California State University, Sacramento
  • Sacramento, California, United States
Recent publications
Artificial intelligence (AI) is gaining increasing attention from business leaders today. As a primary AI tool, chatbots have seen increasing use by companies to support customer service. An understanding of how chatbots are used is essential for improving customer service. Based on the relevant literature, this study examined the impacts of chatbot-enabled agility (namely, internal and external chatbot agility) on customer service performance and explored the antecedents from the perspective of information technology use (both routine and innovative use). We collected data from 294 U.S. marketing employees from various industries, using a survey for the assessment of our research model. The results showed that both routine and innovative use of chatbots were positively related to internal and external agility. In particular, the innovative use of chatbots plays an important role in creating business agility. Moreover, internal and external agility are positively related to customer service performance. Through a close look at chatbots and their use, our study provides insight into the role of AI in creating business agility. Practically speaking, this study suggests that both the routine and the innovative use of chatbots should be encouraged to create agility and develop business sustainability.
In this paper we prove uniform convergence of approximations to p-harmonic functions by using natural p-mean operators on bounded domains of the Heisenberg group H which satisfy an intrinsic exterior corkscrew condition. These domains include Euclidean C1,1 domains.
Undermining is thought to improve wound outcomes; however, randomized controlled data regarding its efficacy are lacking in humans. The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to determine whether undermining low to moderate tension wounds improves scar cosmesis compared to wound closure without undermining. Fifty-four patients, 18 years or older, undergoing primary linear closure of a cutaneous defect with predicted postoperative closure length of ≥ 3 cm on any anatomic site were screened. Four patients were excluded, 50 patients were enrolled, and 48 patients were seen in follow-up. Wounds were divided in half and one side was randomized to receive either no undermining or 2 cm of undermining. The other side received the unselected intervention. Three months, patients and 2 masked observers evaluated each scar using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). A total of 50 patients [mean (SD) age, 67.6 (11.5) years; 31 (64.6%) male; 48 (100%) white] were enrolled in the study. The mean (SD) sum of the POSAS observer component scores was 12.0 (6.05) for the undermined side and 11.1 (4.68) for the non-undermined side (P = .60). No statistically significant difference was found in the mean (SD) sum of the patient component for the POSAS score between the undermined side [15.9 (9.07)] and the non-undermined side [13.33 (6.20)] at 3 months. For wounds under low to moderate perceived tension, no statistically significant differences in scar outcome or total complications were noted between undermined wound halves and non-undermined halves. Trail Registry: Clinical Identifier NCT02289859.
This study examined employees’ self-serving and genuine attributions of CEO activism as mediators, focusing on how they explain the process through which CEO’s transparent leadership communication impacts employees’ company advocacy and issue advocacy behaviors. With a survey of U.S. full-time employees, results showed that genuine attribution mediated the influence of transparent leadership communication on both advocacy variables. However, self-serving attribution was not identified as a significant mediator. Furthermore, though transparent leadership communication was not significantly associated with self-serving attribution, the latter was positively related to both issue advocacy intention and company advocacy intention. Highlighting the mediating roles of employee attributions, the findings of this study provide an advanced understanding of employee advocacy behaviors as impacted by transparent leadership communication in CEO activism.
Purpose of review: To explore the impact of private equity ownership of ophthalmology practices on the success of their clinical research programs. Recent findings: Private equity partnership in the clinical research space has been steadily occurring over the past decades. In addition to contract research organizations, private equity groups have also consolidated multiple independent clinical research networks. By investing in an increasing number of retina practices, one private equity group is attempting to create a synergistic relationship between clinical practice and clinical research with the goal of supporting a larger, more robust clinical research network. Summary: Although there are physician concerns about the potential deleterious effects of private equity ownership on clinical research capabilities, private equity support has the potential to be an important stimulus for clinical research growth. Video abstract:
Parent-Child Care (PC-CARE) is a brief intervention for children with externalizing behaviors designed to address issues with their access to and retention in treatment. A growing evidence base of open trials and comparison studies support PC-CARE’s benefits, but no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of its effectiveness exist. The current study presents the first RCT of PC-CARE, a 7-session dyadic parenting intervention (trial number removed for blind review). Participants included a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 49 children (29% female) aged 2–10 years and their caregivers. Participants were randomly assigned to PC-CARE or waitlist control. Families participating in PC-CARE showed greater reductions in children’s externalizing behaviors, improvements in children’s adaptive skills, declines in parental stress, and increases in parents’ positive communication skills, compared to families on the waitlist. The results of this first RCT of PC-CARE support the effectiveness of this brief intervention in improving children’s behaviors.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading aims to measure reading comprehension for students in the United States and to monitor progress in our education system. NAEP Reading is developed based on an assessment framework document that is periodically revised to reflect the latest understandings about reading comprehension and its assessment. A key goal of the Visioning Panel (VP) and the Development Panel (DP) charged with updating the NAEP Reading assessment framework for 2026 was to lay the foundation for an assessment that made progress toward greater fairness, equity, and validity. In this essay, we discuss how the framework development process unfolded and its results. We document the unusual ways the National Assessment Governing Board (“the Board”) shaped the development process. We provide evidence that a small group of dissenting Board members aimed to preserve the status quo in reading assessment by downplaying reliance on expertise and authoritative sources of research on reading, learning, and assessment and by removing attention to equity in NAEP Reading. We also discuss both successful (i.e., approved by the Board) and unsuccessful (i.e., rejected by the Board) recommendations for changes to the 2026 Framework that initially were proposed by the DP. We end by considering how, despite the efforts of the small group of dissenting Board members, we as a literacy field can improve the nature and impact of our large-scale reading assessments, and NAEP in particular.
Rationale: Criteria for progressive pulmonary fibrosis (PPF) have been proposed, but their prognostic value beyond categorical decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) remains unclear. Objective: To determine whether proposed PPF criteria predict transplant-free survival (TFS) in patients with non-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: A retrospective, multi-center cohort analysis was performed. Patients diagnosed with fibrotic connective tissue disease associated ILD, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and non-IPF idiopathic interstitial pneumonia from three US centers and one UK center comprised test and validation cohorts, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test the association between five-year TFS and 10% FVC decline, followed by thirteen additional PPF criteria satisfied in the absence of >=10% FVC decline. Main results: One thousand three hundred forty-one patients met inclusion criteria. A >=10% relative FVC decline was the strongest predictor of reduced TFS and showed consistent TFS association across cohorts, ILD subtypes and treatment groups, resulting in a phenotype that closely resembled IPF. Ten additional PPF criteria satisfied in the absence of >=10% relative FVC decline were also associated with reduced TFS in the US test cohort, with six maintaining TFS association in the UK validation cohort. Validated PPF criteria requiring a combination of physiologic, radiologic, and symptomatic worsening performed similarly to their stand-alone components but captured a smaller number of patients. Conclusions: An FVC decline of >=10% and six additional PPF criteria satisfied in the absence of such decline identify non-IPF ILD patients at increased risk of death or lung transplant.
Analyzing the demise of religions is rendered considerably more difficult when lack of sufficient evidence causes gaps in historical understanding of the progressions of religions from being clearly alive to apparently no longer existing – an acute problem with regard to most Greek and Roman religions. Drawing on the Ghost Dance religion as a parallel case and presenting by way of example considerations regarding emperor Julian’s attempt to rebuild the Jerusalem temple, this article explores the common challenges of dearth of evidence, the need to argue from silence, and a ‘religion’ as category prone to (at least) the complication of transmutation.
Introduction: Septic and vasoplegic shock are common types of vasodilatory shock (VS) with high mortality. After fluid resuscitation and the use of catecholamine-mediated vasopressors (CMV), vasopressin, angiotensin II, methylene blue (MB) and hydroxocobalamin can be added to maintain blood pressure. Areas covered: VS treatment utilizes a phased approach with secondary vasopressors added to vasopressor agents to maintain an acceptable mean arterial pressure (MAP). This review covers additional vasopressors and adjunctive therapies used when fluid and catecholamine-mediated vasopressors fail to maintain target MAP. Expert opinion: Evidence supporting additional vasopressor agents in catecholamine resistant VS is limited to case reports, series, and a few randomized control trials (RCTs) to guide recommendations. Vasopressin is the most common agent added next when MAPs are not adequately supported with CMV. VS patients failing fluids and vasopressors with cardiomyopathy may have cardiotonic agents such as dobutamine or milrinone added before or after vasopressin. Angiotensin II, another class of vasopressor is used in VS to maintain adequate MAP. MB and/or hydoxocobalamin, vitamin C, thiamine and corticosteroids are adjunctive therapies used in refractory VS. More RCTs are needed to confirm the utility of these drugs, at what doses, which combinations and in what order they should be given.
Purpose of review: Many aspects of developmental hip dysplasia (DDH) care and evaluation are still active areas of debate. Recent studies have provided more insight into these topics such as strategies for reducing osteonecrosis, assessing hip reduction after closed and open reduction, and the management of residual acetabular dysplasia. Recent findings: The presence of the ossific nucleus at the time of reduction does not alter the risk of osteonecrosis. The risk of osteonecrosis may be higher when hips are immobilized in excessive abduction. Limited sequence MRI may be the best choice for assessing hip reduction after closed and open reduction; however, new technologies are emerging such as 3D fluoroscopy and perfusion MRI. The treatment of residual acetabular dysplasia with bracing has been shown to be effective and the decision to perform a pelvic osteotomy is based on patient-specific factors. The spectrum of DDH treatment has evolved over the past several decades. Recent studies have provided insights into strategies for osteonecrosis prevention, hip evaluation during after reduction, and the management of residual acetabular dysplasia. However, there is ample room for additional and more rigorous studies guiding advanced imaging for assessing hip reduction such as 3D fluoroscopy and perfusion MRI, as well as the management of residual acetabular dysplasia.
The cerebral venous system is complex and sophisticated and serves various major functions toward maintaining brain homeostasis. Cerebral veins contain about 70% of cerebral blood volume, have thin walls, are valveless, and cross seamlessly white matter, ependymal, cisternal, arachnoid, and dural boundaries to eventually drain cerebral blood either into dural sinuses or deep cerebral veins. Although numerous variations in the cerebral venous anatomic arrangement may be encountered, the overall configuration is relatively predictable and landmarks relatively well defined. A reasonable understanding of cerebral vascular embryology is helpful to appreciate normal anatomy and variations that have clinical relevance. Increasing interest in transvascular therapy, particularly transvenous endovascular intervention provides justification for practitioners in the neurosciences to acquire at least a basic understanding of the cerebral venous system.
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5,552 members
Preetham Kumar
  • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mahyar Zarghami
  • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Jamie Kneitel
  • Department of Biological Sciences
Charles Gossett
  • Departments of Government and of Public Policy & Administration
Caio F. Miguel
  • Department of Psychology
6000 J Street, 95819, Sacramento, California, United States
Head of institution
Robert S. Nelsen
(916) 278 - 6011