Purpose In 2023, the New England Journal of Entrepreneurship ( NEJE ) reached its 25th anniversary. To commemorate this major milestone as well as entrepreneurship’s growth as an academic field, the study employs bibliometric methods to provide key trends and research suggestions for entrepreneurship scholars using all original research published in the journal. Design/methodology/approach The authors perform two predominant bibliometric techniques, performance analysis and science mapping, using all 251 articles published by NEJE from 1998 to 2022. Findings The authors find that the impact of entrepreneurship research published at NEJE is growing consistently and that the challenge of the future will be to maintain this growth in tandem with greater publication productivity. The authors also find that although most contributions come from authors affiliated with institutions in the USA, there is a global representation from authors who have published in NEJE . Further, the authors found that the major entrepreneurship research themes of articles published in NEJE revolve around general entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial behavior, gender, technology, entrepreneurship education, innovation and value creation and sustainability. Research limitations/implications The analysis is restricted to articles published in NEJE and therefore may not be representative of the entrepreneurship field. However, it can serve as a useful resource, particularly for prospective NEJE authors, to gain empirical insights about entrepreneurship research trends and rising topics of interest. Originality/value The authors’ work represents the first effort to synthesize research published in NEJE through bibliometric techniques and offers insights about important trends and themes in this rising outlet of the entrepreneurship field.
In recent years, campus activists who have disrupted talks or otherwise tried to silence those they deem offensive have often appealed to psychology for support. First, they use the language of safety, embracing safetyism, which seeks to eliminate harm without consideration for tradeoffs demanded by other practical or moral concerns. Second, they appeal to a particular kind of social justice in which virtually all interactions can be understood in terms of group oppression and victimhood. Third, they employ new concepts of mental illness and identity. These ideas, loosely drawn from certain strains of psychology and other behavioral and social sciences, provide a framework for censoring speech said to make members of victim groups “unsafe,” but they are generally not grounded in evidence. Psychological findings can, instead, be used to support a strong case for freedom of speech.
Despite the growing importance of teaching about diversity and its connection to intersectionality, privilege, and oppression in social work education, few studies have examined whether teaching interventions could enhance students' knowledge of oppression. Thus, this study assessed the extent to which students assimilated content related to intersectionality, privilege, and oppression after an enhanced teaching intervention. Using a one-group pretest/posttest research design, this study measured the effect of an enhanced lecture and modified assignments on knowledge of intersectionality, privilege, and oppression among 30 MSW students enrolled in a generalist social work practice course at a public university in the Southwestern United States. Using the Diversity and Oppression Scale (DOS) and open-ended questions, non-parametric test results revealed a moderate-to-strong effect of the intervention indicating increased knowledge of diversity and oppression (Z = 3.30, p < .001, r = .43). Additionally, results from open-ended questions corroborated quantitative findings, as several students indicated that TED talks and interactive exercises were helpful learning modalities. Despite the limited sample size, findings from this study suggest that combined teaching interventions including pre-lecture activities, interactive lectures, and modified assignments may improve knowledge of diversity and oppression though additional research is needed to replicate these findings.
Objective: Palliative care often plays a pivotal role in supporting informal caregivers of persons living with dementia who experience a lack of continuity in care. Dementia caregiver activation, the caregiver’s willingness and ability to navigate care needs, requires communication skills for developing relationships with healthcare providers. Communication activation is important because caregivers facilitate physician and patient information exchange. This study aimed to explore changes in communication outcomes (attitude, knowledge, and skills) and impact on caregiver communication activation (confidence, self-report) following completion of a brief communication module. Methods: A 15-minute asynchronous online module was developed to provide caregivers with communication skills for working with doctors and nurses. Caregivers completed pre/post module measures of communication outcomes, a vignette for applying communication strategies and were interviewed within a week of module completion to assess self-reported communication activation. Module acceptability was also evaluated. Results: Communication knowledge ( P < .01) significantly increased and nearly all participants (99%) demonstrated use of module-specific communication skills after completing the module. While not statistically significant, caregiver attitudes were in the expected direction. Caregiver self-reported communication confidence ( P < .001) significantly increased and 84% of caregivers described communication activation at post-module. Caregivers (83%) were likely to recommend the module. Conclusions: The brief communication module for dementia caregivers in this project offers an online resource with low time-burden that results in caregiver communication activation. Future testing in the clinical setting will increase understanding of its efficacy and integration and could be a viable resource for palliative care providers.
Animal cytoplasmic fatty acid synthase (FAS) represents a unique family of enzymes that are classically thought to be most closely related to fungal polyketide synthase (PKS). Recently, a widespread family of animal lipid metabolic enzymes has been described that bridges the gap between these two ubiquitous and important enzyme classes: the animal FAS–like PKSs (AFPKs). Although very similar in sequence to FAS enzymes that produce saturated lipids widely found in animals, AFPKs instead produce structurally diverse compounds that resemble bioactive polyketides. Little is known about the factors that bridge lipid and polyketide synthesis in the animals. Here, we describe the function of EcPKS2 from Elysia chlorotica , which synthesizes a complex polypropionate natural product found in this mollusc. EcPKS2 starter unit promiscuity potentially explains the high diversity of polyketides found in and among molluscan species. Biochemical comparison of EcPKS2 with the previously described EcPKS1 reveals molecular principles governing substrate selectivity that should apply to related enzymes encoded within the genomes of photosynthetic gastropods. Hybridization experiments combining EcPKS1 and EcPKS2 demonstrate the interactions between the ketoreductase and ketosynthase domains in governing the product outcomes. Overall, these findings enable an understanding of the molecular principles of structural diversity underlying the many molluscan polyketides likely produced by the diverse AFPK enzyme family.
Drought is associated with adverse environmental and societal impacts across various regions. Therefore, drought monitoring based on a single variable may lead to unreliable information, especially about the onset and persistence of drought. Previous studies show vapor pressure deficit (VPD) data can detect drought onset earlier than other drought indicators such as precipitation. On the other hand, Soil Moisture is a robust indicator for assessing drought persistence. This study introduces a nonparametric multivariate drought index Vapor Pressure Deficit Soil moisture standardized Drought Index (VPDSDI) which is developed by combining vapor pressure deficit (VPD) with soil moisture information. The performance of the multivariate index in terms of drought onset detection is compared with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for six major drought events across the United States including three flash drought events and three conventional drought events. Additionally, the performance of the proposed index in detecting drought persistence is compared with the Standardized Soil moisture Index (SSI), which is an agricultural drought index. Results indicate the multivariate index detects drought onset always earlier than SPI for conventional events, but VPDSDI detects drought onset earlier than or about the same time as SPI for flash droughts. In terms of persistence, VPDSDI detects persistence almost identical to SSI for both flash and conventional drought events. The results also show that combining VPD with soil moisture reduces the high variability of VPD and produces a smoother index which improves the onset and persistence detection of drought events leveraging VPD and soil moisture information.
This paper aimed to (1) develop a hierarchy for understanding the impacts of active and non-active transport modes on the environment and (2) analyse the adoption of active transportation between older and younger people. A narrative review with two parts was adopted to develop the hier-archy. In the first part, a framework was adopted to map active and non-active transport modes onto three operational boundaries of greenhouse gas emission to develop the hierarchy. In the second part, an intergenerational theoretical framework was developed to analyse the adoption of active transportation between older and younger people. The review suggests that the only active transport modes with no or negligible carbon footprint are walking, running, and swimming without a product that adds to atmospheric greenhouse gases. The evidence that younger people perform higher active transportation behaviour is inconsistent and is, therefore, inconclusive. This review suggests a need for manufacturers to prioritise the production of active vehicles (e.g., wheelchairs and scooters) that are biodegradable, recyclable, and small.
Ghosting has become commonplace beyond romantic relationships. Therefore, we aimed to broadly understand ghosters' (i.e., people who ghost others) experiences including the process of ghosting, reasons and attributions for ghosting, feelings and behaviors associated with ghosting, and attitudes toward ghosting. Thirty‐four undergraduates (65% Latinx, 15% Asian, 12% Black, 8% Other ethnicity) who had ghosted another person were interviewed in‐person about their ghosting attitudes, ghosting behaviors, and a memorable ghosting experience. Inductive thematic analyses informed by grounded theory yielded eight themes: A Clear Cause, Avoidance of Confrontation, Short‐term Orientation, Ghostees as Socially Inferior, Ignoring then Blocking, Attempts by Ghostee to Reach Out, Mixed and Evolving Feelings, and Recognition of Harm. Our findings indicate that psychological consequences for ghosters should be further examined.
Political leaders around the world increasingly rely on personalist parties to win elections and govern. While existing scholarship assumes that personalist parties do not build territorial organization, in fact they vary substantially in terms of organizational strength. In this paper, we move beyond existing structural explanations of party-building and focus on the role of party elites’ preferences to explain the source of this variation. Through a mixed-method approach combining process-tracing of the case studies of Venezuela’s MVR/PSUV and Ecuador’s Alianza PAIS and statistical analysis of Latin American parties, we find that party elites’ past political experiences shape whether personalist parties successfully invest in party organization. Party officials who were socialized in radical-left parties are more likely to advocate for party-building and their presence within party cadres is associated with stronger party organization.
While federal law requires public schools to provide students with disabilities a free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment, students with extensive support needs are excluded from general education at alarming rates, raising concerns about equity of access to education. Purposeful school systems in which students’ needs can be met are critical to establish for schools working towards inclusion. The current study used qualitative case study methods to identify schoolwide practices contributing to the successful inclusion of students with extensive support needs in an urban elementary school. Eight interviews with school stakeholders – teachers, parents, a paraprofessional, and an administrator – were conducted. Results revealed formal collaboration structures were embedded within the school’s program, offering teachers and staff consistent opportunities to work together. Four school systems were also found to be critical for the school’s inclusion model, including the Multi-Tiered Systems of Support framework, instructional coaching practices, hiring, and scheduling. The study adds to the literature by detailing inclusive practices, intended to provide administrators with an example of how common systems are operationalized within an effective inclusion model. Future research to support the implementation of systems and practices is discussed.
The interaction between selection and gene flow can determine to what degree populations are able to adapt to local environmental conditions. This presents a particular conundrum in marine systems, as many marine species have high dispersal capacity resulting in nearly panmictic populations. Increasingly, genomic studies find that even in systems with little or no population structure divergence at particular loci may indicate local adaptation in the presence of high gene flow. However we are just beginning to understand which environmental variables might be the strongest drivers of selection in marine systems and the functional outcomes of genetic variants that are candidates for selection. Here, we leverage fine-scale sampling across the California range of the Pacific Purple Urchin (Strongylocentrutus purpuratus), a species with previous evidence of both local adaptation and extremely high gene flow. We find that despite complete absence of neutral population structure, sea surface temperature and tidal height drive genetic differences among populations, suggesting that balanced polymorphisms can lead to adaptation across both large scale (latitudinal) and small scale (subtidal v. intertidal) scales. Further, we find that genes that are expressed at a single tissue or life history stage are more divergent than expected across both latitudinal and tidal height comparisons, suggesting that these genes have specific functions that might generate phenotypic variation important for local adaptation. Together these results suggest that even in panmictic populations genetic variation can be sorted across even small spatial scales, potentially resulting in local adaptation across a complex environmental mosaic.
Objectives We test the impact of de-escalation training on the behavior of officers in the Tempe (AZ) Police Department. Methods The training was delivered via a squad-based randomized controlled trial. We examine administrative use of force data and body-worn camera footage for all use of force encounters six months pre- and post-training. Outcomes include prevalence and force types used, encounter duration, and citizen and officer injuries. Outcomes Use of force declined for Treatment and Control squads, likely because of the global pandemic. Trained officers decreased use of certain force types likely to produce injury. Trained officers spent significantly more time on scene, and they were 58% less likely to injure community members. These changes occurred with no increased risk of officer injury. Conclusions The differences in key outcomes are consistent with a positive training effect. Factors that may explain the results include the curriculum development process, focus on officer safety/wellness, officer receptivity, and use of refresher trainings.
This general review paper presents a condensed view of recent inventions in the Additive Manufacturing (AM) field. It outlines factors affecting the development and commercialization of inventions via research collaboration and discusses breakthroughs in materials and AM technologies and their integration with emerging technologies. The paper explores the impact of AM across various sectors, including the aerospace, automotive, healthcare, food, and construction industries, since the 1970s. It also addresses challenges and future directions, such as hybrid manufacturing and bio-printing, along with socio-economic and environmental implications. This collaborative study provides a concise understanding of the latest inventions in AM, offering valuable insights for researchers, practitioners, and decision makers in diverse industries and institutions.
The swift and deadly spread of infectious diseases, alongside the rapid advancement of scientific technology in the past several centuries, has led to the invention of various methods for protecting people from infection. In recent years, a class of crystalline porous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), has shown great potential in constructing defense systems against infectious diseases. This review addresses current approaches to combating infectious diseases through the utilization of MOFs in vaccine development, antiviral and antibacterial treatment, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Along with an updated account of MOFs used for designing defense systems against infectious diseases, directions are also suggested for expanding avenues of current MOF research to develop more effective approaches and tools to prevent the widespread nature of infectious diseases.
Few reviews on procedural fidelity—the degree to which procedures are implemented as designed—provide details to gauge the quality of fidelity reporting in behavior‐analytic research. This review focused on experiments in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (2006–2021) with “integrity” or “fidelity” in the abstract or body. When fidelity data were collected, the coders characterized measurement details (e.g., description of calculation, report of single or multiple values, frequency of fidelity checks, checklist use). The researchers found increasing trends in describing the calculation(s), reporting multiple values, and stating the frequency of measurement. Few studies described using a checklist. Most studies reported fidelity as a percentage, with high obtained values ( M = 97%). When not collecting fidelity data was stated as a limitation, authors were unlikely to provide a rationale for the omission. We discuss recommendations for reporting procedural fidelity to increase the quality of and transparency in behavior‐analytic research.
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