Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture
Recent publications
Effective techniques for the detection of selected viruses detection of their amino acids (AAs) constituents are highly desired, especially in the present COVID pandemic. Motivated by this, we have used density functional theory (DFT) simulations to explore the potential applications of green phosphorene monolayer (GPM) as efficient nanobio‐sensor. We have employed van der Waals induced calculations to study the ground‐state geometries, binding strength, electronic structures, and charge transfer mechanism of pristine, vacancy‐induced and metal‐doped GPM to detect the selected AAs, such as glycine, proline and aspartic, in both aqueous and non‐aqueous media. We find that the interactions of studied AAs are comparatively weak on pristine (−0.49 to −0.76 eV) and vacancy‐induced GPM as compared to the metal‐doped GPM (−0.62 to −1.22 eV). Among the considered dopants, Ag‐doping enhances the binding of AAs to the GPM stronger than the others. In addition to appropriate binding energies, significant charge transfers coupled with measurable changes in the electronic properties further authenticate the potential of GPM. Boltzmann thermodynamic analysis have been used to study the sensing mechanism under varied conditions of temperatures and pressure for the practical applications. Our findings signify the potential of GPM based sensors towards efficient detection of the selected AAs. Density functional theory simulations are used to study GPM as efficient sensor toward selected amino acids. Sensing mechanism is studied through ground‐state geometries, binding strength, electronic structures, and charge transfer mechanism. It is found that silver doping enhances the sensitivity and selectivity of GPM.
Shrimp culture and its export are growing fast in India in tandem with the global demand for protein‐rich seafood. Farmers are always seeking newer technologies and cultural practices to alleviate risks and remain profitable and sustainable. One of the practices that is gaining prevalence in recent years is Penaeus vannamei culture in lined ponds in brackish water and low saline environments. Our study aims to understand the differences in physicochemical and chemical parameters between lined and earthen ponds in simulated experiments and field studies and weighs the economic benefits. Earthen ponds exhibited lower pH fluctuations than lined as soil functions as a buffer against pH variations. The key differentiators were the lower metabolites and higher nutrients in the lined ponds leading to a healthier pond environment. It was complemented by lower vibrio load in the lined ponds, reducing the threat of diseases significantly. Comparatively, 12.5% higher survival rate and 9% higher growth rate were evidenced in the earthen ponds. Economically, lining material increases the initial capital cost and the income per culture was lower due to marginally lower survival and growth rates in lined ponds. However, this reduced profitability was more than offset by the possible higher number of cultures per year and reduced time between cultures. The economic analysis of average culture data established economic advantage of culture in lined ponds over earthen ponds with an incremental Benefit Cost ratio of 2.15. Ultimately, the choice of lined versus earthen culture depends on the investment and risk potential of the farmer.
C‐Phycocyanin (CPC) was extracted from Arthrospira sp. and isolated from an estuarine ecosystem in southern India. A 45‐day feeding trial was conducted to unravel the effect of dietary CPC in Penaeus vannamei. Seven iso‐nitrogenous and iso‐energetic experimental diets were prepared with different levels of CPC at 0 (CPC0), 50 (CPC50), 100 (CPC100), 200 (CPC200), 400 (CPC400), 800 (CPC800) and 1600 (CPC1600) mg per kg diet. The results revealed that the survival percentages in CPC200, CPC400, CPC800 and CPC1600 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in other treatments. Moreover, P. vannamei fed with CPC800 and CPC1600 showed a significantly higher percentage (p < 0.05) of weight gain compared to other treatments. Similarly, compared to other treatments, average body weight, average daily gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio improved significantly (p < 0.05) in CPC800 and CPC1600. Differential gene expression of selected immune genes (ProPO, SOD and HSP70) indicated enhanced immunity in P. vannamei fed with CPC400 and higher CPC doses. The enhanced health of P. vannamei fed with diets containing CPC was further corroborated by the gut Vibrio counts, haematology, gut microbiome and histopathological analyses, and the results showed the addition of CPC at 800 mg per kg of feed enhanced the health of shrimps. The results also give the baseline information about the utilization of CPC in P. vannamei grow‐out feed at an inclusion level of 800 mg per kg of feed to get better growth, survival and health. The results would help in developing functional feeds for shrimps to act against bacterial diseases.
Emerging pathogen, carp edema virus (CEV) causes koi sleepy disease (KSD) in Koi and common carp causing severe mortalities worldwide. In the present study, a total of 150 fish species belonging to eight different families were sampled from the ornamental fish retailers and farms, located in Karnataka, India. The OIE protocol viz., level-I, II and III diagnoses confirmed the infection of CEV in 10 koi fish. Interestingly, other fish species belonging to different fish family including cyprinidae family were negative to CEV. Further, CEV infection was confirmed by sequencing (partial 4a gene); it showed the similarity with that of CEV reported from India and Germany strains with similarity of 97.4–99.94% and belonged to genogroup IIa. TEM analysis of purified CEV, in vivo cohabitation and tissue infection experiments confirmed the CEV infection. In addition, viral load was significantly higher (10⁶⁻⁷ copies) in koi collected from Dakshina Kannada than of Bengaluru (10³⁻⁴ copies). To understand the host–pathogen interaction, different organs such as gill, kidney, liver and spleen from naturally (CEV) infected koi were used to study the immune gene responses by using eight innate and one adaptive immune response. Results indicated that TNF-α, RohTNF-α, iNOS, IFN-γ and IL-10, and catalyze β-2M of MHC class I pathway genes were upregulated in koi. Higher expression of immune genes during the CEV infection mat have inhibited viral replication and mount an antigenic adaptive response. Similar to other viral infections, interferon-γ play an important role during poxvirus infections. Quantification of immune genes in infected fish will provide insights into the host responses and provide valuable information to devise intervention strategies to prevent and control disease due to CEV.
The world's most extensive mangroves, the Sunderbans ecosystem, is highly biodiverse but severely stressed. Past, present and future potential changes in Sunderbans mangroves have been assessed from multi‐temporal satellite data of 1980, 2000, and 2020, elevation data, and topographical maps using geospatial techniques, digital shoreline analysis system, land change modeling, and ground truth verification. The mangrove loss was 16025 ha between 1980 and 2020 and has been predicted as 22286 ha between 2020 and 2050. Major changes were observed from mangroves to waterbodies, mudflats, agriculture, and aquaculture, and vice versa. The shoreline change by endpoint rate indicated the erosion rate by 5.81 m/yr in 2000‐2020 compared to ‐0.90 m/yr in 1980‐2000. The weighted linear regression indicated the average erosion and accretion rate of ‐5.96 m/yr and 4.92 m/yr, respectively, with erosion in 76% transects and accretion in the remaining 24% between 1980 and 2020. The sea‐level rise by a meter will inundate 17486 ha of mangroves. The finding revealed the dynamic nature of mangroves, past and expected future loss, the severely eroding transects, hotspots and the consequences of mangrove loss on depending population. As fringe mangroves will be at greater risk, speedy measures are needed to stabilize the highly eroding regions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background Standardization of cell culture medium plays a vital role in the development of primary or continuous cell line. Apart from the basal media, supplements in the medium and various physical factors promote the cell growth. With this context, the study was carried out to optimize the culture medium using various supplements and physical factors for the growth of hemocytes culture from Penaeus vannamei.Methods Various concentrations of Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS; 1–25%), Shrimp Muscle Extract (SME; 1–25%) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF; 0.5–5 ng mL −1) were attempted to optimize the cell culture media for the development of primary hemocytes culture of P. vannamei. Various pH, temperature and osmolality was also screened to optimize the medium.Results15% FBS was ideal for the healthy morphology of cells with rapid replication. SME supplementation at 5–20% supported the cell growth for 24 h but only 30% of cell viability was observed after 48 h. bFGF (0.5–5 ng mL−1) enhanced cell growth in the medium with 15% FBS; The ideal pH level was examined by preparing the HBSCM-5 medium at pH between 6.8–8.0. Osmolality of 730 ± 20, pH of 7.2 and temperature of 28 °C resulted in the healthy cells with good morphology. NSW supplement supported the cell growth at low concentrations of salt; however, more than 2% salt concentrations cells did not form fibroblast-like morphology and instead a crystal-like morphology was observed.Conclusion The hemocytes culture were optimized for use as an in vitro cell culture system by testing cell growth on HBSCM-5 medium with various supplements, growth factors and physical parameters.
Penaeus vannamei were reared at six different water salinities (3, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50‰) for 45 days to explore its effect on lipid class and fatty acid composition. The results revealed that the total lipid content was high (p< 0.05) at 30‰ (3.14%), and low (p< 0.05) at 20‰ (2.15%). Both phospholipids and cholesterol were found to be high (p< 0.05) at 40‰ (1.30% and 0.38%, respectively), while it was at 30‰ for triacylglycerides (0.71%). A higher correlation coefficient was observed for phospholipids (R2 = 0.5975) with rearing salinity and triacylglycerides (R2 = 0.8487) with total lipid. A total of saturated fatty acids (SFA), mono unsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids was increased in all treatments compared to ambient salinity (20‰), and the increase was quite high with 30‰ (38.83,% 37.07% and 48.76%, respectively), whereas it was 17.47%–24.94% in SFA, 7.85%–26.05% in MUFA and 20.69%–33.82% in PUFA at hypo (3–10‰) and hyper (40–50‰) saline conditions. The correlation coefficient determinant was high for MUFA (R2 = 0.8682) followed by SFA (R2 = 0.7370) and PUFA (R2 = 0.6542) against total lipid, whereas it was much less (R2 = 0.0402–0.0588) when performed against water salinity. The daily value of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was >100%, and was ranged between 2.81% and 3.24% for α-linolenic acid (ALA). The results concluded that the rearing salinity had a significant effect on lipid class and fatty acid composition in P. vannamei and their deposition was quite high in the group reared at 30‰.
Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), is an emerging microsporidian pathogen responsible for hepatopancreatic microsporidiasis (HPM) in shrimps and is associated with severe growth retardation. The disease causes economic losses in shrimp aquaculture. In this study, EHP spore germination was induced and demonstrated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The ions (cations and anions) generated by high-energy electrons during frozen water radiolysis in the SEM specimen chamber induce EHP spore germination. This study is the first to demonstrate the induction of a microsporidian spore germination by ions generated under SEM. This study will enhance our understanding of EHP biology, life cycle and lead to the development of prophylactics and therapeutics for EHP control. Also, this method will help standardize the study of germination in other microsporidians.
The current study evaluated the biosafety of oxytetracycline (OTC) exposure for 30 days in monosex Oreochromis niloticus fries. The fries were exposed to OTC for 3 h/day for 30 days at 350 (0.5X), 700 (1X), 2100 (3X), 3500 (5X), and 7000 (10X) mg/L and com- pared with control (0X). The OTC exposure at 5X and 10X concentrations caused 100% mortality within 4 days and 5 min, respectively. The mortalities recorded in 0.5X, 1X, and 3X groups were 3.33±1.15%, 14.67±1.15%, and 47.33±11.37% on day 30, respectively. The feed intake was decreased up to 23.33% in the 3X group during the exposure period. The OTC residue levels on 30-day exposure were 216.53±14.71, 450.56±44.31, and 1141.26±63.64 μg/kg, which reduced to 40.40±3.25, 76.68±2.77, and 95.61±5.13 μg/ kg after 15 days of termination of exposure in the 0.5X, 1X, and 3X groups, respectively. The histopathological changes observed in the 1X group were epithelial detachment, des- quamation of secondary lamellar epithelium, lamellar fusion, and infamed cartilaginous core in the gills, alteration in the integrity of gut mucosa, degeneration of muscularis mucosae and necrosis in the intestine, the disintegration of the nephritic tubule, necrosis, and glomerulopathy in the kidney, and dilated vascular duct, necrotized hepatic tissue, dif- fused hepatic parenchyma, vacuolation, and fatty changes in the liver. The OTC exposure induced marked tissue changes histologically in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which undoubtedly reduced the growth of tilapia.
Concerns have been raised about the threat of ecological imbalance due to the loss of water bodies in densely populated areas. The present study explored the changes in water bodies in terms of area, number, and size in northern districts of Tamil Nadu, India, between 1978 and 2018 using satellite data, geographic information system, spatial analysis, ground truth verification, and field validation. The analysis indicated that the water bodies’ area has reduced by 3027 ha and 4363 ha in the Kancheepuram and Tiruvallur Districts, respectively. Almost 179 water bodies have entirely disappeared, and 628 water bodies have been partly converted for other purposes. Of the disappeared water bodies, small, medium, and large water bodies account for 53, 93, and 33, respectively. The main reason for the changes in water bodies was the conversion to agriculture and buildings. Overall, the water bodies’ area and number have been reduced by 9% and 12%, respectively, while the population has grown by 37%. The water bodies lost due to anthropogenic activities demand the scientific inventory of water bodies and integrated water resources management at a state or national level with strict monitoring regulations to protect them.
The carotenoid reserves of broodstocks have a considerable impact on reproductive performance, maturity, fecundity, spawning, and yolk-sac larvae quality. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the most effective strategy for enriching broodstock in artificial breeding programs by examining changes in the carotenoid profile of wild-caught spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) broodstocks during the reproductive season. The predominant carotenoids such as fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotenoids were examined in muscle, liver, and gonad (testis and ovary) samples from both the genders. The results revealed that total carotenoid levels differed significantly (p < 0.05) among tissues during sexual maturation. The muscle fucoxanthin levels increased gradually (0.014 ± 0 .01 < 0.017 ± 0.00 < 0.019 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) during testicular maturation and were comparatively higher than that of the liver and testis. The astaxanthin content of the ovary was relatively low and increased with ovarian maturation (2.013 ± 0.18 < 6.106 ± 0.28 < 8.871 ± 0.73 mg/100 g). The scat’s mature ovary (9.446 ± 0.53 mg/100 g) had a higher concentration of lutein in comparison with testis (0.821 ± 0.07 mg/100 g). In the testis, the highest concentration of β-carotene could be observed during the mature stage (1.765 ± 0.08 mg/100 g). In female scat, the β-carotene content of muscle showed an inverse relationship with maturation indicated by a gradual decrease from immature stage. Finally, it is proposed that carotenoids are preferentially mobilized and conserved in the gonads, which are indispensable to improve gonadal development and the productive potential of S. argus, a leading candidate species.
Periphyton community grown on submerged substrate in water could serve as a preferred natural food item to herbivorous and omnivorous fish and crustacean species. To determine the optimum substrate area for the growth of periphyton biomass serving as natural food and to reduce the requirement of pellet feed quantity, a 150-day pond experiment was conducted with four treatments of brackishwater polyculture: total feeding and no periphyton substrate (P0), and partial feeding with periphyton grown on nylon net substrate equivalent to 50 (P50), 75 (P75) and 100 (P100) % of pond surface area. Each treatment had three randomly assigned replicate ponds (50 m²). After 15 days of substrate fixation in the surface layer of ponds up to 50 cm water depth, stocking was made with seeds of Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758, Planiliza parsia (Hamilton, 1822), Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775) and Penaeus monodon Farbicius, 1798 at 1800, 18000, 2000 and 30,000 number ha⁻¹, respectively. A low-cost pellet feed (30.76% crude protein) was provided at 6–3% of fish biomass per day. Dry matter (DM) of periphyton biomass was estimated from each replicate pond under P50, P75 and P100 from 15 × 15 cm² net substrate, and then total periphyton DM was calculated according to the substrate surface area at 15-day intervals. Then, the total periphyton biomass was divided to find out daily DM availability. The feed amount in P50, P75 and P100 ponds was reduced proportionately to the equivalent daily periphyton DM availability and the feeding at this reduced quantity was continued for 15 days. The experiment revealed significantly lower levels of nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds, and dissolved organic carbon content in water of P75 and P100, compared to that of P0 and P50 (P < 0.05) and there were interaction effects of experimental period and periphyton substrate area on these parameters. All the species had an increasing growth pattern with experimental period and there was an interaction effect of experimental period and periphyton substrate area on growth of these species, indicating periphyton had positive effects. The highest specific growth rate was recorded in P. monodon and the lowest was in M. cephalus. Pooled survival of fishes and shrimp, and total productivity did not differ among treatments (P > 0.05). Although, the highest level of feed reduction (42%) by the utilization of periphyton biomass was in P100, P75 performed better in terms of productivity and economic return with 30% feed reduction in polyculture. Similarly, there was 26–41% reduction in feed conversion ratio with the highest level being in P100 (41%), followed by P75 (40%) in comparison to P0. Moreover, carcass composition of cultured fishes and shrimp indicated that periphyton based systems with partial feeding could meet up the nutrient requirement of the animals with no negative effects in comparison to the feed-based system. Therefore, this study suggests that provision of periphyton substrate equivalent to 75% of pond surface area along with partial feeding is the most appropriate approach for achieving higher return with environmental sustainability in brackishwater polyculture.
Intensive fish farming often leads to the emergence of infectious and parasitic diseases, which require aquadrugs to control them. The present study evaluated the effects of 1× (50 μg/kg biomass/day) and 3× (150 μg/kg biomass/day) dietary emamectin benzoate (EB)-dosing on healthy Oreochromis niloticus for 7 consecutive days in comparison with control. Dietary EB caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in feed intake and an increase in mortalities. The total erythrocyte counts (TECs), monocyte counts (MCs), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) reduced significantly. Contrarily, the counts of total leukocytes (TLCs), thrombocytes (TCs), lymphocytes (LCs) and neutrophils (NCs) increased significantly within 7 days of EB-dosing (ED) in both groups. The TECs, Hb, TCs and MCs normalized on day 35 post-EB-dosing (PED), while Ht, MCH, LCs, and MCs recuperated on day 14 PED. Both groups experienced a significant increase in serum glucose, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and creatinine levels as well as a decrease in calcium, chloride ions and acetylcholinesterase levels during the ED period. The alkaline phosphatase and creatinine levels of the 1× group recovered on day 14 and 28 PED, respectively but not in the 3× group. The dosed fish documented reduced erythrocyte cellular and nuclear morphometry like larger axis, minor axis, volume, and surface area, which recovered during the PED period, except for the nuclear volume. The results suggested the tolerability of O. niloticus juveniles and their ability to mount adaptive responses to the effect of EB to recuperate with the suspension of dosing.
Introduction The marine ecosystem contains many microbial species that produce unique, biologically active secondary metabolites with complex chemical structures. We aimed to isolate and identify bioactive compounds with antimicrobial properties produced by a facultative anaerobic strain of Bacillus subtilis (AU-RM-1), isolated from marine sediment. Methodology We optimized the AU-RM-1 growth conditions, analyzed its growth kinetics, and its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Extracts of the isolate were studied for antimicrobial activity against three clinically important microorganisms and the structure of the active compound was identified by spectroscopy. Results Antimicrobial activity of the AU-RM-1 DMSO extract was evaluated by disc diffusion assay and by serial dilution. The AU-RM-1 DMSO extract showed antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The bioactive fraction of the AU-RM-1 DMSO extract was separated by TLC-bioautography at Rf = 0.49. We then used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the morphological changes in the bacterial cells treated with the isolated compound. It was observed that cells seemed to shrink, and the cell walls appeared to be damaged. A bioactive compound was identified, and its structure was examined by spectroscopic analysis: a LC-MS molecular ion peak (ESI) m/z (% of relative abundance) was calculated for C19H22O3: 298.38, and found to be C19H22O3+1: 299.51 [M+1]. The chemical structure of the compound (2-(2-{8-methoxy-5aH,6H,7H,8H,9H,9aH-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-7-yl}ethyl)furan) was determined using 1HNMR and 13CNMR, and its purity was confirmed by HPLC. Fifteen known and previously reported compounds were also identified, in addition to the novel compound; these were lipopeptides, antibiotics and chemical moieties. Conclusion The facultative anaerobic marine organism Bacillus subtilis (AU-RM-1) produces a novel bioactive secondary metabolite with antimicrobial and antifungal activity.
Brackishwater area of Indian Sundarban is around 30,000–50,000 ha of which only 20–30% is under aquaculture. Brackishwater farming is mainly confined to the bheries in Sundarbans. Adoption of modern and scientific technologies developed by research institutes and government agencies has improved the fish/shrimp production in the region and meeting the livelihood needs through different livelihood options. Growth of Indian aquaculture industry is synonymous with the growth of shrimp culture and has gained its momentum with the introduction of Penaeus vannamei during 2009. Demonstration of Penaeus indicus farming using hatchery-produced seed by ICAR-Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA) showed its potential as an alternate species in Indian aquaculture basket. In addition, breeding, seed production and feed development of certain brackishwater fish such as seabass, mullets, milkfish, whisker catfish, pearl spot and hilsa have shown a lot of promise. About 28% of 2.1 lakh ha potential brackishwater areas in West Bengal are under use, and the state has been the Indian leader in Penaeus monodon production whilst farmers started culturing P. vannamei after successful demonstration by ICAR-CIBA at its research centre at Kakdwip, West Bengal. CIBA also demonstrated the use of cost-effective feed, PolyPlus and use of plankton booster, PlanktonPlus for brackishwater polyculture and shrimp culture, respectively, to get higher return. There is vast scope for sustainable development of brackishwater aquaculture in Sundarbans to meet the livelihood demand utilizing the unused and underused areas and adopting advanced technologies like integrated multitrophic aquaculture, integrated livestock-horti-aquaculture, multispecies culture with suitable species combination using cost-effective feed, culture of Asian seabass with formulated feed, etc. Challenges like availability of seed and species specific formulated feed, lack of proper communication facilities, disease outbreak, lack of cold chain facilities, frequent natural calamities, etc., faced by Sundarban’saqua farmers need to be tackled by appropriate management tools.
Aquaculture sector has developed rapidly since the last decade and its development have been unregulated, which has caused many ecological problems. In this regard, this study has been undertaken to identify potential zone for sustainable aquaculture development. Thiruvallur district coastal sub-watershed boundary has been taken as the study area which has been delineated using SRTM DEM, toposheet, and also using watershed data collected from the agriculture department, Tamil Nadu. Water sources available in the study area are Pulicat Lake, Buckingham Canal, Arani River, and Kosathalaiyar River. Pulicat and Buckingham Canal are the major sources for aquaculture in the Thiruvallur district since Kosathalaiyar and Arani River are ephemeral in nature. A pair wise comparison matrix has been used to assign weightage to each criterion based on its relative importance. Various thematic maps were integrated into multi-criteria factors such as water quality, soil characteristics, infrastructure factors, and land use type to identify potential aquaculture zone using remote sensing and GIS. To ensure sustainable aquaculture development constrain, parameters have been framed according to coastal aquaculture authority regulations for mangroves, settlement, drinking water source and ecologically sensitive areas. The existing aquaculture farm in the study area has been mapped using Sentinel 2, it is about 660.65 hectares and the potential extend of the area available for aquaculture development estimated using AHP method is about 630 hectares.
Goldspot mullet, Liza parsia attains maturity in captive condition but fails to achieve final oocytes maturation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the reproductive failure in captivity might be due to inhibitory role of dopamine (DA) on the release of gonadotropins (LH, Luteinizing hormone). The higher level of 17-β-estradiol (E2) seems to increase dopaminergic inhibitory tone, thereby inhibiting ovulatory surge in LH release. To validate the hypothesis, we evaluated dopamine level in different parts of the brain (forebrain, midbrain and hind brain) and the different sizes of L. parsia through the expression of dopamine receptor protein (D2R-45 kDa). From this study, it was found that D2R was expressed in all three parts of the brain (forebrain, midbrain and hind brain) and in different size groups fish, i.e., fry, fingerlings, sub-adult and adult. Further, to understand the E2 dependent regulation of dopamine in brain of L. parsia, adult mature females were equally distributed to four different treatments and E2 was injected to all fish @ 2 mg kg−1. After injection, fish were sampled at 12 h (0.5 day), 24 h (1 day), 48 h (2 days) and 7 days. Control fish (0 h) was injected with 0.9% physiological saline. Brain tissue proteins were separated in SDS-PAGE and then electro-blotted on to a nitrocellulose membrane. Expression of D2R (45 kDa) and E2R (67 kDa) was visualized by primary antibody (monoclonal anti DRD2, E2R-1:1000) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated secondary antibody (1:2000). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of D2R and Vtg (vitellogenin) was performed in brain and gonad tissue, respectively. Primary antibody of D2R and Vtg and secondary antibody (HRP conjugated) were used. Sex hormones such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), LH, and E2 were detected using Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. Results showed time dependent variations in FSH, LH and E2 levels. FSH and E2 gradually increased at zero/control to 2 days of sampling. IHC showed an intense expression of D2R (brain) and Vtg (ovary) at 48 h of sampling than in the other groups. Western blot analysis of E2R in ovary resulted maximum signal value (band intensity) at 0.5, 1, 2 days after administration of E2. Similar trend was observed for expression of D2R in the brain. Overall, results confirmed that the expression of D2R in brain is directly regulated by E2 in L. parsia.
Brackishwater aquaculture is a coastal farming activity, which aims at deriving maximum benefits from unproductive and marginally productive coastal lands and brackish water bodies, and it has contributed significantly to the progress of the country’s economy as well as the economic well-being of the rural poor. It is a fast-growing food industry, and the success mainly depends on the availability of good and adequate quality source water and water management during culture. Hence, the water management in coastal brackishwater aquaculture is paramount, which starts with the identification of good quality and adequate water resources, water monitoring during culture for maintenance of the optimum water quality, and discharge water management by reducing, reusing recycling, and remediation technologies. Coastal watershed-based integrated water resource management using the advancement in geospatial modeling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS) helps to identify the potential site, water source, and its salinity regime during different seasons and to minimize the impact of upstream activities on the coastal aquaculture as well as the impact of aquaculture on coastal ecosystem. Of late intensive coastal aquaculture is rapidly expanding with the introduction of Penaeus vannamei which uses large water volume and high protein content in feed which results in significant nutrient-rich effluents. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) seem to be a solution. Development and advancement of RAS, raceways, integrated multi tropic aquaculture (IMTA), zero water exchange systems, biofloc, seaweed bioremediation, algal bioreactor-based RAS, and aquaponics offer scope for higher productivity with better water management practices that maintain the serenity of coastal ecosystems. In the present article, all the above-mentioned water management technologies in brackish water aquaculture have been discussed for pristine coastal ecosystems.
Shrimp farming is a technology-driven and risk-intensive food production system. Shrimp farms are remotely located and farmers need customized farm advisories, which the conventional extension systems are not able to provide. To provide technology advisories to the stakeholders, an android mobile application, CIBA ShrimpApp, was developed in 2018, based on the information and format requirements of the shrimp farmers using Java language as front end and the data bases were created as back end through Structured Query Language (MySQL). The app contains eight modules, viz. better management practices of shrimp farming, quantification of inputs, on-farm disease diagnosis, on-farm risk assessment, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) in shrimp farming, regulations, advisories and updates and posting queries which were integrated as a mobile application. The app has more than 27,500 cumulative downloads and has a rating of 4.5 out of 5.0. The application was found to have improved the knowledge level of end users to the tune of 20–37%. The Google firebase application data showed that 98.4% of users of CIBA ShrimpApp were free from errors and crashes. An evaluation study conducted among sample regular users indicated that the app aided in farm decision-making and its design functionality and extension service function were perceived to be efficient. Considering the all-pervading mobile phone connectivity and affordability, smart phone-based mobile applications and data analytics can play a significant role in shrimp farm advisory services and its sustainability.
A feeding experiment (60 days) was conducted to evaluate the effect of Bacillus spp. fermented plant protein mix in Penaeus monodon. A control diet (CNT) contains 25% fishmeal, of which 50% was substituted (w/w) with Bacillus spp. fermented plant protein mix at two different concentrations of 0.25 and 0.50% (PP-0.25 and PP-0.50, respectively), while the diet prepared with untreated ingredients served as a negative control (PP-0). The daily growth coefficient (DGC) did not differ in the groups fed CNT, PP-0.25, and PP-0.50 diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was low in the CNT and PP-0.50 diets, while (protein efficiency ratio (PER) and apparent protein utilization (APU) were high in the PP-0.50-fed group. The dietary change did not affect survival and whole-body composition, while free amino acids varied among the treatments. Increased nitrogen intake and oxygen consumption were observed in subadults fed with CNT diet. Increasing Bacillus spp. concentrations significantly lowered ammonia-N excretion by 2.09-11.69%. Regression analysis revealed higher coefficients for oxygen consumption ( R 2 = 0.8625 ) and O : N ratio ( R 2 = 0.7791 ), while it was 0.5894 for ammonia-N excretion. The dietary change significantly influenced hemolymph indices and chitinase, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and arginase activity. Results conclude that Bacillus spp. fermented plant protein mix could be a viable fishmeal substitute in shrimp feed.
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110 members
Ambasankar Kondusamy
  • Nutrition, Genetics and Biotechnology Division (NGBD)
Raymond Angel
  • Nutrition, Genetics and Biotechnology Division (NGBD)
Kumararaja Periyamuthu
  • Aquatic Animal Health and Environment Division (AAHED)
Balasubramanian C. P.
  • Crustacean Culture Division (CCD)
75, Santhome High Road, R A Puram , 600028, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Head of institution
Vijayan KK