time the participant had previously worked in the hospital and the skill regarding the information contained in the conference folders for preparing the tray surgical procedures (τb = -0.34, p=0.001). Conclusion: Almost a third of nursing professionals working in a CSSD are rehabilitated, with a high prevalence of WMSD and RSI. The commitment of managers to an internal health policy aimed at workers is necessary for health promotion.
Cognitive functional therapy (CFT) is a physiotherapy-led intervention which has evolved from an integration of foundational behavioral psychology and neuroscience within the physiotherapist practice directed at the multidimensional nature of chronic low back pain (CLBP). The current evidence about the comparative effectiveness of CFT for CLBP is still scarce. We aimed to investigate whether CFT is more effective than core training exercise and manual therapy (CORE-MT) in pain and disability in patients with CLBP. A total of 148 adults with CLBP were randomly assigned to receive five one-hour individualised sessions of either CFT (n = 74) or CORE-MT (n = 74) within a period of 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were pain intensity (numeric pain rating scale, 0-10) and disability (Oswestry Disability Index, 0-100) at 8 weeks. Patients were assessed pre-intervention, at 8 weeks, 6 and 12 months after the first treatment session. Altogether, 97.3% (n=72) of patients in each intervention group completed the 8 weeks of the trial. CFT was more effective than CORE-MT in disability at 8 weeks (MD= -4.75; 95% CI -8.38 to -1.11; p=0.011, effect size= 0.55), but not in pain intensity (MD= -0.04; 95% CI -0.79 to 0.71; p=0.916). Treatment with CFT reduced disability, but the difference was not clinically important compared with CORE-MT post-intervention (short term) in patients with CLBP. There was no difference in pain intensity between interventions, and the treatment effect was not maintained in the mid-term and long-term follow-ups.
Background Fatigue is among the most common symptoms of the long-term effects of coronavirus (long COVID). This study aims to compare the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) combined with physiotherapy treatment (PT) compared to PT alone on fatigue and functional limitations after two months post randomization in adults with long COVID. Methods This is a study protocol for a two-arm, assessor-blinded, pragmatic randomized controlled superiority trial. Seventy-six participants will be randomly allocated to OMT + PT or PT. The PT includes usual care interventions including motor and respiratory exercises targeting cardiorespiratory and skeletal muscle functions. The OMT entails direct, indirect, visceral, and cranial techniques. Patients will be evaluated before and after a 2-month intervention program, and at 3-month follow-up session. Primary objectives comprise fatigue and functional limitations at 2-month post randomization as assessed by the fatigue severity scale and the Post-COVID Functional State scale. Secondary objectives comprise fatigue and functional limitations at 3 months, and the perceived change post-treatment as assessed by the Perceived Change Scale (PCS-patient). Registration This protocol was registered (NCT05012826) and received ethical approval (38342520.7.0000.5235). Participant recruitment began in August 2021 and is expected to conclude in July 2023. Publication of the results is anticipated in 2023.
Background Low back pain (LBP) is a global public health issue. Psychosocial factors are linked to low back pain. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the relation of psychosocial factors to clinical outcomes of severe LBP patients. Objective To investigate the relationship between specific psychosocial factors with severe pain and functional limitation of patients with LBP. Methods A cross-sectional study of 472 participants with LBP was conducted. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires, including psychosocial factors, characteristics of pain, and functional limitations. Two multivariable logistic regression models were performed with severe pain intensity (≥ 7 out of 10) and functional limitation (≥ 7 out of 10) (dependent variables) and 15 psychosocial factors (independent variables). Results One hundred twenty-five (26.5%) participants had severe LBP. Patients with and catastrophising symptoms were 2.21 [95%Confidence Interval (CI): 1.30, 3.77] times more likely to have severe pain and 2.72 (95%CI: 1.75, 4.23) times more likely to have severe functional limitation than patients without catastrophising symptoms. Patients with maladaptive beliefs about rest were 2.75 (95%CI: 1.37, 5.52) times more likely to present with severe pain and 1.72 (95%CI: 1.04, 2.83) times more likely to have severe functional limitation. Patients with kinesiophobia were 3.34 (95%CI: 1.36, 8.24) times more likely to present with severe pain, and patients with social isolation were 1.98 (95%CI: 1.25, 3.14) times more likely to have severe functional limitation. Conclusion Catastrophising, kinesiophobia, maladaptive beliefs about rest, and social isolation are related to unfavourable clinical outcomes of patients with LBP.
Background: Chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) is a public health issue associated with a complex interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Cognitive Functional Therapy is a multidimensional approach for CNSLBP which targets negative cognitions and maladaptive functional behaviors (via body relaxation, control and extinction of protective and safety behaviors). Since the evidence about the efficacy of CFT is still limited, it is important to perform clinical trials with the aim of comparing CFT with other interventions commonly used in clinical practice of physiotherapy. The current study will investigate the efficacy of Cognitive Functional Therapy (CFT) compared to combined Core Training exercise and manual therapy (CORE-MT) on pain and disability in patients with CNSLBP. Methods: Two-group, randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors. We will recruit 148 patients with CNSLBP in a private clinic in the city of Campinas, Brazil. The experimental group will receive five one-hour individualized sessions of CFT within a period of two months. The control group will receive five one-hour individualized sessions of CORE-MT within a period of two months. Patients will be assessed pre-intervention, post-intervention and after six and twelve months. The primary outcomes will be pain intensity and disability two months after first intervention session; secondary outcomes will be pain intensity and disability at six and twelve months, as well as global perceived effect and patient satisfaction at two, six and twelve months after the first intervention session. Non-specific predictors, moderators and mediators of outcomes will also be analyzed. Discussion: The result of a high-quality randomized controlled clinical trial involving CFT will assist physiotherapists in the clinical decision-making process. The present study will have a sample size capable of detecting relevant clinical effects of treatment with a low risk of bias. Trial registration: The protocol has been written according to the SPIRIT statement to enhance transparency of content and completeness, has been approved by the Augusto Motta University Center Ethics Committee (research protocol number 2.219.742) and the findings of the trial will be reported following the CONSORT statement and the TIDieR checklist. Trial registration number: NCT03273114
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is one of the most popular treatments for enhancing upper and lower extremity motor activities and participation in patients following a stroke. However, the effect of CIMT on balance is unclear and needs further clarification. The aim of this research was to estimate the effect of CIMT on balance and functional mobility in patients after stroke. After reviewing 161 studies from search engines including Google Scholar, EBSCO, PubMed, PEDro, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science, we included eight randomized controlled trials (RCT) in this study. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was verified using PEDro scoring. This systematic review showed positive effects of CIMT on balance in three studies and similar effects in five studies when compared to the control interventions such as neuro developmental treatment, modified forced-use therapy and conventional physical therapy. Furthermore, a meta-analysis indicated a statistically significant effect size by a standardized mean difference of 0.51 (P = 0.01), showing that the groups who received CIMT had improved more than the control groups. However, the meta-analysis results for functional mobility were statistically insignificant, with an effect size of −4.18 (P = 0.16), indicating that the functional mobility improvements in the investigated groups were not greater than the control group. This study’s findings demonstrated the superior effects of CIMT on balance; however, the effect size analysis of functional mobility was statistically insignificant. These findings indicate that CIMT interventions can improve balance-related motor function better than neuro developmental treatment, modified forced-use therapy and conventional physical therapy in patients after a stroke.
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138 members
Ney Meziat Filho
  • Ciências da Reabilitação
Arthur Sá Ferreira
  • Postgraduate Program of Rehabilitation Sciences
Patrícia Dos Santos Vigário
  • Doutorado em Ciências da Reabilitação
Maria Geralda Miranda
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação (Mestrado e Doutorado) em Desenvolvimento Local
Sebastiao Votre
  • Mestrado Desenvolvimento Local
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil