Central State University
  • Wilberforce, United States
Recent publications
Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) of cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) alloys has been recognized for producing parts exhibiting the strength and being devoid of defects typically associated with cast Co-Cr alloys. Therefore, such parts are considered safe and comparable to cast Co-Cr alloys for intraoral use. Since additive manufacturing offers the advantage of creating complex geometries, the use of this thermo-physical process in a controlled manner allows for the homogenous production of the complex geometries typically required for dental products. This paper compares the mechanical properties claimed to be achievable through LPBF by the powder supplier against real world mechanical properties as used in dental applications. This comparison will serve as a baseline from which the mechanical properties achieved can be further enhanced to suit other possible applications of Co-Cr.
This study reports the synthesis of seven new 8-amino-7-(aryl/hetaryl)fluoroquinolones and their antibacterial activity against 10 bacteria associated with microbial infections and foodborne illnesses. These fluoroquinolones are prepared via the reactions of selected aryl(hetaryl)boronic acids with ethyl-7chloro-6-fluoro-8-nitroquinolone-3-carboxylate, under Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling conditions. Nitro group reduction of the latter resulted in the corresponding 8-aminoquinolone-3-esters which upon hydrolysis formed the respective 8-amino-7-(aryl/hetaryl)-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids. The latter compounds were tested against selected Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and Klebsiella pneumonia ) and Gram-positive bacteria ( Enterococcus feacalis , Listeria monocytogenes , Streptococcus agalactiae , Staphylococcus epidermidis , and Staphylococcus aureus ). The tested fluoroquinolones showed a significant antimicrobial activity against most of the tested bacterial strains. The antimicrobial activity of some of the tested compounds were comparable to or higher than a wide range of standard antibiotics including ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem. The results highlight the new synthesized 8-amino-7-(aryl/hetaryl)fluroquinolones as promising candidates for new antimicrobial drugs to treat bacterial infections. This study highlights that the newly synthetic 8-amino-7-(aryl/hetaryl)fluroquinolones are promising candidates for new antimicrobial drugs to treat human diseases including foodborne illnesses.
Abstract: Campylobacteriosis, a foodborne illness, is one of the world0 s leading causes of gastrointestinal illness. This study investigates the link between human campylobacteriosis and the consumption of potentially contaminated food with Campylobacter jejuni. Three hundred sixty samples were collected from humans, chicken cloaca, raw chicken meat, unpasteurized milk, and vegetables. The chickens were obtained from licensed and non-licensed slaughterhouses, and only the necks and wings were studied. Samples were enriched under microaerobic conditions then cultured on the modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. Bacteria was identified by staining, biochemical testing, and molecular identification by the polymerase chain reaction for the virulence genes; hipO, asp, dnaJ, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC. The genomic homogeneity of C. jejuni between human and chicken isolates was assessed by the serological Penner test and the pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Campylobacter was not detected in the vegetables and pasteurized milk, though, only twenty isolates from chickens and clinical samples were presumed to be Campylobacter based on their morphology. The biochemical tests confirmed that five isolates were C. coli, and fifteen isolates were C. jejuni including two isolates from humans, and the remaining were from chickens. The colonization of C. jejuni in chickens was significantly lower in necks (6.66%) obtained from licensed slaughterhouses compared to those obtained from non-licensed slaughterhouses (33.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that all identified C. jejuni isolates were resistant to antibiotics, and the majority of isolates (53.5%) showed resistance against six antibiotics, though, all isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and aztreonam. The Penner test showed P:21 as the dominant serotype in isolates from humans, necks, and cloaca. The serohomology of C. jejuni from human isolates and chicken necks, wings, and cloaca was 71%, 36%, 78%, respectively. The PFGE analysis of the pattern for DNA fragmentation by the restriction enzyme Smal showed a complete genotypic homology of C. jejuni human isolates and chicken necks compared to partial homology with cloacal isolates. The study brings attention to the need for effective interventions to ensure best practices for safe poultry production for commercial food chain supply to limit infection with foodborne pathogens, including Campylobacter
Purpose Black women have higher breast cancer mortality rates than other groups, with Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) being more common among AAs with a worse prognosis. Our study seeks to explore differences among Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) vs. White (NHW) women, with Stage IV TNBC, focusing on survival and treatment patterns. Methods SEER database was queried for TNBC patients diagnosed with metastatic disease from 2012 to 2016. Neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) was defined using the Yost index based on income, education, housing, and employment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate receipt of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Overall survival was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier curve and Cox proportional hazards model analysis. Results 25,761 TNBC cases were identified with 1420 being metastatic (5.5%). Bone was the most common site for metastasis, with patients’ age being 63.7 years for NHW vs. 59.5 years for NHB. NHB women had the highest percentage of low nSES (62.3% vs 29.3%; p value = 0.001). On univariate analysis, fewer NHBs received radiation compared to NHWs (27.1 vs. 32.6%; p value = 0.040). On multivariate analysis, all women were less likely to undergo treatment if unmarried (p value < 0.01). NHB women had lower median survival compared to NHW women (13 vs. 15 months; p value < 0.01). Receipt of surgery and chemotherapy reduced the risk of mortality (p value < 0.01). Conclusion NHB women had lower median survival with metastatic TNBC. Race was associated with different treatment utilization. With a mortality differential between NHW and NHB women with metastatic TNBC, more investigation is needed to inform strategies to reduce this disparity.
The thermophilic cellulase Cel5a from Fervidobacterium nodosum (FnCel5a) was conjugated with neutral, cationic, and anionic polymers of increasing molecular weights. The enzymatic activity toward an anionic soluble cellulose derivative, thermal stability, and functional chemical stability of these bioconjugates were investigated. The results suggest that increasing polymer chain length for polymers compatible with the substrate enhances the positive impact of polymer conjugation on enzymatic activity. Activity enhancements of nearly 100% were observed for bioconjugates with N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAm) and N,N-dimethyl acrylamide-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAm/DMAEMA) due to proposed polymer-substrate compatibility enabled by potential noncovalent interactions. Double conjugation of two functionally distinct polymers to wild-type and mutated FnCel5a using two conjugation methods was achieved. These doubly conjugated bioconjugates exhibited similar thermal stability to the unmodified wild-type enzyme, although enzymatic activity initially gained from conjugation was lost, suggesting that chain length may be a better tool for bioconjugate activity modulation than double conjugation.
Ionic liquids have attracted the attention of researchers as possible electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices. However, their properties, such as the electrochemical stability window, ionic conductivity and diffusivity, are influenced both by the chemical structures of cations and anions, and by their combinations. Most studies in the literature focus on the understanding of common ionic liquids, and little effort has been made to find ways to improve our atomistic understanding of those systems. The goal of this paper is to explore the structural characteristics of cations and anions that form ionic liquids that can expand the HOMO/LUMO gap, a property directly linked to the electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte. For that, we design a framework for randomly generating new ions by combining their fragments. Within this framework, we generate about 10000 cations and 10000 anions and fully optimize their structures using density functional theory. Our calculations show that aromatic cations are less stable ionic liquids than aliphatic ones, an expected result if chemical rationale is used. More importantly, we can improve the gap by adding electron-donating and electron-withdrawing functional groups to the cations and anions, respectively. The increase can be about 2 V, depending on the case. This improvement is reflected in a wider electrochemical stability window.
Garfield is an exceptional language learner and US polyglot. This oral history project explores his trajectory from a childhood coma to knowing 15 languages. It examines his investment in his second language acquisition (SLA), a concept comprising identity, ideology, and capital (Darvin & Norton, 2015). Qualitative content analyses of 10 h of recorded, transcribed audio data produced themes for each component. It was found that Garfield's principal identities were those involving his “passion languages” and his perceived need to prove himself. Important ideologies were a service orientation, a “living languages” SLA approach, and deference to serendipity. Factors impacting Garfield's access to capital were trajectory‐changing individuals, bureaucratic obstacles, and the scarcity of available encounters with the foreign. Pedagogical implications include a reappraisal of polyglots, a recognition of learners' subjective experiences and emerging identities during SLA, and an emphasis on developing learners' willingness to communicate alongside intercultural and global competences. What inspires a man to study 65 languages? Hyperpolyglots are mysteries, but do they hold insights for our understanding and practice of second language education? A veteran, US intelligence officer, and now an adjunct instructor, Garfield has seemingly done it all with the language skills he acquired. His story of resilience will inspire learners and instructors.
Objective We have taken a positional approach to assign the spontaneous squiggle tail ( squig ) mutation in mice to a specific gene defect. Results A large panel of backcross mice was produced and characterized to map squig to high genetic resolution on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 11. Two overlapping candidate genes that co-localized with squig ( Meox1 , for mesenchyme homeobox 1; and Gm11551 , which encodes a lncRNA located entirely within the first intron of Meox1 ) were fully sequenced to discover any squig -specific defects. This analysis revealed a 3195 bp deletion that includes all of Meox1 , Exon 1 but does not disrupt Gm11551 . We recommend that the squig mutation be renamed Meox1 squig , and suggest that this variant may offer an appropriate animal model for Klippel-Feil syndrome 2 (KFS2) in humans.
Objective: DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) is a common multisystem disorder associated with deletions on chromosome 22q11.2. Our objective is to evaluate the psychiatric comorbidities and demographics of patients suffering from DGS in a nationally representative dataset on inpatient hospitalizations. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the year 2005-2017 was used for this study. Data on patients with DiGeorge syndrome were collected by using the International Classification of Diseases code. Univariate and multi- variate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: In our study, the average age was 30.4 years (n = 6,563), with 59.9% male, and 61.8% of patients were white. There was a high prevalence of mood disorders (24.7%) and anxiety disorders (16.4%), followed by schizo- phrenia and other psychotic condition (14.0%). In patients with mood disorders, 8% had Major Depressive Disorder, and 7% had bipolar depression. Overall composite of psychiatric comorbidities was present in 2,959 (45.1%) of patients. The mean length of stay was 6.58 days, and 77% of patients had routine discharge to home. In the adjusted analysis, the average length of stay was 8.6 days vs. 6.7 days (p < 0.001) in patients with and without psychiatry comorbidities. In comparison to routine discharge, patients with psychiatry comorbidities were more likely to be discharged to other healthcare facilities (odds ratio [OR]: 1.28, p < 0.001) and discharged against medical advice (OR: 3.45, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients with DGS have worse outcomes with a higher rate of discharge to other healthcare facilities and a higher rate of being discharged against medical advice. Further large scale randomize studies are indicated.
An increase in South African domestic tourism could potentially be realised through offering locals easily accessible and affordable tourist products. Niche tourism may present this opportunity. Internationally numerous forms of niche tourism have started to emerge including battlefields, beach, beer, sex, and dark tourism. South Africa has much to offer for the niche tourism market, and one such product offering is artisanal beverage tourism. Artisanal beverage tourism includes beverages ranging from craft beer to vodka, gin, brandy, and rum. Artisanal beverage tourism is also a form of consuming local heritage and experiencing local history and cultures as reflected in drink. The papers main aim was to establish artisanal beverage tourist to the Free State province, typical profile, behaviour, and motivations. The research further identified marketing guidelines, and the need for the establishment of an artisanal beverage tourist route for the Free State province. Ten artisanal breweries/distilleries were identified in the Free State province, South Africa. The study made use of a quantitative research design. The population of the study was visitors to artisanal breweries/distilleries in the province. Questionnaires were administrated at several artisanal breweries/distilleries throughout the province where all patrons on the day of data collection were approached to complete a questionnaire. A total of 130 respondents completed the questionnaire.
The residue of pesticides in bee products such as beebread and honey threaten the survival of pollinators and human health. Apis cerana cerana is one of the leading managed honey bees in China. However, little is known about the residues of pesticides in hive products of A. c. cerana in China. Here, we investigated the pesticide residues in beebread and honey. The risk of detected residues of pesticides to honey bees was evaluated with hazard quotient (HQ) and BeeREX. Furthermore, we assessed the chronic and acute risks to humans according to the dietary exposure. Our results suggest that the pesticide residues detection ratio (25.4% for beebread and 2.8% for honey) and the concentrations of these residues is lower than previously reported. Additional risk assessments indicate that the residue levels of pesticides in tested honey of A. c. cerana do not pose a risk for human consumers. Among all identified pesticides, only thiamethoxam raises the concern for further risk assessment in the risk evaluation of honey bee colonies and thiamethoxam was safe for colonies in higer tier studies
Recirculating aquaponics systems (RAS) are known to provide an economic alternative for producing healthy foods to address health disparities and food scarcity in abandoned urban areas (food deserts) with limited water and land resources. This study integrated design and operational data into a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to study the profitability of a commercial-scale tilapia-lettuce aquaponics system in the U.S. Midwest. An operational pilot-scale plant was used to obtain the necessary data for the TEA modeling. A mid-size commercial system with a 5300 L fish tank and a 62–63 m² plant grow bed space was considered for the analysis. The initial investment cost of the system was $69,230–69,600, with the greenhouse constituting 42% of the cost. The annual operating expense was $33,100 - $33,300, with labor being the major contributor (52%). Sensitivity analysis was performed on land, equipment, feed, utility costs and revenues from fish and lettuce, which identified the labor and greenhouse costs as prime factors controlling the profitability. The market value of the lettuce and its grow space used contributed to the profitability of the studied RAS from the revenue side. A cash flow analysis showed that the system can be profitable, offering a positive net present value (NPV) of $9000 - $12,220. Automated water quality monitoring further reduced labor costs, increasing NPV to $52,220 – $55,545. The TEA, augmented with process data and an uncertainty-based financial performance evaluation identifying key plant parameters, may serve as a framework for evaluating the economic viability of similar food production systems in different locations.
Introduction Host shifts of parasites can have devastating effects on novel hosts. One remarkable example is that of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, which has shifted hosts from Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana) to Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and posed a major global threat to apiculture and wild honey bees. Objectives and methods: To uncover the mechanisms underlying this rare successful host shift, we conducted a whole-genome analysis of host-shifted and nonshifted V. destructor mites and a cross-fostering infestation experiment. Results We found that oogenesis was upregulated in host-shifted mites on the new host A. mellifera relative to nonshifted mites. The transcriptomes of the host-shifted and nonshifted mites significantly differed as early as 1 h post-infestation of the new hosts. The differentially expressed genes were associated with nine genes carrying nonsynonymous high-FST SNPs, including mGluR2-like, Lamb2-like and Vitellogenin 6-like, which were also differentially expressed, and eIF4G, CG5800, Dap160 and Sas10, which were located in the center of the networks regulating the differentially expressed genes based on protein-protein interaction analysis. Conclusions The annotated functions of these genes were all associated with oogenesis. These genes appear to be the key genetic determinants of the oogenesis of host-shifted mites on the new host. Further study of these candidate genes will help elucidate the key mechanism underlying the success of host shifts of V. destructor.
In modern agricultural production, a variety of pesticides are widely used to protect crops against pests. However, extensive residues of these pesticides in the soil, water, and pollen have negatively affected the health of nontarget organisms, especially among pollinators such as bumblebees. As an important pollinator, the bumblebee plays a vital role in agricultural production and the maintenance of ecosystem diversity. Previous research has focused on the effects of a single pesticide on pollinating insects; however, the synergistic effects of multiple agents on bumblebees have been not studied in detail. Imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and chlorpyrifos are three of common pesticides known for severe effects on bumblebee health. It is still unknown what synergistic effects of these pesticides on pollinators. In our test, the individual and combined toxicities of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid to bumblebees after 48 h of oral administration were documented by the equivalent linear equation method. Our results showed that the toxicity of each single pesticide exposure, from high to low, was imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and chlorpyrifos. All binary and ternary combinations showed synergistic or additive effects. Therefore, our research not only shows that the mixed toxicity of insecticides has a significant effect on bumblebees, but also provides scientific guidelines for assessing the safety risks to bumblebees of these three insecticide compounds. In assessing the risk to pollinating insects, the toxicity levels of laboratory experiments are much lower than the actual toxicity in the field.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the most significant indicators of water quality in the inland water systems. Maintaining DO monitoring systems is time and money consuming since in situ DO data with high spatial and temporal resolution is needed to design appropriate coastal management plans. In this study, we mapped the spatiotemporal changes of DO in the Little Miami River (LMR) using 10-m Sentinel-2 images. We trained two machine learning algorithms – Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) – to predict DO concentrations using spectral predictors derived from the satellite images. Moreover, we calculated several metrics, which include Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Amount of Variance Explained (AVE), Coefficient of Efficiency (COE), and Normalized Mean Bias (NMB) to assess the performance of the models and accuracy of the DO maps. Our results showed a good agreement between modelled and measured DO concentrations with minimal residual errors ranging between 0.201 mg/L and 0.241 mg/L. Furthermore, RF and SVM revealed to be the reliable and effective algorithms to estimate DO concentrations with bands 5 (B5, vegetation red edge) and 8 (B8, NIR) as important predictors. We found the DO concentrations in the LMR to be in good to excellent range (7.3 mg/L to 14.7 mg/L for August and 10.8 mg/L to 14.5 mg/L for October), based on the minimum criterion for warm water habitat in the Ohio Water Quality Standards (WQS). Our findings have provided spatial insight to the current status of DO and the success of the management steps taken to manage and prevent eutrophic problems in the LMR.
Churches in South Africa have a rich history. Church tourism is perfectly positioned to attract tourists to South Africa and forms part of heritage tourism. Church tourism involves tourists visiting sites of prayer and shrines for cultural, historical, and architectural reasons, but not specifically due to any religious motivation. Well-known church tourism attractions include the Notre Dame de Paris in Paris, the Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia, and the Groot Kerk – Dutch Reformed Church in Graaf Reinet, South Africa. Data for the study was gathered through online questionnaires, resulting in the formulation of a new subdivision of church tourism, namely "church chasers. “Church chasers” generally do not travel specifically to visit churches. However, their decision to do so can be seen as secondary. They mostly spend time at churches during family holidays and weekend getaways. They find architecture, history, and sandstone buildings the most entertaining during a visit. The paper's main aim was to establish “church chasers” typical profile, behaviour, and motivation as a "new" kind of tourist pursuit by focusing on tourists visiting churches in South Africa. The broader aim was to determine whether “church chasers” as a subdivision of heritage tourism could revitalise small-town tourism in South Africa.
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186 members
Hongmei Li-Byarlay
  • Agricultural Research and Development Program
Eric Ariel L. Salas
  • College of Science and Engineering
Jon Trauth
  • Department of Social Work
Subramania Sritharan
  • College of Science and Engineering
Wilberforce, United States