Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
Recent publications
While people value a good sense of humor in their potential romantic partners, we know comparatively less about the function of humor in long-term relationships. Using the survey method, we measured the production, appreciation, and quality of humor along with humor styles and dyadic adjustment in long-term relationships among 149 heterosexual couples. Men produced more jokes than women, but the sexes responded to their partners' jokes at the same frequency. Men also rated their jokes as funnier than the jokes of their partners. Partners were matched in aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Laughing and humor quality ratings as well as humor styles had effects for men's and women's dyadic adjustment. We conclude that in long-term, romantic relationships, a sense of humor is part of the mechanisms involved in building relationships.
The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) is widely used to measure emotional experiences, but not much is known about its cross-cultural utility. The present study evaluated the measurement invariance of the SPANE across adult samples (N = 12,635; age range = 18-85 years; 58.2% female) from 13 countries (China, Colombia, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Spain, Turkey, and the United States). Configural and partial scalar invariance of the SPANE were supported. Three items capturing specific negative emotions (sad, afraid, and angry) were found to be culturally noninvariant. Our findings suggest that the SPANE's positive emotion terms and general negative emotion terms (e.g., negative and unpleasant) might be more suitable for cross-cultural studies on emotions and well-being, whereas caution is needed when comparing countries using the SPANE's specific negative emotion items.
Because conspiracy theories have many negative consequences, understanding the psychological factors underlying their endorsement is an important task for researchers. We examined whether people's time perspective (TP) – the tendency to focus on the certain aspects of the past, present, or future – is associated with conspiracy beliefs. In two studies we investigated general (Study 1; N = 263) and COVID-19 related (Study 2; N = 570) conspiracy theories. The most consistent finding was the positive correlation between two present TPs: hedonism and fatalism and the endorsement of conspiracy ideations. Moreover, we found that hostility and a tendency toward irrational thinking mediated these associations. Additionally, but only in Study 2, conspiracy beliefs were associated with higher levels of the Past Negative TP and less balanced TP. We conclude that conspiracy theories provide simple and immediate answers of important events and that is why they are attractive to present oriented people who look for immediate explanations of complex and difficult situations.
With this meta-analytic review, we aimed to estimate the relationship that sadistic personality has with the Dark Triad traits and, secondarily, describe the research on the Dark Tetrad traits. We searched for articles in the following databases, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, SCOPUS, and Web of Science, where we found 128 articles to qualitatively evaluate and 103 articles to quantitatively analyze. Sadism correlated with narcissism (r = 0.26), Machiavellianism (r = 0.43), and psychopathy (r = 0.58). The most common themes across the studies were: (a) structural aspects of the Dark Tetrad; (b) online behavior; (c) aggressiveness; (d) moral beliefs and behavior; (e) video games; (f) sexual behavior, and (g) emotional functioning. The Dark Tetrad traits correlated with several dysfunctional behaviors and socially maladaptive outcomes. Finally, sadism is potentially more similar to psychopathy and Machiavellianism, than narcissism.
Most research on the development of personality traits like the Dark Triad (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) focuses on local effects like parenting style or attachment, but people live in a larger society that may set the stage for any local effects. Here we paired nation-level data on the traits from 49 nations with several milieu indicators (e.g., life expectancy, homicide rates) from three timepoints (and change among them) where the average participant (≈ 22yo) would have been a child (≈ 6yo), a pre-teen (≈ 11yo), and a teenager (≈ 16yo). Congruent with previous research, variance in narcissism was far more sensitive to variance in milieu conditions in general and across all three time points than variance in Machiavellianism or psychopathy. The milieu conditions differentiated the traits somewhat with income and education revealing negative correlations with narcissism, positive correlations with Machiavellianism, and null correlations with psychopathy. Sex differences in Machiavellianism and narcissism were correlated with homicide rates across the three timepoints. The evidence that changes in milieu conditions in ones' past predicts the traits was erratic, but larger sex differences in the traits were associated with decreased life expectancies and homicide rates between childhood and pre-teens.
We study the question which Boolean algebras have the property that for every generating set there is an ultrafilter selecting maximal number of its elements. We call it the ultrafilter selection property. For cardinality ℵ1 the property is equivalent to the fact that the space of ultrafilters is not Corson compact. We also consider the pointwise topology on a Boolean algebra, proving a result on the Lindelöf number in the context of the ultrafilter selection property. Finally, we discuss poset Boolean algebras, interval algebras, and semilattices in the context of ultrafilter selection properties.
Quantum materials, such as topological insulators (TIs), are promising due to diverse applications of their robust surface/edge states in the bulk three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) regimes. Such conducting surface states in 3D systems host “electron baths,” which are known to facilitate catalysis. However, the analogous effects in 2D scenarios wherein conducting helical edge states leading to Fermionic accumulation have been scarcely addressed. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the conducting edge states in 2D TIs, such as LiMgAs, can be exploited to facilitate excellent catalytic response toward hydrogen evolution reactions. The Gibbs free energy in such cases was found to be as low as −0.02 eV, which is quite superior compared to other materials reported in the literature. The concept presented herein can be extended to other well-known 2D TIs and used to realize unconventional topological quantum catalysts for ultra-high performance and efficient catalytic applications.
This research aimed to explore the dimensionality of online and offline stalking forms and the associations between Dark Tetrad traits and perpetration of various stalking behaviors. Serbian adults (N = 232; 64.2% women) completed the Short Dark Triad, the Short Sadistic Impulse Scale, the Cyberstalking Scale, and a newly developed instrument—the Stalking Behavior Scale—which measures aggravated, intrusive, and surveillance forms of stalking. Cyberstalking was associated with all of the Dark Tetrad traits, but the other forms of stalking were corelated with different Dark Tetrad traits. For instance, aggravated stalking was associated with psychopathy and sadism whereas surveillance stalking was associated with Machiavellianism and narcissism. We suggest that psychopathy and sadism were related to direct, in-person, riskier, and severe stalking, while Machiavellianism and narcissism were related to indirect and covert stalking.
Air pollution is closely associated with the development of respiratory illness. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 pollution and the incidence of lung cancer in the squamous subtype in south-eastern Poland from the years 2004 to 2014. We collected data of 4237 patients with squamous cell lung cancer and the level of selected pollutants. To investigate the relationship between the level of concentrations of pollutants and the place of residence of patients with lung cancer in the squamous subtype, proprietary pollution maps were applied to the places of residence of patients. To analyze the data, the risk ratio was used as well as a number of statistical methods, i.e., the pollution model, inverse distance weighted interpolation, PCA, and ordered response model. Cancer in women and in men seems to depend in particular on the simultaneous inhalation of NO2 and PM10 (variable NO2PM10) and of NO2 and SO2 (variable NO2 SO2), respectively. Nitrogen dioxide exercises a synergistic leading effect, which once composed with the other elements it becomes more persistent in explaining higher odds in the appearance of cancers and could constitute the main cause of squamous cancer.
This paper presents the tasks and powers of the law enforcement authorities in Poland in the area of combating terrorism from a legal perspective. Despite the vast amount of literature on this subject, this topic is still interesting, in particular due to the lack of comprehensive yet concise works presenting the tasks of the abovementioned authorities from the perspective of four phases of antiterrorist activities. These phases consist of both actions of preventive nature, coordinated by the Head of the Internal Security Agency (ABW), and actions carried out to take control of terrorist incidents, ensure response and restore the resources necessary to take control of such incidents, coordinated by the Minister of the Interior and Administration. The problems referred to above are presented from the perspective of the Polish system of combating terrorism. This paper analyses both its institutional scope, by indicating the authorities forming part of the system, and its material scope, by characterising procedures of anti-terrorist actions according to which the competent authorities carry out their tasks. This paper attempts to analyse these issues comprehensively and briefly. Furthermore, the considerations are supported by an empirical study of experiences accumulated since the Act of 10 June 2016 on anti-terrorist activities came into force.
W artykule podjęto temat zadań i uprawnień organów ścigania karnego w zakresie zwalczania terroryzmu w Polsce i zaprezentowano go z perspektywy prawnej. Pomimo istnienia literatury poświęconej polskiemu prawodawstwu antyterrorystycznemu ta tematyka wciąż pozostaje ciekawa i niewyczerpana, głównie z uwagi na brak kompleksowych, a jednocześnie zwięzłych opracowań ujmujących zadania wskazanych organów z perspektywy czterech faz realizowania czynności antyterrorystycznych. Składają się na nie działania zapobiegające zdarzeniom o charakterze terrorystycznym – powierzone do koordynacji Szefowi Agencji Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego oraz działania w zakresie przygotowania do przejmowania kontroli nad zdarzeniami o charakterze terrorystycznym, reagowania w przypadku wystąpienia takich zdarzeń oraz odtwarzania zasobów przeznaczonych do reagowania na te zdarzenia – powierzone do koordynacji Ministrowi Spraw Wewnętrznych i Administracji. Opisu przedmiotowej problematyki dokonano z perspektywy systemu antyterrorystycznego, zarówno w ujęciu podmiotowym – przez wskazanie organów zaliczanych do tego systemu i ich zadań, jak i przedmiotowym – przez przedstawienie procedur działania antyterrorystycznego, w ramach których są realizowane uprawnienia tych organów. Niniejsze opracowanie jest próbą całościowego omówienia tej problematyki, z uwzględnieniem ponad sześciu lat doświadczeń związanych z funkcjonowaniem Ustawy z dnia 10 czerwca 2016 r. o działaniach antyterrorystycznych. This paper presents the tasks and powers of the law enforcement authorities in Poland in the area of combating terrorism from a legal perspective. Despite the vast amount of literature on this subject, this topic is still interesting, in particular due to the lack of comprehensive yet concise works presenting the tasks of the abovementioned authorities from the perspective of four phases of antiterrorist activities. These phases consist of both actions of preventive nature, coordinated by the Head of the Internal Security Agency (ABW), and actions carried out to take control of terrorist incidents, ensure response and restore the resources necessary to take control of such incidents, coordinated by the Minister of the Interior and Administration. The problems referred to above are presented from the perspective of the Polish system of combating terrorism. This paper analyses both its institutional scope, by indicating the authorities forming part of the system, and its material scope, by characterising procedures of anti-terrorist actions according to which the competent authorities carry out their tasks. This paper attempts to analyse these issues comprehensively and briefly. Furthermore, the considerations are supported by an empirical study of experiences accumulated since the Act of 10 June 2016 on anti-terrorist activities came into force.
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a life-threatening disease causing systemic thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) due to the fact of complement dysregulation. Immune activation by viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, can lead to the development of an episode of aHUS against a background of genetic dysregulation in the complement pathway. This paper presents an analysis of two cases of aHUS—siblings diagnosed with familial disease, with a genetic predisposition to aHUS, in whom infection with SARS-CoV-2 was a strong trigger of disease recurrence. The quick recognition and treatment with eculizumab in the early stage of the disease resulted in a rapid improvement in clinical conditions and laboratory parameters.
Background In 2011, a civil war started in Syria, which is on-going and has reached a death toll of over 400,000 people. Humanitarian organizations, including Aid to The Church in Need (ACN), have strived to provide help and medical support to the civilian victims. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of data gathered in ACN projects in Syria in 2019. The datasets included descriptions of diseases, treatments, costs, cities, and hospitals. For each patient, we assigned the following additional categories: type of help (treatment, diagnosis, or nonmedical), type of treatment (medical or surgical), medical specialty, gross anatomic region, and presence of trauma. Results A total of 3835 patients benefited from ACN support in Syria in 2019. The majority of financial support went towards treatment (78.4%), while other support went towards nonmedical help (15.7%) or providing a diagnosis (5.9%). Among treatments, 66.6% were medical and 33.4% surgical. The most common medical specialty was internal medicine (48.4%), followed by public health (13.7%) and surgery (7.3%). Anatomic region was undefined in 68.3% of cases and, when defined, was most commonly the abdominal cavity and pelvis (13%). The vast majority of cases 95.1%) were not associated with trauma. Procedural costs were highest in the Valley of Christians region, and lowest in Tartous. Network graphs were used to visualize the three most common diagnoses and treatments for each medical specialty. Conclusions The present report describes the treatment of war victims in Syria in 2019. The patients lacked the most basic medical or surgical healthcare. Charity organizations, like ACN, constitute a valuable source of information about the healthcare of war victims. Unfortunately, the methods of describing medical treatment provided to civilian victims remain underdeveloped. Future studies will require the cooperation of healthcare providers, humanists, and social workers. The present findings can help to optimize the provision of humanitarian help by charity organizations, by tailoring projects to the specific needs of Syrian war victims.
The provenance of siliceous grain material, the basic source of manufacturing faience items, is still a matter of discussion. The study methods applied so far have not brought satisfactory outcomes, and the results are ambiguous and problematic. Archaeological evidence has also not supplied adequate proof for establishing the sites where the source material was obtained and the methods of its preparation. Therefore, we propose an interdisciplinary approach to solve these research problems. We explore selected material of 7 faience bowls precisely dated on the c. 100 years of the Ptolemaic Period in Egypt. The body and glaze of the faience bowls was qualitatively and quantitatively tested with regard to chemical and mineral composition, and selected material parameters. Based on structural-textural analysis, as well as chemical and mineral composition, the source area of the studied raw material and its potential excavation site was determined in the Eastern Desert. The obtained results were compared with locations of mines exploiting gold-bearing quartz veins, functioning in the Ptolemaic Period. Material parameters obtained from image analysis have been applied to reconstruct the processes of crushing and grinding of the quartz material and its further treatment for faience manufacturing. Quartz treatment was analysed with regard to tools and handling processes applied in Ptolemaic mines. We assume that such an approach has given accurate results in determining the provenance of siliceous material used in the Ptolemaic workshops of Athribis. Therefore, in material studies of artefacts produced in the antiquity, it is indispensable to use an interdisciplinary and complex approach, beginning from field studies and ending with detailed laboratory analyses.
As per previous research, war causes exposure to trauma not only among its participants and refugees, but also broader groups that are influenced by mass media coverage of the war. In addition, according to other reports, dysfunctional anxiety and negative persistent thinking may be clear indicators of mental health in the face of crisis. The purpose of this study was to construct and initially evaluate the psychometric properties of the War Anxiety Scale (WAS) and the War Persistent Thinking Scale (WPTS). The study included 553 Poles between the ages of 18 and 81 (57% of whom were women), and 216 Ukrainian war refugees aged 18-61 (79% of whom were women) who came to Poland. Both scales showed a single-factor structure with strong internal consistency (α ∈ <0.83;0.93>). WAS and WPTS scores positively correlated with measures of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder, depressiveness, and nuclear concern, and negatively correlated with measures of mental resilience and nuclear support. The data obtained indicate that WAS and WPTS are effective and valid tools in clinical research and practice.
Introduction A distorted body image appears to be a significant factor predisposing an individual to developing anorexia nervosa and its maintaining. Anorexia nervosa presents with the highest mortality rate among all mental disorders. Objectives The aim of the research work was to assess the distorted body image in women diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, as well as to analyse the impact of the severity of the symptomatology of eating disorders, level of depression and anxiety on the distorted body image. Methods A total of 105 people participated in the study. The clinical group consisted of 36 women diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, while the group of healthy women consisted of 69 participants. Patients completed several psychological and clinical measures such as: EAT-26, BSQ-34, BIDQ, BDD-YBOCS, CDRS, CESDR, and STAI. Results Between group comparisons were performed using nonparametric the Mann-Whitney U test. Results revealed statistically significantly greater distorted body image perception in anorexia group. Women diagnosed with anorexia nervosa showed significantly higher levels both depression and anxiety compared to the healthy controls. Based on correlation analyses, it was shown that there are statistically significant relationships between the body image variable and eating disorders, depression, and anxiety (state and trait). Conclusions To deepen the problem of distorted body image, further research is required on etiopathogenesis and dynamics of body image in relation to body mass index and illness chronicity. Disclosure No significant relationships.
In mammals, neurogenesis occurs during both embryonic and postnatal development. In eutherians, most brain structures develop embryonically; conversely, in marsupials, a number of brain structures develop after birth. The exception is the generation of granule cells in the dentate gyrus, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum of eutherian species. The formation of these structures starts during embryogenesis and continues postnatally. In both eutherians and marsupials, neurogenesis continues in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation throughout life. The majority of proliferated cells from the SVZ migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas, in the dentate gyrus, cells reside within this structure after division and differentiation into neurons. A key aim of this review is to evaluate advances in understanding developmental neurogenesis that occurs postnatally in both marsupials and eutherians, with a particular emphasis on the generation of granule cells during the formation of the olfactory bulb, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum. We debate the significance of immature neurons in the piriform cortex of young mammals. We also synthesize the knowledge of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus of marsupials by considering whether adult-born neurons are essential for the functioning of a given area.
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1,177 members
Adam Świeżyński
  • Institute of Philosophy
Anna Myszka
  • Institute of Biological Sciences
Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
  • Institute of Psychology
Dominika Dzwonkowska
  • Institute of Ecology and Bioethics
Marek Wolf
  • Department of Physics
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