The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
Objectives Research examining the age of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its influencing factors mostly originate from developed Western countries, providing little to no systematic information about the understanding and management of ASD in the rest of the world. The present exploratory study examined the influence of child and family characteristics on the age of ASD diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. Results The median age at diagnosis was 3.0 years and was associated with some child and family characteristics. A 1 year increase in child’s age was associated with a 0.1 year increase in age of diagnosis (95% CI 0.05, 0.12). Children who did not respond to their name were diagnosed 0.3 years earlier than other children (95% CI − 0.60, − 0.05), and engaging in challenging behavior was associated with a 0.5 year increase in age of diagnosis (95% CI 0.20, 0.81). A lack of comorbidity was associated with a 0.6 year increase in the age of diagnosis compared to the diagnosis age of children with comorbidity (95% CI 0.13, 1.01). Finally, those residing outside of Saudi Arabia were diagnosed with ASD 0.9 years earlier than those residing in Saudi Arabia (95% CI − 0.171, − 0.11).
Although social–emotional learning (SEL) and ethics education are important, it remains a challenging issue to effectively implement these practices. In this study, a Philosophical Ethics in Early Childhood approach is proposed for developing children's social–emotional competence and Theory of Mind. To evaluate the effectiveness of this expanded intervention, an experiment was conducted by assigning 73 children aged 3–5 to an experimental group ( N = 37) and a comparative group ( N = 36). Parents and teachers completed Head Start Competence Scales, the Theory of Mind Inventory and parent and teacher questionnaires. Teacher and Child Interviews were conducted. According to the teachers’ reports, the experimental group children demonstrated significantly increased social–emotional competence skills and increased understanding of their own and others’ emotions compared to the comparative group children. This program includes games, extension activities, and dialogue to support children in deeply thinking about social and emotional dilemmas, sharing their ideas, and creating solutions.
Many middle school students perform below grade-level standards in reading (National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, 2019), and recent observation studies demonstrate middle school teachers’ limited use of reading comprehension practices within content area instruction (e.g., science and social studies; as reported by Greenleaf (in: Hinchman (ed) Adolescent literacies: A handbook of practice-based research, Guilford Press, 2017)). In this experimental pilot study, we aimed to boost middle schoolers’ reading comprehension outcomes by providing schoolwide professional development (PD) on integrating reading comprehension practices within content instruction for English language arts, social studies, and science teachers. Six schools were matched into pairs and randomized to the schoolwide PD or a business-as-usual (BAU) condition. Content area teachers in schools assigned to the PD condition received distributed PD resources to support implementation, and coaching in one reading comprehension practice in the fall (i.e., get the gist) and one in the spring (i.e., asking and answering questions). Contrary to traditional PD, this PD was implemented across three content areas, was narrow in scope but long in duration (one practice per semester), focused on practices that could feasibly be integrated into content area instruction, and included ongoing coaching in content area teams. Students in schools assigned to the PD condition significantly outperformed those in the BaU condition on a measure of main idea generation (ES = 0.29) but not on measures of asking and answering questions (ES = 0.11) and general reading comprehension (ES = − 0.09). Findings suggest promise for implementing schoolwide approaches embedded within content area instruction to improve reading comprehension performance for middle school students.
The looming threat of climate change on the environment has called for sustainable consumption and business practices. This study aims to address the paradox of green consumption, i. e. customers’ intention-behavior gap, by examining the role of green certification. Via three sub-studies that involve primary data collected through experimental studies (n = 1060 customers) and secondary time series data obtained from a hotel analytics firm (n = 1238 hotels), it’s revealed that (1) customers’ visit intention is significantly influenced by hotels’ green certification status via their green perceptions (Study 1); (2) compared to their non-green counterparts, green-certified hotels do not exhibit better financial performance, highlighting an intention-behavior gap (Study 2); and (3) furnishing information such as hotel green certification and comparable pricing helps to bridge the intention-behavior gap (Study 3). This study makes profound theoretical contributions to the literature by filling several research gaps and providing considerable practical benefits to the hotel industry.
In December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 virus was first detected in Wuhan, China. Soon after, China became the first country in the world to enforce strict lockdown protocols in an effort to mitigate the spread of the disease. This study examines the perceptions of pandemic rules enforcement during the first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 among 600 Chinese police officers. The analyses reveal that police departments’ prompt and adequate adjustment to the pandemic, police officers’ procedural justice in interacting with citizens, and police perceptions of police trustworthiness among the citizens all had direct and indirect effects on public compliance to lockdown enforcement during the pandemic. These findings affirm the role of police procedural justice in public compliance to law enforcement in China and stress the importance of organizational adjustment and public trust during an emergency situation such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Implications to pandemic-related policymaking and enforcement are also discussed.
Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, Computer Science and STEM-related fields were among the most resistant to online courses. This is because of a perception of the need for more hands-on instruction with labs, clinicals, field studies, etc. Additionally, many STEM students had perceptions based on limited experience of an online STEM course. Therefore, investigating how the pandemic affected students’ perceptions over time is very important. This study investigates the evolution of student perceptions after one and a half years relative to synchronous courses, asynchronous courses, overall satisfaction with online courses, and lab and project-based courses. Our analysis is based on two surveys conducted in the Spring 2020 and Spring 2021 terms, i.e., the first and last semesters that the university converted to a fully online mode. We hypothesize why there were significant empirical shifts in some areas and not in others, and make recommendations based on the qualitative student responses relative to best, acceptable, and poor practices. Our main findings include: 1) Students’ perceptions of online classes have improved but are far from equivalent for a lot of the students. 2) Lab resources have improved a great deal, but lab experiences have only improved modestly. 3) Although students’ preference between synchronous and asynchronous online modalities were evenly divided, it did not significantly affect students’ perception of their learning experience. 4) Grading policies have left many students anxious and confused. Recommendations are provided at the end of the paper.
Plain English Summary Many acquirers consider target CEO characteristics when deciding whether to buy a venture. Analyzing a sample of acquisitions within the U.S. computer industry, we find that the extent to which target CEOs have excessive self-confidence reduces the likelihood of acquisition completion. This is because CEOs with excessive self-confidence can be direct and aggressive when negotiating with acquirers. This effect is stronger both when ventures have more technological resources and exhibit higher growth, and also when acquisition exits within an industry are more prevalent. Buyers are advised to be more flexible and prepared when interacting with highly confident entrepreneurs.
Background Language treatment for bilinguals with aphasia has been shown to result in gains in both the treated language and the untreated language (i.e., cross-language generalization). However, cross-language generalization is not consistently found. This inconsistency may be due to several factors, such as the age of acquisition of, and proficiency in, each language. One often-overlooked factor that may influence whether cross-language generalization occurs is the manner in which bilinguals learned their second language (L2): in a formal educational context (explicitly) or naturalistically through exposure to the language (implicitly). Prior research suggests that implicit L2 learning results in greater overlap in the representation of the first language (L1) and L2 in the brain, particularly for grammar, compared to explicit learning. In contrast, lexical processing in L1 and L2 is proposed to rely more on shared brain regions regardless of the manner of L2 acquisition. Greater overlap should provide a greater likelihood of cross-language generalization effects from treatment. Aims The goal of this study was to determine how the manner of acquisition of L2 may affect cross-language generalization following treatment in L2 separately targeting the lexicon (object naming) and grammar (sentence construction). Methods & Procedures Two Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia each completed two treatment phases in English of 2-4 weeks each, in succession, with one week between them: semantic feature analysis (SFA) targeting object naming, and Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) targeting verb retrieval and sentence construction. Pre- and post-treatment assessments and weekly probes were completed for each phase. Participant P1 learned English explicitly in an educational setting, while participant P2 learned English implicitly. Outcomes & Results As predicted, P2 showed cross-language generalization after verb/grammar treatment (VNeST) whereas P1 did not. However, contrary to the prediction that both participants should show cross-language generalization after noun treatment (SFA), only P1 showed cross-language generalization of object naming. Conclusions Cross-language generalization was observed for both participants but for different aspects of language. The findings suggest that naturalistic second language learning may lead to stronger links between languages in the grammatical system, whereas formal second language learning may lead to stronger links between languages in the lexical-semantic system. Future research should further explore the effects of manner of acquisition as a predictor of language co-activation and cross-language treatment generalization in bilinguals with aphasia.
Objective: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition often accompanied by sleep problems and depression that are each associated with reduced physical ability including postural control. Research supports a sequential association between pain intensity and depression in FM, and poor sleep quality may play a key role in this relationship. This study aimed to verify a serial pattern of associations among sleep quality, pain intensity, and depressive symptoms and quantify these effects on objective postural control. Design: Community-residing adults diagnosed with FM (n = 155; Mage = 61.08, SD = 7.70; 93% female; 79% White) were included in this cross-sectional study. Main outcomes: Participants self-rated sleep quality (restorative sleep, sleep waking, and sleep latency), pain intensity, and depressive symptoms, and the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale and 8-Foot Up and Go Test (8FUPGT) measured objective postural control. Results: Findings indicated that the serial association between pain intensity and depressive symptoms fully mediated the relationship between sleep quality and both FAB (95% CI [-.125, -.013]), and 8FUPGT (95% CI [.002, .033]) performance. Conclusion: Findings highlight the serial association of pain intensity and depressive symptoms with objective postural control performance and the potential for sleep and depression interventions that may maximize functional outcomes in FM.
This essay explores the racialization of space in Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps related to the participation of Chicano youth. Under the supervision of the US Army, three million young men were recruited to work in camps in the United States. Leadership positions were reserved for white lieutenants and reservists. Menial jobs such as cooking and cleaning were given to Black enrollees. Native Americans were segregated in camps run by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. As neither Black nor white, Chicanos were afforded certain benefits while at the same time suffered under the same discrimination that Black enrollees faced. Thus, Chicano racialization as nonwhite US citizens shaped spaces where they were permitted to work, sleep, and eat. Social spaces were the arenas and political terrains that enrollees entered into based on racial and ethnic labels.
Purpose: This study compared physiological and perceptual variables between short and long durations of rowing-based high intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Methods: Fourteen active adults (age = 26.4 ± 7.2 yr) performed incremental rowing exercise to fatigue to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and peak power output (PPO). The subsequent 20 min sessions required HIIE (eight 60 s efforts at 85%PPO with 90 s of active recovery at 20%PPO or 24 20 s efforts at 85%PPO with 30 s of active recovery at 20%PPO) or moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) at 40%PPO. During exercise, VO2, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective valence were measured. Results: Data show significantly (p < 0.001) higher peak VO2 (84 ± 7 vs. 76 ± 5%VO2peak, d = 0.99), peak HR (94 ± 4%HRpeak vs. 90 ± 4%HRpeak, d = 1.12), BLa (7.0 ± 2.5 mM vs. 4.1 ± 1.0 mM, d = 1.22), end-exercise RPE (12.8 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 1.7, d = 1.29), and lower affective valence (2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 2.9 ± 1.2, d = 0.61) with long versus short HIIE. Time spent above 85%HRpeak was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in short versus long HIIE (606 ± 259 vs. 448 ± 26 s, d = 0.91). Conclusion: Longer rowing-based intervals elicit greater cardiometabolic and perceptual strain versus shorter efforts, making the latter preferable to optimize perceptual responses to HIIE.
In Dobbs v Jackson Women’s Health Organization, the Roberts Court shattered the compromise between prochoice and antichoice worldviews that Casey articulated, both reaffirming Roe as a precedent and altering Roe to empower the antichoice side. I will explain the compromise, connect it to the strengthening of the antichoice side, raise the question of why the compromise wasn’t sufficient for the antichoice side, and sketch out how a First Amendment defense of abortion could lead to regaining a fundamental right to abortion and to strengthening religious pluralism.
The synthesis of bent-shaped mesogens and mesogenic dimers has renewed the field of liquid crystals in many ways during the previous decades, for example, through the discovery of ‘exotic’ mesophases such as the twist-bend nematic phase and the biaxial SmA phase (SmAb). Recently, we reported on the observation of a SmAb with a bent-shaped dimer, and on its fast electro-optic effect that we interpreted as a biaxial Fréedericksz transition (BFrTr) of the secondary m-director under applied electric field (C. Meyer et al., Phys. Rev. X, 11, 031012 (2021)). In this study, we used dielectric and birefringence techniques to directly measure the splay, K11m, and bend,K33m, elastic constants that characterise the elastic distortion modes of the m-director. We observed that during the BFrTr, domains of opposite tilt appear and are often enclosed in elliptical defect loops, just like those observed during the usual Fréedericksz transition of common nematics, which allowed us to obtain the third (twist) elastic constant K22m, from the defect loop ellipticity. Although K11m and K33m are of the same order of magnitude as K11 and K33 in the nematic phase of bent-shaped dimers, K22m is an order of magnitude smaller than K11m and K33m and also than K22 of 5CB. We argue that these features could be generic for the intercalated SmAb phase of bent-shaped dimers.
The present empirical study investigated the impacts of automation technology on employment at the firm level in Dongguan, China. Results of propensity score matching (PSM) and difference-in-difference (DID) modelling show that automation technology increases the total employment as well as employment associated with workers at all skill levels of firms, indicating that the productivity effect is stronger than the displacement effect in manufacturing firms. Furthermore, automation technology has led to the skill upgrading of employment composition, with the proportion of high-skilled labour increasing and low-skilled labour decreasing. Moreover, automation can increase labour turnover in some PSM scenarios but reduce local labour share. Automation technology also has a lasting effect on employment size and local labour share, while its impact on employment skill composition lasts only three years. In addition, automation technology substantially affects the employment composition of labour-intensive, foreign-invested firms and firms older than six years.
Selection together with variation in floral traits can act to mold floral form, often driven by a plant's predominant or most effective pollinators. To investigate the evolution of traits associated with pollination, we developed a phylogenetic framework for evaluating tempo and mode of pollination shifts across the genus Costus L., known for its evolutionary toggle between traits related to bee and bird pollination. Using a target enrichment approach, we obtained 957 loci for 171 accessions to expand the phylogenetic sampling of Neotropical Costus. In addition, we performed whole genome resequencing for a subset of 20 closely related species with contrasting pollination syndromes. For each of these 20 genomes, a high-quality assembled transcriptome was used as reference for consensus calling of candidate loci hypothesized to be associated with pollination-related traits of interest. To test for the role these candidate genes may play in evolutionary shifts in pollinators, signatures of selection were estimated as dN/dS across the identified candidate loci. We obtained a well-resolved phylogeny for Neotropical Costus despite conflict among gene trees that provide evidence of incomplete lineage sorting and/or reticulation. The overall topology and the network of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicate that multiple shifts in pollination strategy have occurred across Costus, while also suggesting the presence of previously undetected signatures of hybridization between distantly related taxa. Traits related to pollination syndromes are strongly correlated and have been gained and lost in concert several times throughout the evolution of the genus. The presence of Frontiers in Plant Science 01 frontiersin.org Valderrama et al. 10.3389/fpls.2022.874322 bract appendages is correlated with two traits associated with defenses against herbivory. Although labellum shape is strongly correlated with overall pollination syndrome, we found no significant impact of labellum shape on diversification rates. Evidence suggests an interplay of pollination success with other selective pressures shaping the evolution of the Costus inflorescence. Although most of the loci used for phylogenetic inference appear to be under purifying selection, many candidate genes associated with functional traits show evidence of being under positive selection. Together these results indicate an interplay of phylogenetic history with adaptive evolution leading to the diversification of pollination-associated traits in Neotropical Costus.
The nature of support for novice teachers, especially those coming from non-Anglophone countries, will impact upon teacher retention and student learning outcomes. Lack of support can generally lead to novice teachers leaving the field specifically because of their inability to perform their roles satisfactorily. There is a significant lacuna in the literature, however, about how novice teachers in adult education work in institutions where they face difficulties and seek to overcome these challenges. Therefore, this study aims to provide an account of the professional development a novice adult education teacher, Author1, based on a self-study conceptually framed by complexity theory. It is revealed that Author1 adapted to her systemic conditions by enacting practices such as obtaining opinions and insights from colleagues outside her institution and also developing new pedagogical strategies. To conclude, we suggest that there is need for institutional support for novice teachers to engage in meaningful professional development experiences in order to enhance their skills and better facilitate student learning.
The Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL) was launched on 1 November 2021 in China. This article provides a state-of-the-art review of PIPL through a policy analysis. This paper aims to compare the three main worldwide data privacy paradigms that exist at present: (i) the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the E.U., (ii) the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) in the U.S., and (iii) PIPL in China. The research question is twofold: (i) how will PIPL affect the data privacy of Chinese citizens and consequently, (ii) how will PIPL influence the global digital order, particularly paralleling the existing GDPR and CCPA? In the first section, this article introduces the topic of data privacy as a global concern, followed in the second section by an in-depth policy context analysis of PIPL and a literature review on privacy that elucidates in particular the impact of the Social Credit System (SCS). In the third section, a comparative benchmarking is carried out between the GDPR, CCPA, and PIPL. Methodologically, policy documents around PIPL will be analyzed. In the fourth section, the case study of Shenzhen will be examined by undertaking a multi-stakeholder analysis following the Penta Helix framework. The article concludes by responding to the research questions, acknowledging limitations, and presenting future research avenues.
The toxicity of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole and its formulated product Altacor® was determined for the Cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard. Acute toxicity (48 h) and 21 d population studies were conducted. The hypothesis of this study was that these two compounds would have different toxicities. We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies for each compound and compared the results to test this hypothesis. 48 h LC50s (95% CL) for chlorantraniliprole and Altacor® were 8.5 (6.6–11.5) and 6.0 (3.7-9.0) µg chlorantraniliprole/L water, respectively. Therefore, chlorantraniliprole and Altacor® were equitoxic to C. dubia at LC50 based on overlap of the 95% CL. In the population study, chlorantraniliprole and Altacor® concentrations equivalent to the acute LC5, 10, 25, and 50 for each product were evaluated on populations of C. dubia. Number of individuals after 21 d was the endpoint evaluated. T-tests conducted at each LC value indicated that there was no significant difference in population size between these two products at each LC value evaluated. Previous studies show that toxicity can vary greatly between formulated and technical grade pesticides. However, our results show that chlorantraniliprole and its formulated product, Altacor® were equally toxic to C. dubia. Therefore, making assumptions about the toxicity of formulated and unformulated products is ill advised.
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