Stable hydrogen isotope measurement of body tissues faces analytical and interpretative challenges such as hydrogen exchange with atmosphere or competitive influence of drinking water and food intake. Samples from the Gallic site of Thézy-Glimont, France, have already been investigated isotopically for climate reconstruction and diet investigation of the buried individuals. This allows comparison with the hydrogen isotope composition (δ²H) of bone collagen, tooth enamel and of bulk bone measured for 8 humans and 11 animals. Three of the best-preserved human skeletons were incrementally sampled and show acceptable homogeneity of δ²H values of bone collagen (<5‰) and of bulk bone (<10‰) despite various turnover rates of these tissues. Human tooth enamel records breastfeeding as attested by δ²H values of pre-weaning teeth which are ²H-enriched by +20 to +30‰. We observe that the δ²H of bone collagen and bulk bone are strongly correlated. The δ²H signatures of bone collagen, tooth enamel and bulk bone record both climate conditions and dietary practices, as attested by linear relationships with traditional isotopic proxies (δ¹⁸O, δ¹³C, δ¹⁵N) which were previously measured on the same samples, although interpretations depend on the sampling strategy of each study. Measurements of δ²H in bulk bone and dental tissues are more readily achievable than collagen which requires extraction and purification and could become crucial in studies where bone tissue is scarce or when the only available remains are tooth material.
1) Background: Climate change is a major threat to human health and new research is highlighting its effects on physical health. However, there is still little research on the psychological effects, particularly on young people, who seem to be disproportionately affected. (2) Objectives: In this context, we conducted a study focusing on the young adult population to identify psychosocial and behavioral factors that may modulate the intensity of this anxiety. (3) Method: A cross-sectional study by questionnaire was carried out on a sample of 369 young French adults. Data were analyzed via structural equation modelling. (4) Results: The main results suggest that: (1) CFC and information seeking predict climate anxiety, which in turn predicts the emotional consequences of exposure to information about the negative consequences of climate change; (2) information seeking moderates the effects of CFC on climate anxiety. (5) Conclusions: This study highlights both the role of temporal orientation and information seeking on the climate anxiety experienced by young adults. These results provide an interesting lever for health professionals to work with this population who may be more vulnerable to climate anxiety than others.
The mineralogical and chemical composition of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from a site in the north of France (Lille) was investigated. The mineralogical composition was obtained by X ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis. Geochemical characteristics were established based on elemental analysis, acid leaching, sequential extraction and a chemical equilibrium experiment. Remarkably, this COPR material is composed of 65 % amorphous, silica rich phases. Another noticeable result is the presence of about 11 % of quartz. Content in toxic Cr(VI) is about 4.9 g/kg, occuring in the solution phase or fixed in unstable crystalline cement phases. Literature data on most studied COPR materials allowed establishing a classification of the materials into high calcium/low silica, intermediate and low calcium/high silica categories. This calcium to silica relation is indicative of the quality of the original ore and the geochemical changes having occurred in a COPR deposit over time, compared with fresh COPR produced from pure ore. The Lille material belongs to the third category. The high silica content has influenced the phase associations and their stabilities and favours Cr(VI) mobility. Extraction of leachable Cr(VI) from COPR induces formation of a new chemical equilibrium in the material with a recharge in mobile chromium due to dissolution of cement phases. The rate of equilibration however is very slow. 400 days were needed for the high amorphous phase material in this study. Extraction of leachable Cr(VI) is not a suitable remediation method because it will not allow to withdraw the solid bound Cr(VI) from the material in a single treatment.
The Gauls, who occupied most of Western Europe during the Second Iron Age (500 BCE–50 BCE), exploited their environ- ment through farming and trading of local resources. The study of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), and sulfur (δ34S) stable isotopes of 8 humans and 12 animals from the Gallic site of Thézy-Glimont, Picardie, France, provides an insight into the dietary practices of this population. Various bones from the cephalic, axial, and appendicular skeletons of three human individuals were sampled to study intra-skeletal stable isotope variability. All bones have similar collagen δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values for each individual, showing that they followed a consistent diet during their life, and that isotopic compositions are homogeneously recorded in bones despite various turnover rates. The δ13C (− 20.5‰ to − 19.8‰) and δ15N (+ 7.6‰ to + 9.0‰) values indicate that the studied Gallic individuals followed a continental omnivorous diet based on C3-plants and cattle meat. High δ34S values, in the range + 11.7‰ to + 17.7‰, are apparently at variance with these conclusions as they reflect a marine contribution. However, they can also be explained by a more intense regime of precipitation from the westerlies and possible contributions from the geological substratum. While deepening the knowledge of the cultural practices of Gallic tribes from Northern Gaul during the Second Iron Age, this study highlights how stable isotope compositions of body tissues can reflect the interactions between populations and their environment.
Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been massively deployed worldwide and has become a major environmental pressure for biodiversity, especially contributing to habitat loss and landscape fragmentation. To mitigate these latter, green and blue infrastructure policies have been developed throughout the world based on the concept of ecological networks, a set of suitable interconnected habitats. However, currently, these nature conservation policies hardly consider the adverse effects of ALAN. Here, we promote the integration of darkness quality within the ’green and blue infrastructure’, to implement a ‘dark infrastructure’. Dark infrastructure should be identified, preserved and restored at different territorial levels to guarantee ecological continuities where the night and its rhythms are as natural as possible. For this purpose, we propose an operational 4-steps process that includes 1) Mapping of light pollution in all its forms and dimensions in relation to biodiversity, 2) Identifying the dark infrastructure starting or not from the already identified green/blue infrastructure, 3) Planning actions to pre- serve and restore the dark infrastructure by prioritizing lighting sobriety and not only energy saving, 4) Assessing the effectiveness of the dark infrastructure with appropriate indicators. Dark infrastructure projects have already been created (for example in France and Switzerland) and can serve as case studies for both urban and natural areas. The deployment of dark infrastructure raises many operational and methodological questions and stresses some knowledge gaps that still need to be addressed, such as the exhaustive mapping of light pollution and the characterization of sensitivity thresholds for model species.
Accurate evaluation of evapotranspiration (ET) flux is an important issue in sustainable urban drainage systems that target not only flow rate limitations, but also aim at the restoration of natural water balances. This is especially true in context where infiltration possibilities are limited. However, its assessment suffers from insufficient understanding. In this study, ET in 1 m3 pilot rain gardens were studied from eight lysimeters monitored for three years in Paris (France). Daily ET was calculated for each lysimeter based on a mass balance approach and the related uncertainties were assessed at ±0.42 to 0.58 mm. Results showed that for these lysimeters, ET is the major term in water budget (61 to 90% of the precipitations) with maximum values reaching 8–12 mm. Furthermore, the major determinants of ET are the existence or not of an internal water storage and the atmospheric factors. The vegetation type is a secondary determinant, with little difference between herbaceous and shrub configurations, maximum ET for spontaneous vegetation, and minimal values when vegetation was regularly removed. Shading of lysimeters by surroundings buildings is also important, leading to lower values. Finally, ET of lysimeters is higher than tested reference values (evaporimeter, FAO-56, and local Météo-France equations).
Within the framework of the French national project “Innovation for Materials and Processes for Improving the Multi-Recycling of Mixtures” (IMPROVMURE), founded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), a research work including an experimental campaign on the thermomechanical behaviour of bituminous materials at low temperatures was performed. Three types of bituminous mixtures were produced following a warm process with foamed bitumen. The first mixture contained 0% Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). The second mixture contained 70% RAP coming from milling. A third mixture was prepared, containing 70% of the second mixture aged artificially in the lab. Therefore, the fourth mixture was made of 70% of the third mixture subjected to the same aging process. Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST) on the three bituminous mixtures were performed on cylindrical samples at the University of Lyon/ENTPE. The failure temperature (TF) and failure stress (σF) were used to compare the behaviour of mixtures at low temperature. Influence of RAP content and air void content was studied. The air void content showed an effect inversely proportional to the failure stress.
The goal of this work presented in a two-companion paper is to pave the way for reliably assessing the risks of damage to buildings on the shore, induced by the detonation of large-charge historical ordnance (i.e., countermining) in variable shallow water environments. Here, we focus on the impact of the marine environment, more specifically the unconsolidated sedimentary layer, on detonation-induced seismo-acoustic wave propagation. We rely on a multidisciplinary cross-study including real data obtained within the framework of a countermining campaign, and numerical simulations of the seismo-acoustic propagation using a spectral-element method. We first develop a strategy relying on physical insights into the different kind of waves that can propagate in a coastal environment, to provide clues for a computational cost reduction. The geological surveys and the hydroacoustic measurements provide input data for the 3-D axisymmetric modeling of wave propagation. The numerical simulations, obtained for one specific source–receiver path with a variable sedimentary facies, are compared with the real seismic data induced by the detonation of a charge either on the seabed, or in the water column, and recorded on the coast. Numerical analysis sheds light on the strong interaction between surface waves and the sedimentary facies. The short-scale and deep sedimentary basins favor a local wave-amplitude amplification and a frequency shift toward the low-frequency domain. However, the seismo-acoustic waves are globally attenuated during their propagation because of intrinsic attenuation and geometrical spreading, which generally prevents any large damage to nearby buildings on the shore.
The study focuses on the evolution of the badland slopes of the “Vaches Noires” cliffs, located in Normandy, in the north west of France. Embedded in the national observation service DYNALIT since 2014 (Dynamique du Littoral et du Trait de Côte – Dynamic study of the Coast and Coastline) are three connected gullies (G2 to G4). Their contrasting dynamics are monitored three to four times a year using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). A quantification of surface materials volume, passing from the main scarp upstream to the foot of the basal scarp downstream, is carried out. For this purpose, each gully was divided into nine Functional Morphological Units (FMUs) in order to identify the respective weight of erosion, transport and deposition of materials related to meteorological and marine forcing. Once the general geomorphological description of the cliffs and the DYNALIT study site are completed, the tools and methods used for the analysis are exhibited. The results are then presented by first performing an assessment of the evolution of the gullies between the 26th of September 2014 and the 19th of November 2019. While the upper part of the slopes retreats by ablation, the middle and lower parts of the gullies alternate between erosion and deposition of material. The basal scarp (foot of the cliff) is almost entirely in progradation. Next, the erosion and/or deposition areas are spatialised and compared for each consecutive model. We note a seasonality in the gullies' activity, as well as a non-synchronous action of the FMUs, particularly marked in the main scarp, the gully thalweg and the basal scarp. The volumes of materials are quantified for each of the gullies and compared based on the cumulative volumes of 5 years. The results are then discussed and questioned in relation to the spatial and temporal relevance of the TLS tool for monitoring cliffs with a complex topography and pronounced dynamics. A reflection is provided on the forcing responsible for coastal instability and put into perspective with the dynamics of the “Vaches Noires” cliffs. Finally, a conceptual model of the seasonal evolution of gullies and FMUs is proposed at the end of the article.
Objective: The objective of this research was to describe and analyze the role of psychological and behavioral factors on perceptions of COVID-19 in France and Quebec at three different times during the pandemic. Design: We conducted three qualitative and quantitative studies (Study 1 N = 255, Study 2 N = 230, Study 3 N = 143). Participants were asked to evaluate psychological and behavioral measures: at the beginning of lockdown (Study 1), during lockdown (Study 2), and during lockdown exit (Study 3). Results: Results of Study 1 show that perceptions of COVID-19 are organized around fear and a sense of threat. During the lockdown, participants mentioned for the first time the health practices to prevent the spread of COVID-19 (Study 2). Psychological and social impacts constitute a central theme in participants' discourse (Study 2 and 3). Conclusions: The results show that perceptions of risk during a pandemic are socially constructed. Perceptions seem to be influenced by the political and health management of a territory and by the evolution of behavioral and psychological responses.
Les aménagements et techniques de gestion de l’eau pluviale sont en évolution constante depuis les années 1970. La multifonctionnalité des aménagements et ouvrages de gestion de l’eau de pluie est aujourd’hui promue par les politiques urbaines. Cependant, les différentes fonctions ont par le passé été scindées entre des services techniques sectorisés, plutôt que d’être le fruit d’une vision commune. La création de la compétence de gestion des eaux pluviales urbaines (GEPU) dans les années 2000 a été accompagnée de nombreuses réflexions autour de la structuration du service, du niveau de gouvernance adéquat et de la pertinence de la création d’une compétence à part entière risquant de renforcer la sectorisation de la gestion de l’eau. Cette étude, produite dans le cadre du programme de recherche sur la gestion intégrée des eaux en milieu urbain, porte sur la mise en place de cette compétence dans vingt et une collectivités françaises. L’organisation de la compétence a été appréhendée à travers la gestion patrimoniale des ouvrages techniques dédiés aux eaux pluviales. Cet article rend compte des stratégies et des choix opérés par les collectivités pour assurer la prise en main de la compétence transversale GEPU et du patrimoine multifonctionnel associé. Il met en évidence la diversité des approches initiées par les collectivités, excédant largement le cadrage de la compétence par la loi, ancré dans une vision techniciste et hydraulique de la gestion des eaux pluviales. Cependant, les outils de gestion patrimoniale, qu’il s’agisse de l’encadrement de la production des ouvrages et de leur entretien, de la stratégie territoriale de gestion de la pluie ou de la connaissance du patrimoine, sont à la fois foisonnants et tâtonnants. Les contours d’un service technique urbain non uniquement assimilé à une infrastructure en réseau ne sont pas encore bien définis. Ces approches nous semblent préfigurer les difficultés et opportunités du renouvellement de la gestion de l’environnement urbain, dans un contexte de crises écologique et climatique.
Acoustic scattering can be used to estimate Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) through acoustic inversion methods. Current SSC quantification methods are mostly unable to observe both spatial and temporal variations. Here, we assess the possibility to measure both using a Multibeam Echosounder (MBES). MBES combine a large spatial covering in the water column and the capability to measure ‘on route’, allowing a better representativity of the measurements. Time-series of raw EM3002-MBES data at 300 kHz were acquired during a 5-hours field experiment at a fixed location in the Aulne macrotidal estuary (France) during ebb, ensuring sufficient SSC variations. Concurrently, 4-frequencies Acoustic Backscattering System (ABS) profiles were acquired in the water column, as well as turbidity profiles, further converted into SSC using collected water samples. An original in-situ calibration was performed on the MBES, using a tungsten sphere of known properties, which allowed corrections to be made to the volume backscattered levels over the echosounder fan. Using ABS-derived equivalent radii, the MBES backscattered signal was inverted to retrieve an SSC estimate. Good consistency between MBES time-series observations and turbidity-derived SSC is observed. This experiment demonstrates the potential use of MBES for 3-dimensional turbidity observations in coastal areas, which is of great interest for sediment flux quantification.
The Huaynaputina volcano, southern Peru, was the site of the largest historical eruption (VEI 6) in the Andes in 1600 CE, which occurred during the historic transition between the Inca Empire and the Viceroyalty of Peru. This event had severe consequences in the Central Andes and a global climatic impact. Spanish chronicles reported that at least 15 villages or settlements existed around the volcano, of which seven of them were totally destroyed by the eruption. Multidisciplinary studies have allowed us to identify and analyze the characteristics of six settlements buried by the eruption. Tephra fallout and pyroclastic current deposits (PDCs) had different impacts according to the settlement distance from the crater, the location with respect to the emplacement of PDCs along valleys, the geomorphological characteristics of the site, and type of constructions. Thus, Calicanto, Cojraque, and San Juan de Dios, located beneath the main axis of tephra dispersal lobe due west and/or on valley edges, were buried under several meters of pyroclastic deposits, while the villages of Estagagache, Chimpapampa, and Moro Moro, located to the S and SE of the lobe, were partially mantled by tephra. The 1600 CE Huaynaputina eruption created an important geological and cultural heritage, which has scientific, educational, and touristic values. Geo-touristic attractions are proposed based on identification, characterization, and qualitative evaluation of four groups totaling 17 geosites: volcanic geosites, volcanic-cultural geomorphosites, and hot springs. Seven geological roads along with seven viewpoints are proposed, which allow to value the most relevant landscapes, deposits and geological structures.
El objetivo del proyecto POCTEFA - MOMPA (MOnitorización de Movimientos del terreno y Protocolo de Actuación) esproporcionar una herramienta técnico-operativa útil para la prevención y la gestión de los riesgos ocasionados pormovimientos de ladera, a nivel transfronterizo, basada en la técnica de seguimiento satelital InSAR. (Interferometría Radara Apertura Sintética) La herramienta incluye dos elementos principales: la evaluación del riesgo; y la integración de latécnica en un protocolo de actuación para las administraciones encargadas de la Protección Civil. El área de estudio cubrealrededor de 4.000 km2 e incluye una parte de los Pirineos orientales, incluyendo los países España, Francia y Andorra.El proyecto trata la evaluación de riesgos a partir del mapa de movimientos del terreno a escala interregional y de lasÁreas de Deformación Activa (ADA), para seleccionar movimientos con riesgo potencial donde luego se enfocará en unanálisis a escala local mediante el uso de métodos tradicionales (básicamente fotointerpretación y trabajo de campo). Seutilizan tanto los datos libres y gratuitos de resolución media, adquiridos por el satélite Sentinel-1, como los datos de altaresolución adquiridos por COSMO-SkyMed. Además, el proyecto centra su atención en el caso particular del deslizamientode “la Portalada” (Andorra) ocurrido en 2019. En la actualidad, la ladera presenta un movimiento lento que podría afectarel eje principal de comunicación entre Andorra y España ubicado en el fondo del valle. El Gobierno de Andorra estáimplementando medidas para monitorear y caracterizar el movimiento actual de la ladera. Por tanto, nueve reflectoresartificiales se instalaron a lo largo de esta ladera ocupada por un bosque. Los datos obtenidos se integrarán en el protocolode prevención de riesgos. En este trabajo se presentan el proyecto y los primeros resultados obtenidos medianteinterferometría satelital.
Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) is gaining importance as a new process for the governance of seas and oceans, as maritime nations exercise greater management over their territorial waters and, in many cases, over exclusive economic zones that span a larger area. The purpose of this planning is to reverse the environmental degradation of the seas and facilitate the sustainable use of marine resources, both for mature uses such as fishing and navigation, and for emergent uses, including renewable energies and mariculture. In Europe, the Directive 2014/89/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 2014 establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning oblige coastal Member States to develop maritime spatial plans at the latest by 31st March 2021. To help in that process, countries have at their disposal a set of existing instruments, including research projects, supporting guidelines, recommendations and sets of tools and data, as the SIMNORAT project, co-funded by the EC – DG Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE). This paper presents best practices developed in this project on technical, scientific, and social aspects of MSP to overcome barriers of MSPD implementation testing effective cooperation on transboundary areas and providing a set of cross-cutting MSP related recommendations to foster collaborative efforts and to improve the overall transboundary dimension of the MSP Directive.
It is useful to examine the safety of a strategic facility based on a multi-hazard approach, considering the extreme events the facility in question could be subjected to during its lifetime. This paper introduces a probabilistic model, based on the algebra of events, for a multi-hazard risk associated with extreme events (e.g., natural, climatological, environmental, and biological, etc.). The probabilistic multi-hazard assessment (PMHA) of the risk is a key issue in structural and environmental safety. A basic characteristic of a probability-based multi-hazard model is that it does not generate a single point estimate, but it rather produces a hazard curve. In the present paper, the annual risk is calculated using a probability-based multi-hazard model totally constructed with the algebra of events and with the aggregation of the multi-hazard curves. The PMHA model is based on the total probability theorem. It grants a more reliable practice by allowing key stakeholders to make risk-informed choices rather than simply relying on traditional deterministic single hazard estimates of risk, with a brief description of uncertainty. Two illustrative applications were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the PMHA approach: (1) a strategic structure subjected to three independent events: “flooding”, “earthquake”, and “blast”; (2) the earthquake risk of a nuclear site subjected to two dependent events: “long duration” and “high magnitude” earthquake loads. The hazards fragilities are computed for the two examples and implemented in the framework of a multi-hazard approach leading to the estimation of the annual risk of failure.
Many coastal areas need to be protected from both rain and coastal flooding as their proximity to the sea is a necessity. In the framework of the development of a Probabilistic Flood Hazard Assessment (PFHA) approach, several flood phenomena should be considered to estimate the joint contribution of each of them. Coastal floods are mainly generated by storms that raise the sea level over the tide. In addition, coastal floods may be more severe when a marine submersion is combined with fluvial or pluvial floods. In addition, global warming has a direct effect on flood phenomena. It can induce a strong rise in sea level and a marked evolution of the characteristics of storms and more extreme coastal floods will occur more frequently. The combination of the flooding phenomena and their dependence is also likely to change as a result of climate change. This work aims to develop a new probabilistic approach taking into account the outcome of the combined action of several flood phenomena. The epistemic and random uncertainties, as well as the impact of climate change, are also considered and integrated through the theory of belief functions. The proposed PFHA approach is applied to the city of Le Havre, a French city located on the Channel coast which is likely to be flooded by rain and sea level.
La Métropole Rouen Normandie (MRN) dispose d’un parc de 23 stations de traitement des eaux usées (STEU) générant un total de 9075 tonnes de matières sèches (MS) par an. Les boues des quatre principales stations, à savoir « Émeraude » à Petit-Quevilly (72% du flux total produit), Saint-Aubin-lès-Elbeuf (15%), Grand-Quevilly (4,8%) et Grand-Couronne (1,5%), sont incinérées sur deux sites, le reste étant épandu. L’incinérateur de la STEU de Saint-Aubin-lès-Elbeuf fonctionne actuellement en souscharge alors que celui d’Émeraude est amené à recevoir davantage de boues depuis l’extension de la STEU fin 2018, ce qui engendre des problématiques de consommation énergétique. La mise en place de la digestion anaérobie permet de réviser la gestion des boues à l’échelle d’un territoire. À cet effet, l’approche multicritère menée par le Centre d’études et d’expertise sur les risques, l’environnement, la mobilité et l’aménagement (Cerema) a permis à la collectivité de disposer d’une aide à la décision pour ses futures orientations. L’étude a tout d’abord défini un état des lieux de la production de l’ensemble des boues des STEU du territoire de la MRN, puis présenté une analyse de la faisabilité de différentes filières de traitement des boues en lien avec les équipements en place sur le site d’Émeraude et, sur la base d’un retour d’expérience, proposé des recommandations et des points de vigilance pour les filières d’incinération et de méthanisation par rapport aux techniques existantes pour l’adaptation au contexte rouennais. Quatre scénarios avec suppression ou maintien des fours d’incinération et mise en place d’une digestion anaérobie sur Émeraude ont été élaborés, puis analysés suivant des critères techniques (flux à traiter, équipements nécessaires, emprise foncière), environnementaux (émission de gaz à effet de serre), économiques (investissement, fonctionnement, recettes envisageables) et réglementaires (procédures nécessaires). L’article présente la démarche et la méthodologie mises en oeuvre, le choix de la collectivité sur le scénario proposé n’étant à ce jour pas entériné officiellement.
In the European Union, most of the wastes from the building sector are composed of earths. Earth construction may be an interesting outlet for the re-use of these wastes, while meeting the challenge of circular economy: in particular, it involves low-embodied energy processes and earth material can be re-used for building by end-of-life. Nonetheless, the identification of suitable earths for construction remains an issue. To overcome this problem, an option may be to analyse earth building heritage, which is at least one-century old in Europe: indeed, earth employed in these buildings can be regarded as “time-tested”, and thus suitable for construction. In this paper, more than 20 different earths collected in rammed earth heritage building in France are presented. The results are confronted both to literature and to several classifications employed in soil sciences. A classification system based on granularity and clay activity will be relevant to address the convenience of earth for building purposes.
Si l’impact des TIC a abondamment été étudié dans les techniques de production agricole, les différents types d’usages des TIC dans les Circuits Courts Alimentaires de Proximité (CCAP) restent à ce jour très peu étudié. Pourtant, à l’instar des chaines logistiques « longues », de nombreux espoirs sont portés sur la capacité des TIC à améliorer les organisations logistiques des CCAP souvent sous-optimales. Façonnés au regard des besoins logistiques de distribution des produits, les organisations de transport et de logistiques (OLT) s’avèrent protéiformes, ce qui invite à poser l’hypothèse d’une diversité des modalités d’inclusion des TIC dans les OLT des CCAP. La diversité des besoins logistiques explicitée à l’aune de l’économie des conventions fonde une proposition de typologie des CCAP et les apports de l’économie des services permet de préciser pour chaque type les TIC mobilisées. Une étude menée dans les Hauts-de-France en 2018 corrobore cette hypothèse et illustre la typologie proposée.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.