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    ABSTRACT: One risk management strategy that women at increased familial risk of ovarian cancer may use is screening. Until recently, this has been available as part of the UK Familial Ovarian Cancer Screening Study (UKFOCSS), using ultrasound scans of the ovaries and tumour marker blood tests. The present study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of women's experiences of participating in ovarian cancer screening. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 UKFOCSS participants. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and relevant sections analysed using a framework approach. Screening provided women with reassurance which they found beneficial. A sense of privilege, as well as feeling proactive in potentially detecting ovarian cancer at an early stage was described. The wider benefit to research and the potential impact this could have on others was also important to women. Negative experiences of screening included worry about the screening tests and results, false reassurance by test results and disappointment with ineffective screening. Aspects of the screening study, such as the logistics, organisation and communication, were described as both good and problematic. When weighed up by the women, most described an overall positive experience of screening. Women reported both positive and negative experiences of screening. Overall, screening seemed to be an acceptable risk management strategy to most women who participated in this interview study. Improvements could be made particularly in helping women to understand the limitations of familial ovarian cancer screening in order to avoid false reassurance. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Psycho-Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: The way in which different communities respond to similar threats to their health can vary, from outrage to indifference and public health agencies are often taken by surprise leading to potential loss of public confidence. The objective of this systematic literature review was to seek to better understand the community-level drivers that might explain the variability in response. A vigorous systematic cross-disciplinary literature review was undertaken searching thirteen bibliographic databases and a variety of grey sources were screened. The social amplification of risk framework and the risk perception management theoretical models were used to assess evidence and data were synthesised by Narrative review. Sixteen studies meeting the agreed inclusion criteria described eleven different threats ranging from: infectious disease outbreaks to environmental disasters to cancer clusters, affecting two or more communities were identified from medical, psychological, social science and environmental science literature. There was wide heterogeneity between the type and quality of the studies. There was a general absence of theoretical underpinning community responses. Most studies did not report sufficient data to allow an appropriate amount of validity. Very low response rates in particular were common. Potential explanatory drivers suggested included, prior experience and visibility of threat, sociodemographic characteristics, volume and type of media coverage, government reaction and availability of social support. This review confirmed that there are significant differences. Further work is needed to develop theoretical models that apply to the community level and do not assume that a community's response is simply the aggregate of individual level responses.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Science of The Total Environment
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    ABSTRACT: Nurses in primary care, who see a large proportion of the population, are well placed to discuss weight with patients and offer management advice. Interventions to promote weight loss have shown that there are effective ways of making small changes for patients. To use qualitative semi-structured interviews to explore how practice nurses manage obesity within primary care and to identify good practice and explore barriers to achieving effective management. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with practice nurses within two local health board areas in South Wales. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed qualitatively using a thematic approach. Nurses described two roles. One role was providing obesity management to patients who had co-morbid conditions and were seen regularly in chronic disease clinics. All nurses perceived that these patients needed their weight addressing routinely. The other role was to broach the subject with overweight but healthy patients. Nurses were of divided opinion whether to address obesity with these patients and what primary care had to offer. Weight management advice, when given, lacked consistency of approach. Broaching the subject of weight opportunistically with healthy but overweight patients may require a deeper appreciation of their motivations for change and discussion beyond future health risks. These patients also need clearer follow up to monitor their progress with weight loss. All overweight patients also need clearer guidance tailored to their own particular circumstances as to how to lose weight. For patients being counselled about their weight, interventions that promote consistency of advice are advocated to improve care.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Family Practice
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