Central University of Ecuador
  • Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador
Recent publications
The paper analyses peasant livelihood strategies and the associated processes of social differentiation in Pedro Moncayo (Ecuador), a territory starkly influenced by the presence of the cut flower agribusiness. Beside two types of semi-peasants’ livelihoods, numerous semi-proletariat livelihood strategies dependent on flower-based wage income have appeared. These hybrid forms of production and social reproduction reflect different strategies to negotiate the tensions between dependence and autonomy from capitalist circuits of agrarian accumulation as peasantries are confronted with the agri-food globalization.
Legality in the Global South suffers from problems of application by convenience. Some rules are applied, and some are not, depending on certain actors, such as the State, the stakeholders, or others. This undermines legitimation as constructed by legality and due process. These problems are connected to a wider complex formed by coloniality, internal colonialism, and a form of functional differentiation that limits autonomy of the different social systems. This complex of structural properties allows States and other actors to systematically use one system against the other or—within a given system—one level of rules against the other. This was the case in Ecuador: in the initial months of quarantine due to Covid-19, the government took decisions about external state bonds following international legislation—and quite contrary ones related to local work contracts. Once again, legality followed different paths in diverse cases. Ecuadorian economic authorities accept and respect conditions on external public bonds which are protected by some complex and specific clauses to secure the payment. The same authorities have different practices towards international and national legislation that were organized in the sense of legal subsidiarity. This text will explore reasons and effects of legal de-differentiation in the Global South in times of crisis. The Ecuadorian case in time of Covid-19 helps to understand how structural problems related to the lack of autonomy of the legal system are perpetuated and lead to effects of convenient political action.
Un supuesto común es que el aprendizaje autodirigido podría ser una característica de los estudiantes universitarios, especialmente entre quienes aprenden en línea y tienen responsabilidades laborales. Sin embargo, la investigación de los instrumentos que miden la autodirección de las diferentes poblaciones estudiantiles ha avanzado poco. El propósito de análisis fue explorar la validez y confiabilidad del Cuestionario de Indagación del Perfil Autodirigido aumentado (CIPA+) y examinar la relación con la procrastinación académica. Los participantes fueron 194 estudiantes ecuatorianos de ambos géneros (123 mujeres) y con niveles educativos variados. A diferencia del CIPA+ original de cuatro factores, el análisis factorial reveló una estructura monofactorial con alta consistencia interna. Se encontró que la autodirección presenta una relación baja y negativa con la procrastinación académica y que tanto hombres como mujeres tienen igual nivel de autodirección y procrastinación. Es decir, al parecer, el incremento en la autodisciplina y la autonomía del estudiante se asocia con una reducción en la postergación de actividades académicas durante las clases en línea. Se concluye sugiriendo más estudios del CIPA+ en diferentes poblaciones y que los docentes usen estos instrumentos acompañados de mediciones del desempeño académico.
Knowing the importance of mathematics and its relationship with veterinary medicine plays an important role for students. To promote interest in this relationship, we developed the workshop “Math in Nature” that utilizes the surrounding environment for stimulating pattern-recognition and observational skills. It consisted of four sections: A talk by a professional researcher, a question-andanswer section, a mathematical pattern identification session, and a discussion of the ideas proposed by students. The effectiveness of the program to raise interest in mathematics was evaluated using a questionnaire applied before and after the workshop. Following the course, a higher number of students agreed with the fact that biological phenomena can be explained and predicted by applying mathematics, and that it is possible to identify mathematical patterns in living beings. However, the students’ perspectives regarding the importance of mathematics in their careers, as well as their interest in deepening their mathematical knowledge, did not change. Arguably, “Math in Nature” could have exerted a positive effect on the students’ interest in mathematics. We thus recommend the application of similar workshops to improve interests and skills in relevant subjects among undergraduate students.
Thyroid pathology is the morphofunctional evolution of the thyroid glands that leads to different types of clinical pictures. Within it is subclinical hypothyroidism, which is a biochemical alteration due to the elevation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between 4.5 to 10 mUI that can occur with or without symptoms of multifactorial origin. The worldwide prevalence is 4-10% and Latin America 15-25%. 90% of patients with this pathology do not require treatment, but in turn there is an overmedicalization and underdiagnosis of it. This bibliographic review analyzes from its morphofunctional changes towards clinical criteria for a comprehensive approach to subclinical hypothyroidism, where we have an individualization by its comorbidities, age group, diagnostic algorithm, follow-up and differentiated treatment according to recent studies within this pathology. Therefore, an adequate diagnosis, follow-up and treatment provides a better lifestyle for patients.
Abdominal hernias are defects due to loss of continuity of the fasciae and/or muscles with the protrusion of abdominal structures. They are the third most prevalent and incident abdominal pathology worldwide and the second pathology of consultation in general surgery in patients of age limits. There are various factors that contribute to their formation, but within the scientific community there are various types of classifications, which differ according to the professional training school and their decision-making. This bibliographic review aims to expose the most used abdominal hernia classification systems such as the European one that has a morphological vision, the Ventral Hernia Working Group that proposes its aspect on recurrence together with the modified one that exposes comorbidity and the staging system of ventral hernia that provides a comprehensive approach to classification and management. In addition to the most common complications of the same.
In this work, a simple, fast (10 min) and environmentally friendly extraction method using deep eutectic solvents (DES), based on choline chloride and glycerol, was established to extract saponins from five quinoa samples: a) husks of bitter seeds, b) bitter seeds, c) water-washed bitter seeds, d) sweet seeds of the INIAP-Tunkahuan variety, and e) sweet seeds of the INIAP-Pata de Venado variety. The selected green solvent was a eutectic mixture of choline chloride - glycerol - water at a 1:2:1 M ratio. The extractions were performed in a ball mixer mill at room temperature (RT). A classical methanol - water (70:30, v/v) extraction was performed for comparison. In all quinoa samples, the characterization and relative quantification of saponins were achieved based on mass spectrometry analyses. Regardless of the type of solvent used (conventional or green solvents), hederagenin and phytolaccagenic acid were the major detected sapogenins in all tested quinoa samples. The husks of bitter seeds were the matrix with the highest saponin content. Although methanol - water (70:30, v/v) was shown to extract three times more saponins compared to DES, the green solvent offered a higher stabilization of quinoa saponin liquid extracts - up to 2 months - compared to conventional solvents (ethanol - methanol - water; 67:23:10, v/v/v). The present research shows that DES represent an efficient green media for the stabilization of bioactive saponins from quinoa and have a potential as possible alternatives to organic solvents. Our work opens new perspectives for the valorization of saponin-rich quinoa by-products (the husks of bitter seeds) as components for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and agro-food applications.
Background The WHO roadmap for neglected tropical diseases includes yaws eradication requiring certification of elimination of transmission in all endemic and formerly endemic countries worldwide. A community-based programme for yaws control was considered to have achieved elimination of the infection in the endemic focus in Ecuador after 1993. We did a serosurvey of children in this focus to provide evidence for interruption of transmission. Methods Survey of serum samples collected from children aged 2 to 15 years living in the formerly endemic and in geographically contiguous areas. A convenience sample of sera collected between 2005 were 2017 from non-yaws studies, were analyzed using immunochromatic rapid tests to screen (OnSite Syphilis Ab Combo Rapid Test) for Treponema pallidum -specific antibodies and confirm (DPP Syphilis Screen and Confirm) seroreactivity based on the presence antibodies to treponemal and non-treponemal antigens. Results Seroreactivity was confirmed in 6 (0.14%, 95% CI 0.06–0.30) of 4,432 sera analyzed and was similar in formerly endemic (0.11%, (95% CI 0.01–0.75) and non-endemic (0.14%, 95% CI 0.06–0.34) communities. All seroreactors were of Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicity and most were male (4/6) and aged 10 or more years (5/6), the latter possibly indicating venereal syphilis. Only 1 seroreactor lived in a community in the Rio Santiago, that was formerly hyperendemic for yaws. Conclusion We observed very low levels of treponemal transmission in both formerly endemic and non-endemic communities which might be indicative of congenital or venereal syphilis and, if yaws, would likely be insufficient to maintain transmission of this endemic childhood infection. Additional surveys of children aged 1 to 5 years are planned in Rio Santiago communities to exclude yaws transmission.
Background Despite worldwide progress in terms of clean water supply, sanitation, and hygiene knowledge, some middle and most of low-income countries are still experiencing many diseases transmitted using unsafe water and the lack of sanitationMethods To understand the impact of all waterborne diseases (WBD) registered in Ecuador, we performed an analysis of all cases and deaths related to WBD to compute incidence and mortality rates.ResultsWe found that in Ecuador, mestizo people had the greatest morbidity rate (141/100,000) patient followed by indigenous (63/100,000) and self-determined white patients (21/100,000). However, in terms of mortality, indigenous population have a 790% increase in mortality rate (2.6 /100,000) when compared to self-determined white populations (0.29/100,000) or 176% more when compared to mestizos (0.94/100,000). This trend remains the same among children and the elderly who have higher mortality rates when compared to other ethnic groups.Conclusions In Ecuador, water borne diseases (WBD) are still a major public health problem. We found that younger children and elderly are more likely to be get sick and die due to water borne diseases. In terms of morbidity, mestizos reported the highest rate, while in terms of mortality, indigenous populations are the most affected, having the highest mortality among different ethnic groups. We hypostatize that reduced health care access is linked to fewer reporting incidence rates among indigenous populations but higher mortality rates.
This study aimed to determine the general labor well-being of Latin American dentists according to sociodemographic characteristics during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a final sample of 2214 participants from 11 countries. A validated online questionnaire on general work well-being was used (data collection period from 1 June to 10 July 2021), containing two dimensions: psychosocial well-being and collateral effects. The sociodemographic characteristics of the dentists and their perception of the economic impact of the pandemic were also recorded. A multivariate linear regression analysis was performed (hierarchical regression model) to evaluate the joint effect of the explanatory variables on labor well-being and the changes in the variance between each model. A score of psychosocial well-being of 233.6 + 40.2 and collateral effects of 45 + 20.1 was found. Psychosocial well-being was associated with sex, country of origin, academic training achieved, type of dental activity, and perceived impact during the pandemic (p < 0.05). Somatization was frequently manifested through back pain (88.2%) and muscular tensions (87.2%). Women, those who worked 41 or more hours and had between 1 to 15 years of professional experience presented a greater collateral effect (p < 0.001). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic a year and a half after it began on the labor well-being of Latin American dentists was evidenced with important interactions with social characteristics.
Cemeteries are a source of environmental contamination, as they hold hundreds of human corpses in different stages of decomposition. Therefore, the current research developed a new tool, which is easily applied, to determine the potential environmental contamination generated by current cemeteries within their ecosystems. The linear equations developed, with a number of variables between 10 and 3, allow for obtaining empirical indices to evaluate the suitability of a site, regardless of the geographical area in which it is located, through a variety of sources. In order to obtain the equations and, therefore, the indices, a hierarchy was performed using the Saaty matrix. With such a matrix, different ranges of affectation were established for each variable and relative values were assigned that cover all probabilities quantitatively, from the least probable to the most likely. With the linear equations, three verification runs were conducted, obtaining satisfactory results compared with the location map of cemeteries obtained in previous studies. These equations will constitute a tool of fundamental use for local governments, which will allow for the evaluation of existing cemeteries and use of the methodology described in preliminary analysis, to save resources and have a starting point for an efficient land use plan.
El presente trabajo de investigación muestra los resultados de dos propuestas turísticas para la empresa ecuatoriana Wikiri (empresa privada dedicada al biocomercio sostenible de especies de anfibios del Ecuador). La primera propuesta se enfoca en el rediseño del sendero de interpretación ambiental que existe actualmente en Wikiri para la observación de anfibios in situ; la segunda propuesta corresponde a la aplicación de herramientas lúdicas para identificar el nivel de captación de conocimientos adquiridos, por parte de los visitantes, después de efectuar los recorridos en el centro de investigación, con el objetivo de generar conciencia sobre la conservación ambiental. La investigación se llevó a cabo bajo el enfoque mixto cualitativo y cuantitativo, con la aplicación de encuesta, entrevistas, búsqueda bibliográfica y visitas de campo. Se obtuvieron 92 respuestas de personas que visitaron las instalaciones de Wikiri. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian el diagnóstico de las visitas del público a la empresa, determinando el perfil e interés del visitante, el estado actual del sendero, para proponer su rediseño, y su respectiva señalética. Estos son puntos clave, en los cuales debe enfocarse la empresa para incrementar el número de visitas que recibe. Finalmente, se determinó cuáles son las herramientas lúdicas idóneas para aplicarlas dentro de Wikiri Sapoparque y evaluar el conocimiento adquirido por sus visitantes.
El arte de hacer medicina es producto de un intrincado y complejo proceso de razonamiento, conjuga los conocimientos básicos, que mediante la fisiopatología buscan explicar las manifestaciones clínicas que presenta un enfermo y con ello determinar un diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico. El avance vertiginoso en el conocimiento médico, ha revolucionado la práctica sanitaria y ha permitido un crecimiento exponencial de información, cada vez más precisa y molecular; esto, aunque indudablemente es beneficioso, ha abierto importantes brechas entre los hallazgos en ciencias básicas y su aplicación en la práctica clínica. La pandemia actual, por COVID-19, ha sido la vitrina más clara sobre lo escrito en líneas anteriores, en dónde, fue dificultoso amalgamar los descubrimientos y publicaciones que diariamente eran mostrados sobre el impacto del virus a nivel molecular e inmunológico, con el manejo clínico asistencial. En el libro “TÓPICOS SELECTOS EN CIENCIAS BÁSICAS APLICADOS AL ENFERMO CRÍTICO”, planteamos temáticas que a nuestro juicio permitirán anclar conceptos inmunológicos claves, al arsenal de conocimientos de los médicos clínicos, con la finalidad de lograr un manejo holístico, razonado y basado en la evidencia. En siete capítulos, escribimos sobre temas como algunas de las distintas formas de muerte celular: la NETosis, la autofagia y la piroptosis; también, encontraran un espacio para los receptores de reconocimiento de patrón, de ellos, los de tipo TOLL y tipo NOD son explicados a profundidad; la vía JAK/STAT, se analiza con practicidad y se expone los blancos terapéuticos que de ella derivan, muchos ya en aplicación clínica. Finalmente, un tema de interés investigativo extremo, la microbiota y su rol en la enfermedad crítica y en patología humana en general, es abordado. Palabras clave: ciencias básicas, enfermedad crítica, muerte celular, microbiota, receptores de reconocimiento de patrón.
Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder that is caused by a missing or structurally abnormal second sex chromosome. Subjects with TS are at an increased risk of developing intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, short stature, congenital heart diseases, infertility, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases (stroke and myocardial infarction). The underlying pathogenetic mechanism of TS is unknown. The assumption that X chromosome-linked gene haploinsufficiency is associated with the TS phenotype is questioned since such genes have not been identified. Thus, other pathogenic mechanisms have been suggested to explain this phenotype. Morphogenesis encompasses a series of events that includes cell division, the production of migratory precursors and their progeny, differentiation, programmed cell death, and integration into organs and systems. The precise control of the growth and differentiation of cells is essential for normal development. The cell cycle frequency and the number of proliferating cells are essential in cell growth. 45,X cells have a failure to proliferate at a normal rate, leading to a decreased cell number in a given tissue during organogenesis. A convergence of data indicates an association between a prolonged cell cycle and the phenotypical features in Turner syndrome. This review aims to examine old and new findings concerning the relationship between a prolonged cell cycle and TS phenotype. These studies reveal a diversity of phenotypic features in TS that could be explained by reduced cell proliferation. The implications of this hypothesis for our understanding of the TS phenotype and its pathogenesis are discussed. It is not surprising that 45,X monosomy leads to cellular growth pathway dysregulation with profound deleterious effects on both embryonic and later stages of development. The prolonged cell cycle could represent the beginning of the pathogenesis of TS, leading to a series of phenotypic consequences in embryonic/fetal, neonatal, pediatric, adolescence, and adulthood life.
Encephalitis is a severe neurological syndrome with a rapid progression to encephalopathy caused by brain swelling. One of its causes is antibodies against neuron surface proteins, ionic channels, or receptors so that they can start encephalitis with psychiatric symptoms. Worldwide, auto-immune encephalitis annual incidence is 12.6 per 100000 inhabitants. We present a case report of a 44-years-old female who developed behavioral changes and seizures in a time-lapse of months. She was diagnosed with anti-GABA auto-immune encephalitis, a rare type of this disease.
Using a small set of boreholes, as fixed information of basement, combined with the analysis of microtremor surveys, can provide a transversal detailed section of a valley where a dam was constructed. In this paper, horizontal to vertical spectra ratio (HVSR) technique is applied as a quick and economic method to establish the thickness of the sediments existing over rock basement in the San Marcos dam area, constructed in the Azuela valley (Cayambe, Ecuador). Previous investigations made for construction of dam did not reach the bottom of the 700 m transverse section of dam foundation; only the ends were well deferred, where the rock is close to surface. So, involving some little number of boreholes as control points, in comparison with other similar studies, a relation between natural frequency of ground vibration (fo) and sediment thickness is established. Along the dam toe, and over it, was measured 20 HVSR single station points and analysed in the three main directions (N-S, E-W, and Z) the components of ground natural vibrations (rumour). This provides the variation of the ratio between the horizontal components and the vertical one and using the natural frequency of vibration in each point can be established a correlation between this one and sediment thickness. After this, the geological cross-section of the bottom of the valley was delineated, revealing tectonic structures (faults) not defined before that they can be useful in further studies for control of settlement of dam. The new formula could be used too as a quick tool to investigate accurately the area around the dam and defined other tectonic structures not evidenced at this moment.
Se presenta una mirada sobre el racismo estructural que viven los pueblos indígenas del Abya Yala (América del Sur), impidiendo su emancipación definitiva en todos los ámbitos de la vida social.
The three primary floury and sweet maize types, with specialty kernels to make entire ready-to-eat maize, and packed in sealable paper envelopes, were the experimental units (150 g of raw kernels) to model the effect of the microwave heating-toasting (2450 MHz microwave oven, 492 W, times 0, 78, 156, 234, 312, and 390 s) on time-related variables and characterize the non-isothermal rheological properties. Pauses every 60 s for a rapid manual shaking compensated for non-uniformity of microwave volumetric heating. Surface color difference (ΔE*), internal porosity, milling average particle size, and flour hydration properties displayed curves adequately described by simple and nonlinear regression models. The milling particle size, hydration properties, and rheological parameters illustrated floury and sweet kernel differences ascribed to their proximal composition. Onset and peak temperatures depended on maize types and showed a little variation attributed to microwave heating-toasting times. The elastic/viscous modulus ratio increased in floury maize. It decreased in sweet maize, unveiling rheological differences associated with microwave heating-toasting time effect on the contrasting structure of floury and sweet specialty Andean maize kernels used for toasting.
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8,489 members
Philipp Altmann
  • Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades
Ullrich Stahl
  • Facultad de Ingeniería Química
Ramiro López-Pulles
  • Central University of Ecuador
Xavier Lastra-Bravo
  • Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas
Richar Rodriguez-Hidalgo
  • Centro Internacional de Zoonosis (CIZ)
Avenida América, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador
Head of institution
Fernando Sempértegui