Phenolics of browntop millet extracted in solvents with varying polarities [water, methanol, acetone (80%), ethanol (70%)] were comparatively assessed for their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, DNA damage protection and enzyme inhibitory properties. Results indicated that acetone (80%) and ethanol (70%) were most effective in extracting millet phenolics than other solvents. Gallic, caffeic and ferulic acids were the major phenolic acids, myricetin and kaempferol were the most abundant flavonoids detected in all the extracts of browntop millet. Phenolics extracted in 80% acetone and 70% ethanol offered noticeable contributions toward several antioxidant mechanisms and prevented the oxidative DNA damage than water and methanol extracts. All the millet extracts exhibited potent inhibition towards α-glucosidase than α-amylase activities. These results suggest that the solvents and their polarities impacted the extraction and bioactivities of millet phenolics and provided useful information for the effective utilization of browntop millet as a functional food ingredient to manage hyperglycemia.
The growing global demand for meat and the limitations of agricultural land and resources have prompted the search for alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be used as a meat substitute because of their significant protein content, high food-to-feed conversion ratio, and mere greenhouse gas emissions. Entomophagy, or the eating of insects, has long been practised by numerous ethnic groups across the world. Approximately 2000 edible insect species are being consumed. Edible insects are only available during certain seasons; therefore, many processing procedures are used to preserve them for extended periods. Traditional processing processes include drying, roasting, and boiling, which aim at imparting local taste and flavour. Along with these traditional drying methods, a number of novel approaches have been developed to reduce nutrient loss while also extending shelf life. Insect-based foods are becoming progressively essential to improve nutritional content while also reducing environmental risk. Because eating whole edible insects has an adverse impact on public acceptance, adding insects as an ingredient has spurred considerable attention in recent years. Insect-enriched food products have numerous benefits as well as challenges. The inclusion of a small amount of insect flour contributes to the additional nutritional and health benefits, however, the inclusion of a higher amount of insect powder frequently modifies the traditional taste preferences of many products. A massive portion of the population still does not accept edible insects due to their distinct flavours and taste. Raising awareness about the benefits of entomophagy, as well as understanding the sensory qualities of insect-added food products will aid in developing a more palatable and acceptable product.
After examining the Bifidobacterium spp. population in faeces samples from breastfed and formula-fed infants, an antibiogram was created. The prevalence of Bifidobacterium spp. in faeces was determined using common bacterial growth media, including Man Rogos Sharpe (MRS), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI), Luria Bertani (LB) broth, and Bifidobacteria agar. According to the findings, infants who are breastfed have a high population of Bifidobacterium spp. in their faeces, whereas newborns who are fed formula have a low population. Through using phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, (Xylose/Fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase) xfp, and RFLP mapping of Bifidobacterium isolates, it was possible to identify new and unique Bifidobacterium species. The intensity of the reddish brown colour produced during the F6PPK (Fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase) assay is an accurate indicator of the proportion of various Bifidobacteria present. Bifidobacteria agar media produced the greatest amounts of Bifidobacteria diversity and recovery. Small (SCV) and large colony variations (BCV) were formed during growth on different mediums. We are aware that the varied antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values can change depending on the use of different media, growth circumstances, bile salt treatment, and low pH. The findings of this study demonstrate that test conditions also impact the diversity of microbiological conditions that distinguish between resistant and susceptible bacteria.
Vanillic acid incorporated chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) active films were prepared by employing a cost-effective solvent casting technique. FTIR investigation validated the intermolecular interaction and formation of Schiff's base (C=N) between functional groups of vanillic acid, chitosan, and poly(vinyl alcohol). The addition of vanillic acid resulted in homogenous and dense morphology, as confirmed by SEM micrographs. The tensile strength of active films increased from 32 to 59 MPa as the amount of vanillic acid increased and the obtained values are more significant than reported polyethylene (2231 MPa) and polypropylene (31–38 MPa) films, widely utilized in food packaging. Active film's UV, water, and oxygen barrier properties exhibited excellent results with the incorporation of vanillic acid. Around 40 % of degradation commences within 15 days. Synergistic impact against S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans pathogens caused the expansion of the inhibition zone, evidenced by the excellent antimicrobial activity. The highest antioxidant capacity, 73.65 % of CPV-4 active film, proved that active films could prevent the spoilage of food from oxidation. Green chillies packaging was carried out to examine the potential of prepared active films as packaging material results in successfully sustaining carotenoid accumulation and prolonging the shelf life compared to conventional polyethylene (PE) packaging.
In the modern epoch, nanotechnology took forward the agriculture and food industry with new tools that promise to increase food production sustainably. It also anticipated that it would become a driving economic force shortly. Nanotechnology has the potential to reduce agricultural inputs, enrich the soil by absorbing nutrients, manage plant diseases, and detect diseases. The aim of the present review is to cover the potential aspects of nanoscience and its trend-setting appliances in modern agriculture and food production. This review focuses on the impact of various nanomaterials on plant health to improve agricultural production and its cooperative approach to food production. Nanotechnology has great potential compared to conventional approaches. The appealing path of nanotrends in the farming sector raises hopes and illuminates the route of innovative technologies to overcome various diseases in plants with an enhanced yield to meet the growing global population's need for food security.
The cellular and molecular switches that govern angiogenesis are considered therapeutic targets for several diseases like tumors and atherosclerosis. Thus, understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the new blood vessel is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies. The formation of a new blood vessel (angiogenesis) is tightly regulated by balancing pro‐ and antiangiogenic molecules. Dysregulated angiogenesis contributes to the pathogenicity of several diseases, including tumors associated with uncontrolled vessel growth. Experimental and clinical studies emphasize that angiogenesis is a critical step for the transition of the tumor to a life‐threatening malignancy. In recent years, angiogenesis has been targeted as one of the primary therapeutic goals for treating tumors, and rapid progress has been made by modulating its molecular regulators. Hence, the mechanisms of how blood vessel formation occurs could provide molecular insight into future angiogenic therapy. This review summarizes briefly the molecular players of blood vessel formation comprising vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and their role in tumor progression alongside antiangiogenic therapy. The cellular and molecular switches of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are highlighted. The molecular players of tumor angiogenesis are enumerated. Tumor angiogenic therapy and future antitumor approaches are outlined.
Honey has been known for economically motivated adulteration around the world, because of its high demand and short supply. As consequence increasing honey production using the deliberate addition of sugar syrups while claiming a fictitious origin and diversifying it to increase its value. Generally, honey testing is supervised by a set of guidelines and quality parameters to ensure its quality and authenticity. As per the many regulatory bodies, current honey scams have been challenging to identify with conventional methods, so quality control labs require sophisticated technology. With these paradigm shifts, the aim of the present review is focused on the authenticity of honey through two important cutting-edge methods viz LC-IRMS and NMR. The LC-IRMS aids in the detection of added C3 and C4 sugars. Whereas NMR has provided a potent solution by allowing the classification of botanical varieties and geographical origin along with the quantification of a set of quality parameters in a single experiment.
The production of second‐generation (2G) ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass generates large quantities of high‐strength complex wastewaters from various stages of the process. An effective pretreatment is necessary in order to overcome the low biodegradability of these wastewaters for further biomethane recovery. The present study reports the effect of ozonation on the biodegradability enhancement and biomethanation potential of complex 2G ethanol pretreatment process wastewaters, from acid (H2SO4) and alkali (NaOH) pretreatment process. Ozonation (9.33 g m‐3) was performed for both acid and alkali pretreatment wastewaters at a flow rate of 10 L/min for 1 h. Ozonation of both the wastewaters increased biodegradability (B.I) up to 36% along with minimal COD (7 ± 3 %), colour (10 ± 4 %), and toxicity (22.5 ± 7.5%) reduction. Biomethane potential tests were carried out for the control and ozonated wastewaters having B.I > 0.4. The acid‐pretreatment wastewater indicated poor biomethanation potential due to high presence of sulphates (COD/SO4 ~3.0). However, ozonation of alkali‐pretreatment wastewater facilitated up to 2‐fold enhancement in the cumulative methane volume, while the enhancement in the rate of methane production was found to be up to 47%. FTIR analysis of control and ozonated wastewaters revealed the breakdown of complex organic molecules and aromatics to readily biodegradable intermediates. The kinetics of methane generation could be predicted by the modified Gompertz model. The study demonstrated the efficacy of ozonation as an effective pretreatment option to facilitate biodegradability enhancement of 2G ethanol pretreatment process wastewaters. The enhancement in biodegradability was observed to enable subsequent biogas recovery via anaerobic digestion along with COD removal. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Allium sativum is well known for its therapeutic and culinary uses. Because of their high medicinal properties, the clove extract was selected to synthesize cobalt-tellurium nanoparticles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective activity of the nanofabricated cobalt-tellurium using A. sativum (Co-Tel-As-NPs) against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in HaCaT cells. Synthesized Co-Tel-As-NPs were analysed using UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, EDAX, DLS, and SEM. Various concentrations of Co-Tel-As-NPs were used as a pretreatment on HaCaT cells before H2O2 was added. Then, the cell viability and mitochondrial damage were compared between pretreated and untreated control cells using an array of assays (MTT, LDH, DAPI, MMP, and TEM), and the intracellular ROS, NO, and antioxidant enzyme production were examined. In the present research, Co-Tel-As-NPs at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 g/mL) were tested for toxicity using HaCaT cells. Furthermore, the effect of H2O2 on the viability of HaCaT cells was evaluated using the MTT assay for Co-Tel-As-NPs. Among those, Co-Tel-As-NPs at 4.0 g/mL showed notable protection; with the same treatment, cell viability was discovered to be 91% and LDH leakage was also significantly decreased. Additionally, the measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased by Co-Tel-As-NPs pretreatment against H2O2. The recovery of the condensed and fragmented nuclei brought about by the action of Co-Tel-As-NPs was identified using DAPI staining. TEM examination of the HaCaT cells revealed that the Co-Tel-AS-NPs had a therapeutic effect against H2O2keratinocyte damage.
Aim: This study in hyperlipidemic rats elucidated the effect of Lactobacillus fermentum MCC2760 on intestinal bile acid (BA) uptake, hepatic BA synthesis, and enterohepatic BA transporters. Main methods: Diets rich in saturated fatty acids [coconut oil (CO)] and omega-6 fatty acids [sunflower oil (SFO)] at 25 g fat/100 g diet were fed to rats with or without MCC2760 (109 cells/kg body weight). After 60 days of feeding, intestinal BA uptake and expression of Asbt, Osta/b mRNA and protein, and hepatic expression of Ntcp, Bsep, Cyp7a1, Fxr, Shp, Lrh-1, and Hnf4a mRNA were measured. Hepatic expression of HMG-CoA reductase protein and its activity and total BAs in serum, liver, and feces were assessed. Key findings: Hyperlipidaemic groups (HF-CO and HF-SFO) had: 1) increased intestinal BA uptake, Asbt and Osta/b mRNA expression, and ASBT staining 2) increased BA in serum, 3) decreased hepatic expression of Ntcp, Bsep, and Cyp7a1 mRNA, and NTCP staining 4) increased activity of HMG-CoA reductase, 5) increased hepatic expression of Fxr and Shp mRNA, 6) decreased hepatic expression of Lrh-1 and Hnf4a mRNA, and 7) decreased BA in Feces when compared to their respective controls (N-CO and N-SFO) and experimental groups (HF-CO + LF and HF-SFO + LF). Immunostaining revealed increased intestinal Asbt and hepatic Ntcp protein expression in the HF-CO and HF-SFO groups compared to control and experimental groups. Significance: Incorporating probiotics like MCC2760 abrogated hyperlipidemia-induced changes in the intestinal uptake, hepatic synthesis, and enterohepatic transporters of BA in rats. Probiotic MCC2760 can be used to modulate lipid metabolism in high-fat-induced hyperlipidemic conditions.
Only T-2 mycotoxin is emitted as an aerosol and is the most toxic fungal secondary metabolite among mycotoxins. In its clinical condition, the skin is severely irritated and painful due to lesions and alimentary toxic aleukia. Herein, we have assessed various bioactive molecules, viz. kaempferol, menthol, curcumin, and quercetin, against T-2-induced toxicity in HaCaT cells. Menthol offered exceptional protection, protecting 92% of HaCaT cells after exposure to 300 nM T-2 and reducing LDH leakage by up to 42%. Its pre-treatment provided considerable protection against T-2 toxicity, as evidenced by the assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential. Propidium iodide staining revealed a cell cycle halt at the G1, S, and M phases and a significant increase in the sub-G1 percentage in T-2-challenged cells, indicating cell death. However, pre-treatment with menthol promoted cell cycle progression in cells exposed to T-2. Immunoblotting results demonstrated that menthol resulted in a discernible down-regulation of i-NOS expression in T-2-challenged HaCaT cells.
Judicious syntheses, spectroscopic analyses, and solid state structural evidence of two structural variants (with planar geometry) of strongly aromatic hybrid  E-ethylene bridged hexaphyrins (220.127.116.11.1.1) exhibiting strong NIR absorption are reported. The induced correspondence of fused phenanthrene on the pyrrole moieties has led to a further red-shift of up to ∼45 nm in the neutral and protonated form of the macrocycles. The electronic nature and aromaticity of both hexaphyrins are fully supported by DFT calculations.
It is a review paper on the impact of eating buns on health and remedial measures to reduce maida content in it. You can access 'view only version' at https://rdcu.be/c6wC5 Buns are very soft puffed bakery snack items, popular in many countries, especially low- and middleincome nations. Buns are either eaten directly or used in the preparation of culinary items. Buns are mainly prepared using refined wheat flour rich in gluten protein and devoid of husk. Consuming gluten-containing foods is leading to several health complications among consumers worldwide. Hence, several researchers have tried to reduce the gluten content in the dough by incorporating cereals flours, proteinrich sources like soy, cheese whey, etc., hydrocolloids, millets, pomace, and seed flour of vegetables and fruits, etc. These additives not only reduce gluten content in the buns to a certain extent but also enhance the fibre content and nutritional profile of the buns. This mini-review summarizes the recent developments in the production of buns using these additives to improve their nutritional quality.
Xylitol, a sugar substitute, is widely used in various food formulations and finds a steady global market. In this study, xylitol crystals were produced from corncob by fermentation (as an alternative to the chemical catalytic process) by a GRAS yeast Pichia caribbica MTCC 5703 and characterized in detail for their purity and presence of any possible contaminant that may adversely affect mammalian cell growth and proliferation. The acute and chronic oral toxicity trials demonstrated no gross pathological changes with average weekly weight gain in female Wistar rats at high xylitol loading (LD50 > 10,000 mg/kg body weight). The clinical chemistry analysis supported the evidence of no dose-dependent effect by analyzing blood biochemical parameters. The finding suggests the possible application of the crystals (> 98% purity) as a food-grade ingredient for commercial manufacture pending human trials.
Herein, we rationally designed and developed two novel glitazones (G1 and G2) to target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) signaling through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ agonism as a therapeutic for Parkinson's disease (PD). The synthesized molecules were analyzed by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The neuroprotective functionality of the synthesized molecules was assessed by a cell viability assay in lipopolysaccharide-intoxicated SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. The ability of these new glitazones to scavenge free radicals was further ascertained via a lipid peroxide assay, and pharmacokinetic properties were verified using in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity analyses. The molecular docking reports recognized the mode of interaction of the glitazones with PPAR-γ. The G1 and G2 exhibited a noticeable neuroprotective effect in lipopolysaccharide-intoxicated SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value of 2.247 and 4.509 μM, respectively. Both test compounds prevented 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced motor impairment in mice, as demonstrated by the beam walk test. Further, treating the diseased mice with G1 and G2 resulted in significant restoration of antioxidant enzymes glutathione and superoxide and reduced the intensity of lipid peroxidation inside the brain tissues. Histopathological analysis of the glitazones-treated mice brain revealed a reduced apoptotic region and a rise in the number of viable pyramidal neurons and oligodendrocytes. The study concluded that G1 and G2 showed promising results in treating PD by activating PGC-1α signaling in brain via PPAR-γ agonism. However, more extensive research is necessary for a better understanding of functional targets and signaling pathways.
Nanoemulsion is a promising delivery system for delivering the plant bioactive molecules against insect pests. In this study, we aimed to prepare eugenol based nanoemulsions (EL-NE) by ultrasonication method to investigate its fumigant toxicity against Sitophilus oryzae adults and to analyse the residual characteristics of eugenol bioactive on the treated grains and beetles. In EL-NE preparations, 1:1 ratio of eugenol: Tween 80 combination with 5 min of ultrasonication at frequency of 10 kHz and 12 W power output was determined as optimal. In the optimized nanoemulsions, 19.21 to 42.82 d.nm range of mean droplet size, 0.50 to 0.77 range of polydispersity index and −21.80 to −29.83 mV range of zeta potential values were observed with respect to 2.5 to 10.0% of eugenol concentrations. After 72 h of fumigation, enhanced fumigant toxicities (3.5–11.2 fold) were observed against S. oryzae adults for the optimized EL-NEs compared to eugenol alone. Fumigant toxicity results revealed 14.40 µl/L air of least LC50 value for the 10.0% EL-NE. Persistence of eugenol was more (12.46%) in EL-NE treated wheat grains compared to eugenol alone treatments based on Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy analysis, which indicates the improved fumigation. This study results suggests EL-NEs as promising nano-biofumigant against the S. oryzae adults for eco-friendly Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
The effect of dry heat (DH, 70 °C, 3, 5, and 8 h), ultrasonication (US, 44 Hz, 10, 20, and 30 min), and their combination on pearl millet flour were evaluated for thermal, pasting, crystalline, and in-vitro starch digestibility properties. The dry heat treatment for 8 h decreased gelatinization enthalpy and increased peak viscosity, while ultrasonication for 10 and 20 min increased gelatinization enthalpy and peak viscosity. The FT-IR analysis revealed that the absorbance value of the starch– lipid complex was higher in dry heat with a corresponding increase in relative crystallinity. However, such pattern was not observed in ultrasonicated pearl millet flours. Among the different treatments dry heat for 8 h, ultrasonication for 20 min and combination of ultrasonication (20 min) with dry heat (8 h) increased resistant starch content (14.49–31.69%) and decreased glycaemic index (58.25–48.49). Pearson’s correlation revealed that glycaemic index is inversely related to resistant starch content and relative crystallinity. The study revealed that dry heat and ultrasonication which are simple and environmentally friendly technologies could be used to modify the starch properties to enhance resistant starch content in pearl millet flours.This modified flour could be incorporated in food products with low glycaemic index.
Yeasts derived from fermented foods have historically been known for their organoleptic properties, enriching nutritional values, and producing bioactive metabolites with therapeutic potential. In this review, we discuss the yeast flora in fermented foods, their functional aspects in fermentation, as well as their probiotic and biotherapeutic properties. These yeasts have numerous physical and biochemical characteristics, such as larger cells as compared to bacteria, a rigid cell wall composed primarily of glucans and mannans, natural resistance to antibiotics, and the secretion of secondary metabolites that are both pleasing to the consumer and beneficial to the host's health and well-being. The review also focused on therapeutic applications of probiotic yeasts derived from fermented foods on infections associated with Candida species. These potential probiotic yeasts present an additional avenue to treat dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and prevent health complications that arise from opportunistic fungal colonization, especially drug-resistant superbugs, which are highlighted in this review.
During decades of cancer research, different disciplines have made important contributions to the development of our knowledge about cancer. Identification of complex problems not being solved using a single discipline has directed scientists toward interdisciplinary approaches. Cancer is a complex problem that, regardless of great advances in different scientific fields, remains to be properly addressed. Early diagnosis, personalized treatment, minimum treatment side effects, optimal treatment outcomes, and effective preventive measures can be achievable by adopting interdisciplinary approaches in cancer research. This chapter is an interdisciplinary collaboration of scientists from different fields of science, in which the contribution of different disciplines to cancer research is reviewed. In addition, the framework of cancer research in 2050 is depicted as a guide for future research.
Unlabelled: Curcumin, bioactive from turmeric Curcuma longa, has been known for its therapeutic properties. However, its lipophilic nature and poor bioavailability are the constraints to harnessing its properties. Encapsulation in nano-size helps to alleviate the constraints and enhance its biological properties due to its higher surface area. The study aims to encapsulate curcumin in a nanometer size range by solubilizing in lipid (milk fat) and using milk protein as a water-soluble carrier. The lipid:curcumin ratio (1:0.05, 1:0.1, 1:0.2, 1.5:0.1, 1.5:0.2, 2.0:0.1 and 2:0.2% (w/w)) produced nanoemulsion with droplets sizes 30-200 nm. The sample containing lipid: curcumin, as 1.0:0.05 resulted in an encapsulation efficiency of 92.6%, and its binding interaction with the carrier, was KD = 4.7 µM. A high solubility of curcumin in milk fat and digestion during in vitro lipolysis increased its bioaccessibility. A simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro studies showed that cumulative release percentage of nanoencapsulated curcumin was 60% at pH 7.4 compared to 0.8% of native curcumin. The anti-microbial property of nanoencapsulated curcumin was more potent than native curcumin against food pathogenic organisms such as S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa, C. violaceum. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-023-05684-5.
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570020, Mysore, Karnataka, India
Head of institution
Raghava Rao K S M S