Central Queensland University
  • Rockhampton, VIC, Australia
Recent publications
It is not just a rail driver but a “system” that drives a train and network controllers apply non-technical skills to facilitate their role as part of a team. However, because of siloed and distributed working, scenarios exist where network controllers may inadvertently increase operational safety risks. The aim of this study was to generate a better understanding of non-technical skill application in network controllers by identifying which skills and behaviours were associated with problematic ways of working, and which abilities were used to address error-producing scenarios, and thereby reduce risk. Use of a scenario technique and behavioural markers analysis of 61 scenarios generated from 55 network controllers in 8 organisations across Australia and New Zealand revealed a large and diverse application of non-technical skills. Careful consideration must be given to the way in which deficiencies in abilities and skills are addressed. Future research directions are given.
Complex interventions, such as innovation platforms, pose challenges for evaluators. A variety of methodological approaches are often required to build a more complete and comprehensive understanding of how complex interventions work. In this paper, we outline and critically appraise a methodologically pluralist evaluation of an innovation platform to strengthen primary care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. In doing so, we aim to identify lessons learned from the approach taken and add to existing literature on implementing evaluations in complex settings, such as innovation platforms. The pluralist design used four evaluation approaches—developmental evaluation, principles-focused evaluation, network analysis, and framework analysis—with differing strengths and challenges. Taken together, the multiple evaluation approaches yielded a detailed description and nuanced understanding of the formation, functioning and outcomes of the innovation platform that would be difficult to achieve with any single evaluation method. While a methodologically pluralist design may place additional pressure on logistical and analytic resources available, it enables a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie complex interventions.
Background There is evidence reporting more positive outcomes from research capacity-building (RCB) programmes that include a research facilitator role. Further, it has been suggested that research facilitator roles can be a useful strategy in building the research capacity of healthcare clinicians. However, until now, little attention has been applied to identifying the characteristics of the research facilitator role and how this role contributes to clinicians’ engagement with the research process. The aim of this present study is to explore the characteristics required of the research facilitator role in the educational workshop phase of an RCB programme. Methods This qualitative study employed an inductive approach and utilized face-to-face interviews to gather data from a purposely selected cohort. Professionally transcribed responses were thematically analysed. Results The role of the research facilitator emerged as comprising two main themes: (1) facilitating the research process and (2) engaging expert clinicians as novice researchers. Pragmatically, analysis of data led to the development of a table outlining the responsibilities, skills and attributes related to each theme. Conceptually, theme 1 encapsulates the research facilitators’ skills and experience and their role as knowledge brokers and cocreators of knowledge. Theme 2 provides insight into the clinician-centric approach the research facilitators utilized to build and foster relationships and support the clinicians through their research journey. Conclusion This study reports on the characteristics of the research facilitator role in one phase of an RCB programme in one regional health service district in Australia and explains how the role fosters clinicians’ engagement with the research process. Findings from this study will inform the development of future RCB programmes, which is important considering that clinicians’ increased engagement with the research process is vital for developing a sound evidence base to support decision-making in practice and leads to higher levels of skills and greater ability to perform useful research.
Background Many elite athletes have suboptimal sleep duration and efficiency, potentially due to factors that may impact sleep onset and offset times. Variability in sleep onset and offset may negatively influence sleep. The sleep regularity index (SRI) is a novel metric for sleep regularity, however there are no published descriptions of SRI in elite athletes. Further, contributors to sleep efficiency and duration in elite athletes using objective measures have not been explored. Methods Sleep was monitored over a minimum of seven consecutive days (7 to 43)—in 203 elite team sport athletes (age range = 19–36 years; female, n = 79; male, n = 124, total sleep nights = 1975) using activity monitoring and sleep diaries. The sleep regularity index (SRI) was calculated to reflect the night-to-night shifts in sleep by accounting for changes in sleep onset and sleep offset. Sleep characteristics were compared between regular and irregular sleepers and important contributors to sleep efficiency and total sleep time were assessed using multiple linear regression models. Results The median sleep regularity index and interquartile range were 85.1 (81.4 to 88.8). When compared to irregular sleepers, regular sleepers demonstrated (1) significantly greater sleep efficiency (p = 0.006; 0.31 medium effect size [ES]), (2) significantly less variability in total sleep time (− p ≤ 0.001; − 0.69, large ES) and sleep efficiency (− 0.34, small ES), (3) similar total sleep time and (4) significantly less variation in sleep onset (p ≤ 0.001; − 0.73, large ES) and offset (p ≤ 0.001; − 0.74, large ES) times. Sleep characteristics explained 73% and 22% of the variance in total sleep time and sleep efficiency, respectively. The most important contributor to total sleep time was a later sleep offset time, while the most important contributors to sleep efficiency were an earlier bedtime and less variable sleep onset times. Conclusions Bedtime and a consistent sleep onset time are important factors associated with sleep efficiency in athletes, while sleep offset is an important factor for total sleep time. Coaches and staff can assist their athletes by providing training schedules that allow for both regularity and sufficiency of time in bed where possible.
Forced disturbances (FDs) with non-stationary frequencies can sequentially resonate from electromechanical modes (EMs) to sub/super synchronous modes (SSMs) and thus lead to non-stationary forced oscillations (FOs). Previous FO damping controllers designed for specified frequency bands may not be able to suppress the non-stationary FOs. This paper proposes a unified FO damping controller design method to deal with all oscillations caused by non-stationary FOs. The model of a power system with non-stationary FOs is obtained by a continuous model detection and identification of measured signals, which does not require any value of the system parameters. Accordingly, four stability indices, i.e., robustness, interaction, frequency, and damping ratio of the EMs and SSMs, can be calculated from the estimated model. At each operating point, these indices are monitored and used to optimally design the unified FO damping controller. The effectiveness of the proposed unified FO damping controller is verified in the modified Southeast Australian power system with converter controlled-based generations under various operating points and FO conditions.
Current advancements in power electronic converters have paved a way to shift the attention from the traditional internal combustion engine to electric vehicles (EVs). In previous research works, the EVs are normally represented by an aggregate model or a first order transfer function, and they are mostly used for the frequency regulation in microgrids (MGs). These may not be valid assumptions since the EVs consist of various distributed units and power electronic converters. To make it more practical, distributed EV models with a function of MG voltage control should be further considered. This paper proposes an approach for MG voltage and frequency regulations using data-driven-based controllers for distributed EVs. Without requiring any MG parameters, information of uncertainties with respect to operation changes are monitored such that major stability indices, i.e., damping and robustness, can be automatically calculated. Considering these indices, the adaptive control technique is applied to design the controllers. The proposed adaptive data-driven-based controller is compared to a controller designed by considering dynamics of full-converter models. Simulation results are validated in a MG with renewable energy sources and distributed EVs under various operating points and uncertainties.
Excessive physical demand at work has traditionally been connected with adverse health outcomes, but excessive sitting is now also being recognised as an occupational hazard and emerging work-related risk. Traditional preventive occupational health and ergonomics programs are useful but limited through reliance on individual behaviour change and time-diversion from productive work. A new ‘Goldilocks Work Paradigm’ aims to optimise health and productivity by using movements of productive tasks. Using rail driving as a specific case of a highly sedentary and inflexible working environment, we construct a conceptual framework for designing better jobs, arguing that a theoretical amalgamation of the new Goldilocks Work Paradigm with System Thinking, Participatory Ergonomics, and a Risk Management Framework, is needed, for establishing a unified, strategic approach—a ‘just right’ job design model. We extend this by outlining a practical process of designing better jobs with tools that can be used to achieve it.
The fuel combustion in diesel engines can be improved by adding nanomaterials to the fuel which result in an reduction in pollutant emissions and enhance the quality of fuel combustion. The engine performance and soot nanoparticles characteristics were evaluated in this study with adding nanoparticles of copper oxide (CuO2) to the rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and diesel under variable engine speeds. The addition of CuO2 to the RME significantly improve brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and decline the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) by 23.6% and 7.6%, respectively, compared to the neat RME and diesel fuel. The inclusion CuO2 nanoparticles into the RME and diesel led to decrease the concentration and number of particulate matter (PM)by 33% and 17% in comparison with neat RME and diesel without nano additives, respectively. Moreover, PM is significantly decreased by 31.5% during the RME combustion in comparison with neat RME and diesel under various engine speeds. It was also obtained that the number of emitted particles (npo) reduced by 23.5% with adding nanoparticles to the RME in comparison with diesel, while the diameter of soot nanoparticles (dpo) increased by 8.6% in comparison with diesel. Furthermore, the addition CuO2 to the RME decreased the size and number of particles more than to the diesel fuel.
Current research focuses on finding environmentally friendly energy sources as an alternative to fossil fuels due to declining resources with increasing population growth. This study identifies and summarises recent studies into the effect of biodiesel blends on engine performance and provides a classification of the literature. This study also aims to clarify the incentives for using biodiesel and the challenges still faced by researchers. Articles on biodiesel fuel and its blends in diesel and gas-turbine engines were collated and filtered based on the blending methods (complete substitution without diesel or partial substitution). Biodiesel utilization in gas turbines and its competitiveness with Jet fuel performance is one of the things that this study touched upon. Despite that, the gaps in using biodiesel instead of Jet-A still exist in turbine engines, so settling the challenges of using biodiesel in the aviation sector could be through using additives or substitutes. A total of 72 articles were selected and divided into two groups: single biodiesel blends and dual blend biodiesel. The fuel used and the engine types were identified for all articles, and the emission results and engine performance when biodiesel was used. This study contributes to the development and research into the primary system (such as compressor, combustion chamber, or turbine), challenges, and the limitations of the current studies.
Queensland’s newly designed net-free zones (NFZs), which prohibit commercial net fishing in coastal areas near Cairns, Mackay, and Rockhampton, were implemented to support recreational fisheries. Although some investigations on the effectiveness of establishing NFZs have been carried out by the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF), the analysis of recreational fishers’ fishing satisfaction and expectations from a NFZ relative to a non-NFZ (reference site) is yet to be explored. In this study, recreational fishers were surveyed at fishing tackle stores located in the regional cities of Rockhampton (NFZ) and Townsville (reference site). A total of 163 recreational fishers from Rockhampton and 130 fishers from Townsville were sampled in 2018 and completed a survey where fishers rated their responses on a 7-point Likert scale. The inherent causal relationship between satisfaction and expectations components, as well as the strength of that relationship, was demonstrated using structural equation modelling. The overall findings suggest that fishers’ satisfaction and expectations towards recreational fishing opportunities are higher in the NFZ than the reference site, and fishers' satisfaction and overall satisfaction in the NFZ have a positive and significant effect on their expectations. The output of this study will assist management bodies in providing additional insights into how management decisions affect recreational fishers' satisfaction and expectations in fishing.
This study investigated correlations between gut microbiota and type 2 diabetic (T2D) indexes using either native resistant starch (RS, from high amylose maize starch, HAMS) or acylated starch via short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acylation. Compared to HAMS, consumption of acylated starch achieved a greater impact on the improvement of T2D indexes in term of body weight loss, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level and amino acid metabolism. Intervention with acylated starches alleviated metabolism disorders and modified the gut microbiota. This study found all the acylated starch significantly enhanced the growth of SCFAs-producing bacteria compared to its native HAMS, and this change was highly consistent with their corresponding SCFAs concentration both in serum and fecal samples. This is the first reported to reveal that propionylated HAMS promoted the abundance of Bifidobacterium, while acetylated and butylated HAMS benefited the enrichment of Coprococcus, Butyricimonas and Blautia, which may indicate their different intervention pathway.
Objective To determine how firefighters experience and manage sleep inertia (the state of impaired alertness and performance upon waking) during night calls. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen volunteer firefighters. Firefighters were asked about their experiences of sleep inertia and what strategies they use to manage sleep inertia when waking and responding to night calls. Results Firefighters perceive that the duration and risk of sleep inertia is less than what is commonly espoused in the literature. This presents a potential barrier to implementing sleep inertia countermeasures in this cohort. However, firefighters informally managed sleep inertia directly and indirectly. Several deliberate strategies to directly reduce sleep inertia (e.g., running to and from their car), and indirect strategies to manage the impact of sleep inertia (e.g., risk assessments) emerged. Moreover, it was identified that various aspects of the firefighting role have the potential to reduce sleep inertia through multifactorial physical and mental stimulation (e.g., through waking to the pager alarm and the cognitive demand of firefighting tasks). Conclusions The firefighting role can be inherently stimulating and has the potential to reduce the severity of sleep inertia for firefighters waking and responding to night calls. Regardless, informal strategies to manage sleep inertia could be incorporated into formal education procedures of organisations to improve the safety of firefighters. Relevance to industry Informal sleep inertia management strategies could be formalised to help educate less experienced firefighters on how to manage night-time calls and improve the safety of personnel in the firefighting industry.
Introduction : Today’s adolescents are growing up in a unique sociocultural climate in which gender issues are highly prominent. Alongside new ways of understanding gender identity, there are persistent gender disparities in social, health and mental health outcomes despite increasingly egalitarian views and a significant public focus on sexual assault and gender-based violence. Given gender-differentiated outcomes emerge during adolescence, it is critical to revisit factors influencing adolescent gender development. It has been argued that gendered parenting, reflected in differences in parenting attitudes and behaviors directed towards boys and girls, influences gender development. While numerous studies have examined gendered parenting with children, there has been no previous synthesis of gendered parenting of adolescents. Method : The current narrative review presents an overview of research into gendered parenting of adolescents, including parental modelling, gendered environments, and specific parenting practices, and draws together the available research on how it impacts adolescents. Gendered parenting is also examined in the context of LGBTQI + and gender non-conforming adolescents. Results : There is limited research investigating the presence of gendered parenting of adolescents, and even less assessing its impact on adolescent psychosocial outcomes. The available literature suggests that there may be effects of gendered parenting on adolescents, particularly on their gender role attitudes and gender-typed behaviors. Conclusions : Future work is needed to better understand how gendered parenting of adolescents manifests in the family home. In addition, research is needed to examine the longitudinal impact of gendered parenting, particularly within non-traditional families, and across a range of sociocultural contexts.
Background: Nursing home hospital avoidance programmes have contributed to a reduction in unnecessary emergency transfers but a description of the core components of the programmes has not been forthcoming. A well-operationalised health-care programme requires clarity around core components to evaluate and replicate the programme. Core components are the essential functions and principles that must be implemented to produce expected outcomes. Objectives: To identify the core components of a nursing home hospital avoidance programme by assessing how the core components identified at one nursing home (Site One) translated to a second nursing home (Site Two). Methods: Data collected during the programme's implementation at Site Two were reviewed for evidence of how the core components named at Site One were implemented at Site Two and to determine if any additional core components were evident. The preliminary updated core components were then shared with seven evaluators familiar with the hospital avoidance programme for consensus. Results: The updated core components were agreed to include the following: Decision Support Tools, Advanced Clinical Skills Training, Specialist Clinical Support and Collaboration, Facility Policy and Procedures, Family and Care Recipient Education and Engagement, Culture of Staff Readiness, Supportive Executive and Facility Management. Conclusion: This study launches a discussion on the need to identify hospital avoidance programme core components, while providing valuable insight into how Site One core programme components, such as resources, education and training, clinical and facility support, translated to Site Two, and why modifications and additions, such as incorporating the programme into facility policy, family education and executive support were necessary, and the ramifications of those changes. The next step is to take the eight core component categories and undertake a rigorous fidelity assessment as part of formal process evaluation where the components can be critiqued and measured across multiple nursing home sites. The core components can then be used as evidence-based building blocks for developing, implementing and evaluating nursing home hospital avoidance programmes.
Emotional labour is important to the performance of interactive service work in the tourism industry. However, emotional labour dysregulation, defined as a difficulty in managing emotions in daily routines, may lead to negative outcomes. This study aimed to fill an important gap by gaining a better understanding of perceived countermeasures for effectively managing emotional labour dysregulation in tourism workers. Using snowball sampling to recruit participants, eight focus groups were conducted with 42 reef workers in Cairns (Australia), using a novel scenario-based technique for knowledge elicitation. Findings outline countermeasures to emotional labour dysregulation according to two themes: (1) individual-level strategies, and (2) broader system factors. Both themes deal with the demands of emotional labour. Knowledge about countermeasures to emotional labour dysregulation has the potential to support employees and in turn influence positive tourism experiences which can help the industry to achieve business success and positive customer reviews.
There is a soaring demand for work-ready graduates who can quickly adapt to an ever-challenging work environment. Group-based assessments have been widely recommended as a means to develop the skills required for the world of work. However, group-based assessments are perceived as challenging for both students and educators. This systematic literature review (SLR), based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), focuses on analyzing and synthesizing the existing literature on group-based assessments. A four-step approach was undertaken in order to conduct this research. The SLR identified 71 relevant articles, analyzed using thematic analysis with the aid of NVivo software. An open coding approach was adopted to generate codes. The validity of the SLR process and the reliability of the research tool were maintained through the use of trustworthiness. The findings identified dominant themes such as self- and peer evaluations, training students for group work assessments, group formation, group size, and the role of academics and technology in facilitating group processes. The outcomes of this review contribute significantly to the design and administration of group-based assessments in higher education by providing academics with practical guidelines to effectively facilitate group-based assessments which fit the purpose.
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Alex Russell
  • Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory; School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences
John Rolfe
  • School of Business and Law
Jenni Judd
  • School of Health Medical and Applied Sciences
Phul Subedi
  • School of Medical and applied science
Pauline Calleja
  • School of Nursing Midwifery & Social Science
Spencer Street, 3030, Rockhampton, VIC, Australia