California State University, San Marcos
  • San Marcos, CA, United States
Recent publications
Surf wetsuits are made of foamed chloroprene (neoprene), a synthetic rubber that is hard to recycle. Thermoplastic elastomer foam (TPE) may be a more sustainable replacement for neoprene in wetsuit design, but its impact on human thermoregulation and movement has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare skin temperature, oxygen consumption, heart rate, muscle activation, and arm kinematics while paddling in a thermoplastic elastomer vs. standard neoprene wetsuit. Thirty-three experienced surfers participated in one of two studies: a 60 min simulated surf session in a freshwater swim flume designed to evaluate skin temperature (n = 18), or a dry-land ergometer session designed to evaluate physiological and biomechanical aspects of surfboard paddling (n = 15). Skin temperatures under neoprene were significantly warmer than under thermoplastic elastomer at several anatomical locations including the upper chest (p < 0.01, ηpartial2 = 0.291), lower abdomen (p < 0.001, ηpartial2= 0.527), lower back (p < 0.005, ηpartial2 = 0.416), lower arm (p < 0.001, ηpartial2=0.537), upper leg (p < 0.001, ηpartial2= 0.717), and lower leg (p < 0.001, ηpartial2= 0.802). However, most participants did not perceive any temperature differences (50%) or felt that the thermoplastic elastomer was warmer (19%). There were no significant differences for any of the other physiological and biomechanical variables analyzed here (p > 0.05). These results suggest that thermoplastic elastomer foam is the less efficient insulator when compared to neoprene, but this difference may be imperceptible to the average surfer. Further, the thermoplastic elastomer wetsuit does not appear to add resistance to or alter upper extremity motion while paddling a dry land ergometer.
The original 18-item Job Engagement Scale (JES¹⁸) operationalizes a multidimensional hierarchical conceptualization by Kahn (1990) of the investment and expression of an individual’s preferred self in-role performance. Encompassing three dimensions (i.e., physical, cognitive, and emotional), job engagement is a known predictor of organizational performance and personal outcomes. Using a sample (N = 7185) of military and civilian personnel nested within 60 work units in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), we developed and cross-validated a 9-item short-form (the JES⁹) of the original JES¹⁸ in English and French. Results demonstrated that both linguistic versions of the JES⁹ and JES¹⁸ yielded comparable psychometric properties. The scales also displayed measurement invariance as a function of participants’ sex (male/female), employee type (civilian/regular force/primary reserve), and role (supervisor/employee). Finally, the associations between scores on the JES⁹ and the JES¹⁸ and a series of covariates (i.e., employees’ psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, burnout, and turnover intentions) were assessed. Collectively, results highlight the strong psychometric soundness of the English and French versions of the JES⁹ and the JES¹⁸ for organizational practitioners and academics.
Purpose: This study compared physiological and perceptual variables between short and long durations of rowing-based high intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Methods: Fourteen active adults (age = 26.4 ± 7.2 yr) performed incremental rowing exercise to fatigue to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and peak power output (PPO). The subsequent 20 min sessions required HIIE (eight 60 s efforts at 85%PPO with 90 s of active recovery at 20%PPO or 24 20 s efforts at 85%PPO with 30 s of active recovery at 20%PPO) or moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) at 40%PPO. During exercise, VO2, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective valence were measured. Results: Data show significantly (p < 0.001) higher peak VO2 (84 ± 7 vs. 76 ± 5%VO2peak, d = 0.99), peak HR (94 ± 4%HRpeak vs. 90 ± 4%HRpeak, d = 1.12), BLa (7.0 ± 2.5 mM vs. 4.1 ± 1.0 mM, d = 1.22), end-exercise RPE (12.8 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 1.7, d = 1.29), and lower affective valence (2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 2.9 ± 1.2, d = 0.61) with long versus short HIIE. Time spent above 85%HRpeak was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in short versus long HIIE (606 ± 259 vs. 448 ± 26 s, d = 0.91). Conclusion: Longer rowing-based intervals elicit greater cardiometabolic and perceptual strain versus shorter efforts, making the latter preferable to optimize perceptual responses to HIIE.
Adventure-based learning (ABL) is an innovative K-12 instructional model that continues to be used in physical education to promote intrapersonal and interpersonal relationship skills. ABL incorporates low initiatives/cooperative activities coupled with periods of reflection to help enhance the likelihood of transferring intrapersonal and interpersonal relationship skills to other areas of K-12 student life. Mindfulness is a way of consciously and nonjudgmentally being aware of the present moment. Mindfulness practices (MPs) hold tremendous potential as a pedagogical tool in helping physical educators generate greater attention, equanimity, and compassion for themselves and their students. To further explore the impact of MPs for students, this study focused on undergraduate perception with regard to comprehension, practice, and demonstration of the possible benefits of MPs in three separate 16-week ABL teacher education courses. Specifically, we wanted to explore how students in the teacher education course conceptualized mindfulness as a phenomenon and how MPs played a part of their lived experience. Three themes were discovered: conceptualizing mindfulness, student interest with mindfulness, and perceived outcomes from mindfulness practices. The findings provide a deeper understanding of the participants’ meaning making of mindfulness, their overall buy-in and openness in using MPs, and the perceived benefits in using these contemplative practices.
Urban landscaping conversions can alter decomposition processes and soil respiration, making it difficult to forecast regional CO2 emissions. Here we explore rates of initial mass loss and net nitrogen (N) mineralization in natural and four common urban land covers (waterwise, waterwise with mulch, shrub, and lawn) from sites across seven colleges in southern California. We found that rates of decomposition and net N mineralization were faster for high-N leaf substrates, and natural habitats exhibited slower rates of decomposition and mineralization than managed urban landcovers, especially lawns and areas with added mulch. These results were consistent across college campuses, suggesting that our findings are robust and can predict decomposition rates across southern California. While mechanisms driving differences in decomposition rates among habitats in the cool-wet spring were difficult to identify, elevated decomposition in urban habitats highlights that conversion of natural areas to urban landscapes enhances greenhouse gas emissions. While perceived as sustainable, elevated decomposition rates in areas with added mulch mean that while these transformations may reduce water inputs, they increase soil carbon (C) flux. Mimicking natural landscapes by reducing water and nutrient (mulch) inputs and planting drought-tolerant native vegetation with recalcitrant litter can slow decomposition and reduce regional C emissions.
Two studies examined the effectiveness of the Unconscious Bias Juror (UBJ) video and instructions at reducing racial bias in Black and White mock-jurors’ decisions, perceptions, and counterfactual endorsement in a murder (Study 1; N = 554) and battery (Study 2; N = 539) trial. Participants viewed the UBJ video or not, then read pretrial instructions (general or UBJ), a trial summary, and posttrial instructions (general or UBJ). In Study 1, juror race moderated the effect of defendant race on verdicts, culpability, and credibility. White, but not Black, jurors demonstrated greater leniency toward Black defendants for verdicts, culpability, and credibility. The UBJ video moderated the effect of defendant race on murder counterfactual endorsement. Only when the video was absent was jurors’ counterfactual endorsement higher for the White versus Black defendant, which mediated the effect of defendant race on White jurors’ verdicts. In Study 2, White jurors were more lenient regardless of defendant race. Instructions and juror race moderated the video’s effect on credibility ratings. The video only influenced Black jurors’ credibility ratings. In conclusion, the debiasing interventions were ineffective in reducing racial bias in jurors’ verdicts. However, they do impact aspects of juror attribution and may be effective with modification.
Background Faculty Learning Communities (FLCs) and Faculty Online Learning Communities (FOLCs) are ways to support STEM faculty implementing research-based curricula. In these communities, faculty facilitators take on the role of sharing expertise and promoting discussion. However, as members gain more experience, their needs change from addressing logistical to pedagogical issues. Hence, facilitators need to change their practices in response. However, there is little research on the mechanisms of faculty facilitator change. In this article, we provide a case study of a specific STEM FOLC facilitator and demonstrate the usefulness of a teacher change model to investigate facilitator change. Results Guided by our adaptation of the InterconnectedModelofProfessionalGrowth(IMPG), we conducted interviews with FOLC facilitators, and selected a case facilitator who reported changes in facilitation goals and strategies over time. The model helped us identify specific areas of change and potential mechanisms for these changes. Using themes of change identified in the case facilitator interview, we developed coding schemes to analyze his FOLC meetings over a 2-year period. We found empirical evidence from multiple data sources, including FOLC meetings and facilitator reflections, that supported the change themes, including: changing his role as an “expert” by sharing his own expertise less and drawing on others’ expertise more frequently, changing his response to members’ comments by jumping in to answer less frequently and withholding his own responses more often to encourage member sharing, and a change in group discussions towards less logistical and more pedagogical conversations. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the IMPG can be fruitfully adapted to study facilitator change. A diagrammatic representation of the IMPG provides a description the types of change the case facilitator experienced and the factors that supported those changes. We discuss how the methodology used to analyze facilitator actions in FOLC group meetings may be useful to study other types of professional growth. Finally, because our analytical model allowed us to identify mechanisms of facilitator change, we describe the implications and provide suggestions to support facilitators in other faculty community groups.
The Pantanal is the largest seasonal wetland in the world with a landscape that consists of a mosaic of permanent aquatic habitats, and floodable and non-floodable savannas, pastures and forests. Drought events are expected to occur more frequently in the Pantanal biome under future climate conditions, but the effects of land management and hydrological extremes on pastures have been poorly studied at spatial scales relevant to local livestock. In this study, we measured CO2C fluxes using eddy covariance over a hydrological year on pastures within a cattle farm in the Brazilian Pantanal that experienced seasonal flooding. Our measurements show that seasonally flooded pastures were large emitters of CO2C, contributing 337 g CO2C m⁻² year⁻¹ to the atmosphere. During flooding, when the soils were anaerobic, and soil O2 was close to zero, the flooded pasture was a net sink of -18 g CO2C m⁻², while during the aerobic phase (soil O2 > 15%) the pasture was a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere (301 g CO2C m⁻²). Transitions to and from anaerobic conditions corresponded to 54 g CO2C m⁻². Our results indicate that the seasonally flooded cattle pastures in the Brazilian Pantanal may be an important regional source of CO2C for the atmosphere. Better management, and use of drought resistant grasses, may be a way to improve soil C stocks and limit emissions, especially as global climate change is anticipated to increase heating and drying for the Pantanal biome.
Previous school-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interventions have focused on the quantity of physical activity (PA) achieved during physical education (PE) rather than students’ PE experiences, including enjoyment. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a fitness- and skill based HIIT intervention guided by the Self Determination Theory. Method: For this pretest-posttest randomized controlled 6-week pilot study, 4–5th grade students (15 boys, 30 girls; age = 10.5 ± 0.9 years) completed a 16–19-minute HIIT circuit (INT); whereas, 22 students (10 boys, 12 girls; age = 10.5 ± 0.9 years) engaged in regular PE (CON). Two-way mixed ANCOVA tests were performed to assess preliminary efficacy. Results: Participants reported favorable program satisfaction (mean 3.6 ± 1.5 out of 5). The physical educator reported a high feasibility survey score (31/35), and themes emerging from a program acceptability interview included positive perceptions of the HIIT program and strategies for future implementation. A large effect size was evident for cardiorespiratory fitness (ηp² = 0.26), as VO2peak increased in INT from 53.6 ± 6.1 to 56.9 ± 7.3 ml/kg/min and decreased in CON (53.9 ± 7.0 to 52.4 ± 10.4 ml/kg/min). Students in INT exhibited greater amounts of moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA during PE versus CON, based on accelerometer data (23.4 ± 5.0 vs. 15.7 ± 4.7 min/hr, ηp² = 0.45; 4.5 ± 2.6 vs. 2.3 ± 1.3 min/hr; ηp² = 0.27, respectively). Conclusions: Findings support the feasibility of this fitness- and skill-based HIIT program and may be a valuable addition to elementary school PE programs.
The formation and maintenance of satisfying romantic relationships, a developmental milestone for many emerging adults, has been challenged by the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, the impact of COVID-19 stress on relationship satisfaction has not been explored within the context of individual and relationship factors. Guided by a socio-ecological framework, this study used a longitudinal design to investigate the impact of individual-level (i.e., growth beliefs, destiny beliefs), couple-level (i.e., daily criticism), and societal-level (i.e., COVID-19 stress) factors on relationship satisfaction during Fall 2021. We also explored the moderating effects of destiny beliefs and growth beliefs. Results revealed relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with daily criticism, but not directly associated with destiny beliefs, growth beliefs, or COVID-19 stress. However, growth beliefs buffered against the negative impact of criticism on relationship satisfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that growth beliefs may play a protective role in relationship processes.
The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) is a widely used measure of emotion dysregulation. However, limited research has examined its factor structure and measurement invariance in cross-national samples. The present study tested competing measurement models and the measurement invariance of the DERS in university student samples from the United States ( n = 324) and Taiwan ( n = 399). Results indicated that the bifactor model with the Awareness subscale items removed demonstrated the best fit. The results of model-based indices provided evidence for the general emotion dysregulation factor of the DERS. Cross-national measurement invariance testing found partial strong invariance. These findings indicate that DERS would best be used as a measure of general emotion dysregulation among college students in the United States and Taiwan. These findings emphasize that future work is needed to examine cross-national differences in the construct and assessment of emotion dysregulation.
Social norms are one of many agents of influence on human behavior. They are widely recognized as an instigator of behavior change, yet their influence goes largely undetected. They have been implicated in antisocial behaviors, such as tax evasion, bystander apathy, and substance abuse. These agents of influence have also been shown to promote prosocial actions, such as environmental protection and healthy eating. They can influence the outcome of political elections, raise the bottom line of corporate profits, and reduce discrimination. The term social norms refers to an individual’s beliefs about the common and accepted behavior within a group. Research has consistently shown that communications highlighting the large number of people who engage in a desirable behavior can effectively promote change. This has been shown across a wide range of behaviors, but especially pro-environmental behavior and reducing excessive levels of alcohol consumption. Although the basic influence of social norms has been well established, contemporary research continues to uncover moderators of the effectiveness of this influence. These moderators include the magnetic middle, deviations from the norm, personal values, culture, norm activation, reference to changing frequency, and social identity.
Research suggests that individuals with Huntington’s disease (HD) perform better than individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) Yes/No Recognition trial. However, those with HD have been shown to have deficits comparable to those with AD on the Source Recognition Discriminability (RD) index (which assesses the ability to distinguish between List A targets and List B distractors), suggesting that HD may involve selective impairment in aspects of yes/no recognition that rely on source memory. However, whether individuals with HD and AD show comparable deficits on Source RD across stages of dementia severity has not been adequately investigated. We examined performance on the CVLT-3 List A vs. List B RD index in individuals with HD or AD and mild or moderate dementia. Among individuals with mild dementia, scores were higher in the HD versus AD group, whereas among individuals with moderate dementia, scores were comparable between the HD and AD groups; this corresponded to differential performance across dementia stages among individuals with HD, but not AD. The present findings suggest that, relative to AD, HD may be associated with disproportionate decline in aspects of yes/no recognition that rely on source memory.
Recent research indicates that empathy‐enhancing interventions are limited in their ability to produce meaningful and lasting reductions in bias and hostility toward outgroup members. Parochial empathy—defined as preferentially higher empathy felt for ingroup over outgroup members—has been shown to be a promoter of intergroup conflict and antipathy. Our review will discuss the shortfalls of enhancing empathy for its own sake in intergroup contexts. We leverage the longstanding theory and science of multidimensional perspectives and operationalizations of general empathy, which include cognitive, affective and motivational responses to others' suffering. Thereafter we will discuss the current state of the science on measuring parochial empathy. We close by suggesting a multidimensional perspective of parochial empathy can inform interventions to promote intergroup prosociality, particularly interventions that directly and/or indirectly motivate other‐oriented empathy and concern.
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3,177 members
Bianca R Mothé
  • Department of Biological Sciences
Carrick C Williams
  • Department of Psychology
Casey A Mueller
  • Department of Biological Sciences
Gerardo Dominguez
  • Department of Physics
Robert C. Yamashita
  • Department of Liberal Studies
333 South Twin Oaks Valley Road, 92096-0001, San Marcos, CA, United States