Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare and chronic benign inflammatory disease of the breast. Difficulties exist in the management of GLM for many front-line surgeons and medical specialists who care for patients with inflammatory disorders of the breast. This consensus is summarized to establish evidence-based recommendations for the management of GLM. Literature was reviewed using PubMed from January 1, 1971 to July 31, 2020. Sixty-six international experienced multidisciplinary experts from 11 countries or regions were invited to review the evidence. Levels of evidence were determined using the American College of Physicians grading system, and recommendations were discussed until consensus. Experts discussed and concluded 30 recommendations on historical definitions, etiology and predisposing factors, diagnosis criteria, treatment, clinical stages, relapse and recurrence of GLM. GLM was recommended as a widely accepted definition. In addition, this consensus introduced a new clinical stages and management algorithm for GLM to provide individual treatment strategies. In conclusion, diagnosis of GLM depends on a combination of history, clinical manifestations, imaging examinations, laboratory examinations and pathology. The approach to treatment of GLM should be applied according to the different clinical stage of GLM. This evidence-based consensus would be valuable to assist front-line surgeons and medical specialists in the optimal management of GLM.
A better understanding of its crystal structure, the formation of possible secondary phases, defects and Cu–Zn disorder effects is needed to improve the photovoltaic device performance of CZTS films. In this direction, the effect of deposition temperature on the structural inhomogeneities, such as secondary phases and Cu–Zn disorder, etc. as well as opto-electrical properties of CZTS were experimentally examined. For this purpose, a non-stoichiometric spraying solution was prepared and ultrasonically sprayed onto glass substrates at different deposition temperatures (350 °C, 400 °C, 450 °C, and 500 °C) to obtain CZTS films. Afterward, the structural, morphological, elemental, optical, and electrical properties of the deposited films were investigated in detail. By Lorentzian deconvolution of Raman spectra, 14 Raman vibrational modes were detected and seven of these were assigned to the secondary phases. Also, the ordered-kesterite phase (337 cm⁻¹) of CZTS was found to crystallize along with the disordered-kesterite phase (329 cm⁻¹) due to the disorder of the cation (Cu–Zn) sublattice. Optical band gaps for CZTS films decreased from 1.89 eV to 1.42 eV with increasing in deposition temperature. It was seen that not only optical band gaps but also Cu–Zn disorder and the amount of secondary phases in CZTS films tightly depend on the deposition temperature.
Non-peripherally tetra-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy substituted Co(II) 3, Fe(II) 4, Mn(III) 5, and Ni(II) 6 phthalocyanines were prepared by refluxing the n-pentanol solution of their metal-free analogue H2Pc 2, (obtained by using 3-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)phthalonitrile), metal salts (Co(CH3COO)2.4 H2O, Fe(CH3COO)2, Mn(CH3COO)2.4 H2O or NiCl2) and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene(DBU) as the catalyst under N2 atmosphere for 2 h. The molecular structure of metallophthalocyanines 3–6 were explained by common methods which are elemental analysis, MALDI-TOF mass, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The complexes are well dissolved in various solvents (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and toluene. Electrochemical redox, electrocatalytic oxygen reducing and electrocolorimetric properties of the phthalocyanine complexes were also measured by voltammetric and in situ UV-Vis spectroelectrochemical techniques. The phthalocyanine complexes displayed highly reversible sequential one-electron redox processes occurring at metal and/or phthalocyanine ring. The association of these processes with net colour changes pointed out their functionality as electrochromic material. Furthermore, the phthalocyanine complexes 3-5 and especially Fe(II)Pc 4, showed striking electrocatalytic oxygen reducing activity, owing to the metal centres with redox activity, increasing their interplay with the O2 molecule.
This study tests the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by using the fishing grounds footprint (FGF) as the environmental degradation indicator in China from 1961 to 2017. The study also uses China’s total fisheries production as a control variable. Since the results of the analysis indicate a long-run relationship between the variables, we estimate the long- and short-run coefficients that present evidence for the validity of the EKC in the long-run. We find that total fisheries production has a detrimental effect on the environment. The findings of the study have important policy implications for decision-makers: Implementing a common fishing policy at the regional and global levels to stabilize the FGF and using new technologies that are harmless to the environment at every stage of fishery production processes may be beneficial for the environment.
This study was conducted to understand the role of application sequence of pyrite and zero-valent iron (Fe⁰) (simultaneous vs. sequential) on chromium (VI) removal by Fe⁰. In batch experiments, pyrite and Fe⁰ were homogeneously mixed in batch reactors maintained at a constant total solids loading of 2 g L⁻¹. In sequential batch experiments, however, the first reactor containing variable doses of pyrite was operated for 20 min, and the liquid fraction from the first reactor was then subsequently loaded into the second reactor containing a fixed Fe⁰ dose of 1.2 g L⁻¹. The batch reactors achieved much higher Cr(VI) removal efficiency than sequential batch reactors under similar operating conditions due to discrepancies in Fe redox cycling activities between these two systems. In batch reactors, the Fe⁰ particles deposited on pyrite surface due to electrostatic attraction between negatively charged pyrite and positively charged Fe⁰, thus, rendering the overall solids surface charge neutral at optimum pyrite and Fe⁰ doses. As a result, the whole system behaved like a composite material, with pyrite functioning as a support material for Fe⁰. This stimulated Fe redox cycling more effectively to generate new Fe(II) sites on Fe⁰ for enhanced Cr(VI) removal relative to Fe⁰ only system. In sequential batch reactors, however, the Fe redox cycling activity was limited, but significantly increased with increasing pyrite dose in the first reactor. Overall, our results indicate that the stimulatory effect of pyrite on Cr(VI) removal by Fe⁰ may be much higher if the reactors are operated in batch mode.
Objective The objective of this study was to investigate alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, suicidality, and personality traits in people with epilepsy (PWE) and to evaluate their effects on quality of life. Materials and methods Forty-six consecutive PWE and forty healthy control subjects (HC) were recruited for the study. Both PWE and HC were interviewed and completed the following questionnaires: Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20(TAS-20), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Suicidal Ideation Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Quality Of Life In Epilepsy-31. Results TAS-20 and difficulty identifying feelings which was the subgroup of TAS-20, scores of total and non-acceptance, goals, impulse, strategies, and clarity subgroups of DERS were statistically significantly higher in PWE (p = 0.01, 0.004, 0.01, 0.07, 0.009, 0.06, 0.01, respectively). Considering the personality characteristics, neuroticism was more common in PWE, while extraversion was less common. Suicidal ideation and anxiety scores were higher in PWE than HC (p = 0.02, p = 0.003). Anxiety, suicidal ideation, neuroticism, alexithymia and emotion dysregulation had a negative relationship on quality of life. (r = −0.54, p < 0.001; r = −0.54, p < 0.001; r = −0.62, p < 0.001; r = −0.32, p = 0.02; r = −0.52, p < 0.001). Conclusion Difficulty identifying feelings, dysregulation of emotions especially nonacceptance, goals, impulse, strategies, and clarity are common in PWE. Anxiety, suicidal ideation, neuroticism, alexithymia, and emotion dysregulation had a negative impact on quality of life. Each of these are important for psychosocial wellbeing of our patients and must be questioned considering their effects on quality of life.
As in the whole world, abandoned mining sites and their immediate surroundings stands as a major environmental problem in Turkey. This study aims to reveal the factors affecting the utilization opportunities of the wetlands and their immediate surroundings in the abandoned mining sites in Istanbul through a multidimensional approach. In the study, a 34-variable factor analysis was performed, and approximately 75% of the respondents’ opinions were explained with seven factors by taking 24 variables as a basis at the end of the reliability analysis. These factors are listed according to their significance level: (1) utilization for recreational purposes, (2) utilization for functional purposes, (3) management and operation, (4) utilization as water reserve areas, (5) utilization as disposal sites, (6) legal framework, principles, and procedures, and (7) contribution to employment and economy. Afterwards, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to investigate whether there was a statistically significant and important difference between the various socio-economic variables (gender, occupation, workplace and experience) of the groups identified within the scope of the questionnaire. According to these results, thanks to the interdisciplinary and multi-functional planning of these sites after mining activities and their correct and effective management, the local people will be ensured to benefit from these sites at the highest level and the ecological balance will be re-established. The previous economic and ecological value of the abandoned mining sites should at least be restored and/or developed further. There are various criteria and indicators for this. In order to carry out and follow up the works in these areas in a successful way without interruption, it is important that legal arrangements to be made include not only forest areas but also all areas that require nature restoration such as agriculture, industry, solid waste, mines and quarries. In this sense, it should be ensured that all relevant persons and institutions cooperate with each other. As a result, in terms of sustainable land use, this study revealed an approach regarding the correct and effective management of damaged areas remaining after mining and its importance.
The period from the Late Bronze Age (c. 1550–1190 BCE) to the Iron Age (c. 1190–330 BCE) in the eastern Mediterranean is characterized by upheavals in political and socio-economic structures, accompanied by changes in material culture such as pottery production. Plain Ware is one of the most common pottery types found in Plain Cilicia in southern Anatolia during the Late Bronze and the Iron Ages and displays typological and stylistic variations during these periods. In this work, we examined the Plain Ware from Sirkeli Höyük, one of the key settlements in Plain Cilicia, using petrographic, mineralogical (XRPD), microtextural (SEM-EDX), and chemical analysis (LA-ICP-MS). The main objective is to determine the source of raw materials and to investigate Plain Ware production including clay procurement, clay processing, and firing techniques. Our archaeometric results suggest that the vessels were produced from calcareous clay available in the Ceyhan Plain. We have observed continuity in the methods of Plain Ware production from the Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age with a minor change in the Iron Age.
This paper is about the interactional organization of shared laughter in a multi-party institutional setting. It explored how laughter was produced and shared in a series of panel meetings in a medical school. The audio data were taken from Competency Project, a NIHM-funded (National Institute of Mental Health) research designed to investigate how the judgments of professional competence in medical schools were constructed. In the panel meetings, a group of three panelists (physician-instructors) gathered together and came to an agreement for the medical students’ performances with the standard patients. While they negotiated their individual ratings, the panelists repeatedly laughed. Finding its interest in these repeated laughs, this study first displayed how laughter was produced and shared in a formal institutional setting. The second section in the paper gave a detailed account of the three cases where at least a panelist in the meetings did not join in the shared laughter sequences. The closer look at these cases suggested that when at least a panelist did not participate in the shared laughter, (1) the non-laughing panelists were mitigating the tension rooted in the disagreement on the negotiated rating, or (2) they were postponing their laugh to create a follow-up laughable, or (3) due to the conflict on the individual ratings, they were teased by the other panelists.
Current approaches to develop bone tissue engineering scaffolds have some limitations and shortcomings. They mainly suffer from combining mechanical stability and bioactivity on the same platform. Synthetic polymers are able to produce mechanically stable sturctures with fibrous morphology when they are electrospun, however, they cannot exhibit bioactivity, which is crucial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. One current strategy to bring bioactivity in synthetic materials is to combine extracellular matrix (ECM)-sourced materials with biologically inert synthetic materials. ECM-sourced materials without any modifications are mechanically unstable; therefore, reinforcing them with mechanically stable platforms is indispensable. In order to overcome this bifacial problem, we have demonstrated that poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) electrospun microfibrous membranes can be successfully modified with decellularized bone ECM to endow fibers with bioactive hydrogel and mimic natural micro-features of the native bone tissue. The developed structures have been shown to support osteogenesis, confirmed by histochemical staining and gene expression studies. Furthermore, ECM-coated PBAT fibers, when they were aligned, supplied an improved level of osteogenesis. The strategy demonstrated can be adapted to any other tissues, and the emerging microfibrous, mechanically stable, and bioactive materials can find implications in the specific fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Recently, usefulness of the noninteger principal quantum numbers for Bessel type orbitals was discussed by Weniger . In this study, we analyzed the applicability and numerical accuracy of basis sets of noninteger Bessel type orbitals to electronic structure calculations. Both numerical and analytical approaches are applied to two-electron atomic systems. The results of the numerical test demonstrated the potential of the noninteger values of principal quantum number for the improving of Bessel type functions approach in use of LCAO methods. Nevertheless, the analytical approach is still not suitable and in development and needs to be investigated further. The performance of the presented basis functions is also compared to the numerical Hartree–Fock results.
In this study, 4‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐1‐naphthalene sulfonic acid (Monomer) was converted to its enzyme‐catalyzed oxidative polymerization (Poly‐enz) in dioxane solvent by horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. For the analysis of the monomer and its synthesized Poly‐enz, 1H‐NMR, 13C‐NMR, FT‐IR, TGA, and SEM measurements were determined. In addition, the optical ion sensor properties of Poly‐enz against metals such as Ag+, Cd2+, Co2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ were examined with UV‐Vis spectrophotometer. It was observed that Cu metal showed sensory properties. DNA cleavage and DNA binding activities of monomer and Poly‐enz were done using by agarose gel electrophoresis and UV‐Vis methods, respectively. It was seen that the Poly‐enz interacted with DNA electrostatically. This enzymatic polymer was found to cleave pBR322 plasmid DNA both hydrolytically and oxidatively as well. The antioxidant activities of the compounds were examined by three different methods (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP) and it was found that the Poly‐enz showed high antioxidant activity compared to its monomer. Antimicrobial activities were studied against various bacterial and yeast cultures by the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) method. It was observed that the antimicrobial activities of the enzymatic polymer in different microorganisms increased depending on the concentration. 4‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐1‐naphthalenesulfonic acid (Monomer) was polymerized with horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) (Poly‐enz). Structural analysis of the obtained polymer was performed with devices such as 1H‐NMR, 13C‐NMR, FT‐IR, TGA, and SEM. For the application area of the polymer, DNA cleavage, DNA binding, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activities, optical ion sensor properties against various metals were examined.
Here, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-doped CDs) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method embedded within poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) ((PLGA)) films at different amounts. The N-doped CDs (or CD) that possess fluorescence properties also have antimicrobial properties against S. aureus and E. coli microorganisms, determined by the disc diffusion method with 19 ± 2 and 18 ± 1 mm zone diameters, respectively. The CD embedded PLGA films (CD@PLGA) with different CD contents revealed an increased fluorescence intensity with the increased amount of CD. Moreover, the antibacterial potency of 50% CD containing PLGA (50-CD@PLGA) films (by weight) against S. aureus and E. coli microorganisms was examined and the zone diameters were found to be 14 ± 1 and 13 ± 1 mm, respectively. In addition, CD release studies from different amounts of CD (2.5–50 by weight) containing composite films showed that 50-CD@PLGA film released 127 ± 16 mg/g CD dots, which is 38 ± 5% of the embedded CDs in about 12 days, suggesting their potential application in food packing and wound dressing. Moreover, all CD@PLGA films were found to be blood compatible via hemolysis and blood clotting index tests with <5% hemolysis and >90% blood clotting indices regardless of their CD content.
The aim of this study was to determine whether serum androgen levels have an effect on mindfulness and metacognition in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adolescents diagnosed with PCOS were asked to answer a questionnaire that included socio-demographic information and two scales: the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Metacognition Scale Child and Adolescent form (MCQ-C). The patients were divided into two groups, the hyperandrogenism group and the non-hyperandrogenism group, according to serum androgen levels. The scores of MAAS and MCQ-C were compared between the groups. The study sample consisted of 70 adolescents. Of these, 44 had hyperandrogenism according to a blood test. No statistically significant difference was found in MAAS scores between the hyperandrogenism and the non-hyperandrogenism groups (p = 0.79). However, the level of mindfulness was found to be lower in participants with a higher modified Ferriman-Gallwey score (mFGS) (r = 0.26, p = 0.02). Mindfulness levels were also lower for obese patients with PCOS compared to non-obese patients with PCOS (p = 0.02). Cognitive monitoring (MCQ-C-CM), one of the MCQ-C sub-scales, was significantly higher in the non-hyperandrogenism group (p = 0.03), and similarly, a positive correlation was detected between higher androgen levels and the positive meta-worry (MCQ-C-PM) sub-scale of the MCQ-C (for total testosterone; r = 0.348, p = 0.03, and for androstenedione; r = 0.35, p = 0.03). High serum androgen levels in PCOS had no effect on mindfulness, but as the modified Ferriman Gallwey score increased, mindfulness levels decreased. For the sub-scales of MCQ-C,MCQ-C-CM, and MCQ-C-PM, the scores increased as androgen levels increased. In line with the results of the present study, evaluating mindfulness in PCOS patients with increased hair growth and metacognition in PCOS patients with serum hyperandrogenism may contribute well-being in adulthood by reducing the psychological burden caused by the disease.
Global environmental problems are both the cause and outcome of human actions. Even though families contribute significantly to the problem, little is known about the reasons for household climate change behavior. Prior research has shown that household intentions and behavior play an essential role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The goal of this exploratory study was to see how climate change-related factors influenced climate change-related intentions and behaviors. In terms of climate change, Turkey is a vulnerable country in Mediterranean Europe. As a result, the goal of this study is to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to simulate Turkish households’ climate change-related behavior. Using a random sampling method, an online self-reported questionnaire of 400 Turkish households assessed the impact of practices to adapt and mitigate climate change. Within the context of the Theory of Planned Behavior, Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine household attitudes and behaviors about climate change. The findings imply that household intentions are important predictors of climate change-related behavior in Turkey. In addition, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control influence the goals of Turkish households. As a result, efforts should be undertaken to provide households with the subjective and perceptual abilities and tools they need to manage their climate-related activities.
Objectives: Iterative (eg, simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique [SART]) and analytical (eg, filtered back projection [FBP]) image reconstruction techniques have been suggested to provide adequate three-dimensional (3D) images of the breast for capturing microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). To decide on the reconstruction method in clinical DBT, it must first be tested in a simulation resembling the real clinical environment. The purpose of this study is to introduce a 3D realistic breast phantom for determining the reconstruction method in clinical applications. Methods: We designed a 3D realistic breast phantom with varying dimensions (64 ³ -512 ³ ) mimicking some structures of a real breast such as milk ducts, lobules, and ribs using TomoPhantom software. We generated microcalcifications, which mimic cancerous cells, with a separate MATLAB code and embedded them into the phantom for testing and benchmark studies in DBT. To validate the characterization of the phantom, we tested the distinguishability of microcalcifications by performing 3D image reconstruction methods (SART and FBP) using Laboratory of Computer Vision (LAVI) open-source reconstruction toolbox. Results: The creation times of the proposed realistic breast phantom were seconds of 2.5916, 8.4626, 57.6858, and 472.1734 for 64 ³ , 128 ³ , 256 ³ , and 512 ³ , respectively. We presented reconstructed images and quantitative results of the phantom for SART (1-2-4-8 iterations) and FBP, with 11 to 23 projections. We determined qualitatively and quantitatively that SART (2-4 iter.) yields better results than FBP. For example, for 23 projections, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values of SART (2 iter.) and FBP were 2.871 and 0.497, respectively. Conclusions: We created a computationally efficient realistic breast phantom that is eligible for reconstruction and includes anatomical structures and microcalcifications, successfully. By proposing this breast phantom, we provided the opportunity to test which reconstruction methods can be used in clinical applications vary according to various parameters such as the No. of iterations and projections in DBT.
To evaluate of hepatitis serology and reactivation frequency in patients with rheumatic disease receiving biologic agents. Our study included patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases from 23 centers, who were followed up with biological therapy. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, duration of drug use and hepatitis serology and the state of viral reactivation were analyzed. A total of 4060 patients, 2095 being males, were included in our study. Of the patients, 2463 had Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), 1154 had Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), 325 had Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA), and 118 had other inflammatory rheumatic diseases. When the viral serology of the patients was evaluated, 79 patients (2%) who were identified as HBs Ag positive, 486 (12%) patients who were HBs Ag negative and anti-HBc IgG positive and 20 patients (0.5%) who were anti-HCV positive. When evaluated on a disease-by-disease basis, the rate of HBsAg was found to be 2.5% in RA, 2% in AS and 0.9% in PsA. Viral reactivation was detected in 13 patients while receiving biologic agents. HBs Ag was positive in nine patients with reactivation and negative in four patients. Anti-HBc IgG, however, was positive. Six of these patients had AS, four had RA, and three had PsA. The development of hepatitis reactivation in 11.4% of HBs Ag positive patients and 0.82% of anti-HBc IgG positive patients due to the use of biologic agents is an important problem for this group of patients. Antiviral prophylaxis is recommended to be started especially in patients who are HBs Ag positive and who are using biologic agents due to viral reactivation. Therefore, it is important to carry out hepatitis screenings before biologic agent treatment and to carefully evaluate the vaccination and prophylaxis requirements.
Depending on the increase in the world population, the need for consumption and industrial resources is increasing day by day. In the wastewater caused by industrial production, a serious amount of heavy metals and water pollution caused by inorganic dyestuffs occur. In this study, graphene nanoplate/natural zeolite/sodium alginate bio-composite adsorbent was prepared and copper removal from wastewater by adsorption method was investigated. The characterization of the adsorbent was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. In addition to batch adsorption tests, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies, experimental optimization was carried out with experimental parameters determined by the surface response methodology. Four experimental parameters (adsorbent dosage, metal concentration, solution pH, and contact time) were evaluated in a versatile way to determine the efficiency of heavy metal adsorption. The highest copper removal was obtained as 92.9% and 91.4%, respectively, in the experimental and model study at the adsorbent dosage of 0.5 g, the solution pH of 4.5, and the copper concentration of 20 ppm. The parametric results was meet with the optimization results with an R 2 value of 0.9834. The three most commonly used adsorption isotherms at 25 °C were calculated. The high R 2 value was found to be 0.9834 for the Langmuir isotherm model. It was determined that the adsorption kinetics matched the pseudo-second-order kinetics.
Aim Past studies show that farmers are especially at risk for respiratory diseases due to occupational exposure and not using protective equipment. This study aimed to provide information about the effects of occupational pesticide exposures on the respiratory system of farmers working in Central Anatolia from a wider perspective to gain insight into the effects of pesticides and other occupational exposures on the respiratory system of farmers. Subject and methods A cross-sectional study was conduct with a representative sample size of 380 agricultural workers living in the Central Anatolia region. Data were collected with a face-to-face questionnaire and spirometry. The chi-square test was used for testing relationships between categorical variables. The Shapiro–Wilk test was conducted to investigate the distribution characteristics of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25–75 (p > 0 .050), and nonparametric Mann–Whitney U tests (MW) and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to examine differences in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25–75 between groups. Univariate analysis was performed before multiple logistic regression analyses to identify candidate variables for the final model. Results The median duration of pesticide use was 25.00 years. According to the FEV1 of agricultural workers, 23.16% had an FEV 1 ≤ 80% predicted. The odds for FEV1 ≤ 80% predicted was 2.44 times higher for smokers (95% CI 1.2–5.0), 1.74 times higher for those with respiratory symptoms in the past 3 months (95% CI 1.1–2.9) and 5.01 times higher for those farming 30 years and more (95% CI 1.8–14.1). Conclusion The results of the study found that pulmonary function values of agricultural workers were lower compared to reference values. Lower FEV1 was associated with the duration of farming and smoking.
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