Carl Sandburg College
Recent publications
This study examines thoughts and feelings about conflict. A person may use imagined interactions (IIs) to work through a conflict situation. One factor that may affect the nature of IIs about conflict is the tendency among some individuals to take conflict personally. Taking conflict personally (TCP) is the feeling that conflict is a negative life event that is aimed at the self (Hample & Dallinger, 199513. Hample , D. , & Dallinger , J. M. ( 1995 ). A Lewinian perspective on taking conflict personally: Revision, refinement, and validation of the instrument . Communication Quarterly , 43 , 297 – 319 . [Taylor & Francis Online]View all references). This study examines the relationship between TCP and IIs about conflict. Results indicate that trait TCP is correlated with rumination, that a variety of significant relationships appear between trait TCP and II characteristics, and that trait TCP predicts state TCP immediately after a conflict-oriented II.
An experiment was conducted to test the theoretical distinctions between the types of perceptual processing employed by the right and left cerebral hemispheres, and the mental representations that emerge as a consequence of this processing. The study investigated hemispheric asymmetries in categorizing individuals into newly learned groups. As predicted by our recently developed model (Zárate, Sanders, & Garza, 2000), participants displayed unique categorization response profiles in each hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, the more similar the new test items were to the training items, the more accurately they were categorized. This type of graded priming is the hallmark of exemplar like processing. In contrast, the left hemisphere was equally adept at categorizing all the new test items. Group processing like this is consistent with prototype like processing. The findings provide evidence that the hemispheres apply distinct visual processing strategies to encode social information. Furthermore, these processing strategies support the construction of distinct exemplar or category mental representations. Implications for models of categorization, impression formation, and stereotyping, are discussed.
A recently developed model of social perception (Zárate, Sanders, & Garza, 2000) contends that categorization and identification are two distinct processes, each dominated by a different cerebral hemisphere. It is postulated that the right cerebral hemisphere more efficiently produces and retrieves person-based memories. In contrast, the left cerebral hemisphere more efficiently produces and retrieves group-based memories. The reported experiment focuses on responses to person-based versus group-based targets as a function of prior classical conditioning. Participants were presented with a target that was always associated with an obnoxious tone. Later, the target was presented with multiple other targets. Galvanic skin response measures were used to identify implicit reactions to the target person, new targets similar to the target person, and old filler targets. Results demonstrated person-based learning in the right hemisphere and group-based learning in the left hemisphere. These results provide further evidence for dual encoding mechanisms underlying social perception. The model is discussed in relation to models of social perception and stereotyping.
The Center for Manufacturing Excellence, which houses a business incubator and provides many creative ideas for workforce development programs, has made a significant impact on its community.
We determined the ability of blinded mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) to determine the distance from the trunk of a vertically oscillating sphere. Sphere distance from the trunk and oscillation amplitude was varied randomly. Fish were trained to respond to a one-cycle oscillation (50 Hz) by attempting to touch the sphere with the mouth in one movement from the fish's initial position. Each of the four fish was tested with both left and right trunk canals intact. Afterward, one canal was blocked with a nylon thread and the other left intact. Precision of distance determination was measured as the correlation coefficient of the distance from the sphere to the fish's trunk before stimulus onset and the response distance. Fish were significantly better at distance determination with intact canals than on the side with the canal blocked (P < 0.001).
Placement of an overtube is required for endoscopic variceal ligation. The spectrum of overtube-related esophageal mucosal injury is unknown. We made a prospective comparison of two types of overtubes and a determination of the frequency, severity, and risk factors for overtube-related injury. Two overtubes (60F, 20 cm, "new" overtube; and 60F, 25 cm, "old" overtube) were used and placed using the bougie-assisted technique. Mucosal integrity was documented before and after variceal ligation. Overtube contact time, bands number, setting (emergent versus elective), type of overtube, degree of coagulopathy, and development of symptoms after variceal ligation were recorded. Fifty sessions in 29 patients were analyzed; 24% of sessions were emergent. The old overtube was used in 24 sessions and the new in 26. Mucosal injury occurred in 72% of sessions. Mean overtube contact time was 11.58 +/- 0.97 minutes, the mean number of bands placed per session was 6.4 +/- 0.4, and the mean international normalized ratio was 1.47 +/- 0.06. No risk factors correlated with mucosal injury except for the old overtube, which was associated with tears (p = 0.02). Mucosal injury related to the overtube is frequent but clinically unimportant. Because mucosal tears occurred significantly more often with the old overtube, we suggest that its use should be avoided.
With the wide range of students community colleges must provide services for, there is an increasing need for colleges to analyze and segment their marketing efforts. As part of an effort to focus on specific market segments and take into account internal and external environments, an analysis was conducted at Illinois' Carl Sandburg College (CSC) of marketing efforts related to nontraditional students between 25 and 46 years of age who are returning to school to ultimately complete a Bachelor's degree or vocational certificate. Major environmental influences were examined, including economic trends, technological developments, social factors related to gender roles and student behavior, political and legal trends, and competition from four-year institutions. Internal conditions were also reviewed, indicating that CSC relies on previous usage to determine target enrollments; that the college was doing very well in terms of pricing; but that only an overall college promotional strategy is employed, rather than a specific market segment strategy. As a result, a new strategy was proposed that includes environmental scanning to determine CSC's image in the community; expanding bookstore, financial aid, business office, registration, and counseling services to better serve nontraditional students; and creating interest and desire in degree programs and certificates. (BCY)
First-line nurse managers in small rural hospitals are essential to organizational survival, yet little is known about such individuals. A pilot study comparing demographic characteristics and career success perceptions of first-line nurse managers from rural settings with doctorally prepared nurses found that despite age and educational differences, personal characteristics identified as contributing to career success were remarkably similar in both groups. First-line nurse managers generally credited family members with greater degrees of career influence than did their more educated colleagues. However, both groups saw themselves as primarily responsible for their own career success. This information may assist rural hospitals and nursing personnel to enhance their strategic position in the unstable environment of health care reform.
Many recent professional sources urge us to teach by integrating themes across the curriculum (February 1993 Arithmetic Teacher , entire issue; October 1991 Educational Leadership , entire issue; NCTM 1989).
A teacher from a very large public school shares her strategies for demonstrating care and individualization to the students who enroll in challenging chemistry courses. Keywords (Audience): High School / Introductory Chemistry
The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has promulgated guidelines on quality assurance in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Thorough documentation of endoscopy reports and a peer review process were strongly recommended. We evaluated 1408 dictated endoscopy and colonoscopy reports for deficiency in reference to the guidelines during three periods: 6 months before (group 1), 6 months after the application of the guidelines (group 2), and 5 months of intensive peer review process (group 3). Deficiency was defined as lack of documentation of at least 1 of the 10 parameters that should be included in endoscopy reports according to the guidelines. There was a significant decrease in deficiency rates in groups 2 (91.6%) and 3 (32.7%) compared with group 1 (99.8%) (p less than 0.01). Peer review and direct confrontation of the endoscopists with their deficiencies significantly reduced the use of inappropriate indication for endoscopy (1.5%/group 3 vs. 5.2%/group 1, p less than 0.01). Adherence to the A/S/G/E guidelines on quality assurance improved documentation, decreased inappropriate use of endoscopy, and may thus improve quality of care.
High school students were assigned to write to an “important” or “prominent” person in psychology in order to appreciate their contributions to the field. The psychologists were asked the following questions: (a) What is the most important idea or concept to be learned in psychology? (b) Would you send a picture for a bulletin board display? (c) Would you send any other salient information about yourself and your contributions to the field of psychology? The students wrote to 113 psychologists and received replies from 72 of them. Thirty two psychologists sent curricula vitae and 26 sent a total of 82 reprints of their published articles.
A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was placed in 20 malnourished patients to serve as a conduit for passage of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) catheter for delivery of alimentation directly into the small bowel. Serious complications occurred in 95% of the patients and 50% of the subjects died. Aspiration was the most common adverse event and accounted for all deaths. Ten of 15 subjects (67%) treated with a PEJ to prevent aspiration continued to aspirate after the catheter was placed. PEJ tube failures were documented in 14 subjects (70%) and occurred because of occlusion, leakage, malposition, extrusion, cracking, kinking, or rupture of the catheter. These problems rendered the PEJ nonfunctional 18% of the time. Large manpower and resource investments were required to manage the PEJ and its complications. Our results suggest that enteral feeding through a PEJ does not prevent aspiration. Serious PEJ-related morbidity (95%), mortality (50%), and catheter failures (70%) occur. Refinements in methodology and catheter design will be required before additional use of this technique can be recommended.
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44 members
Jonathan Doolin
  • Department of Math and Natural Science
Stewart Ferrell
  • Physics/Mathematics
Drew Debrey
  • Department of Social Sciences
Gary E. Miracle
  • Math and Science
Stephanie Burkhardt
  • Department of Psychology
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