The verifiability of a suspect's alibi is often interpreted as a sign of innocence. Because the police resources are limited, verifiability could be used to dismiss suspects of minor offenses. We examined whether alibi verifiability actually indicates innocence for minor crimes. In Experiment 1, participants imagined they were guilty or innocent suspects of minor crimes and selected a response to convince the police of their innocence. Compared to innocent suspects, guilty suspects were more likely to select pseudo‐verifiable responses (which seemed verifiable but were not) rather than non‐verifiable responses. Experiment 2 revealed that pseudo‐verifiable responses increased observers' perceptions of innocence (rather than guilt). Experiment 3 suggested that people infer the police will not verify alibis of minor crimes, which may lead people to invent pseudo‐verifiable responses. These results indicate that apparent verifiability does not necessarily indicate innocence. The police should systematically test alternative hypotheses whenever they encounter apparent verifiable responses.
We consider the problem of setting appropriate patient-to-nurse ratios in a hospital, an issue that is both complex and widely debated. There has been only limited effort to take advantage of the extensive empirical results from the medical literature to help construct analytical decision models for developing upper limits on patient-to-nurse ratios that are more patient- and nurse-oriented. For example, empirical studies have shown that each additional patient assigned per nurse in a hospital is associated with increases in mortality rates, length-of-stay, and nurse burnout. Failure to consider these effects leads to disregarded potential cost savings resulting from providing higher quality of care and fewer nurse turnovers. Thus, we present a nurse staffing model that incorporates patient length-of-stay, nurse turnover, and costs related to patient-to-nurse ratios. We present results based on data collected from three participating hospitals, the American Hospital Association (AHA), and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). By incorporating patient and nurse outcomes, we show that lower patient-to-nurse ratios can potentially provide hospitals with financial benefits in addition to improving the quality of care. Furthermore, our results show that higher policy patient-to-nurse ratio upper limits may not be as harmful in smaller hospitals, but lower policy patient-to-nurse ratios may be necessary for larger hospitals. These results suggest that a “one ratio fits all” patient-to-nurse ratio is not optimal. A preferable policy would be to allow the ratio to be hospital-dependent.
We report here a draft genome assembly of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus CRL 2244, recovered from wastewater in Argentina. The genome has a size of 2,898,100 bp, with G + C content of 46.73%. Comparative analysis reveals that its closest relative is L. rhamnosus 1.0320 (GCF_006151905.1), with an average nucleotide identity of 97.46%.
Background Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is a recognized nosocomial pathogen of critical importance Most circulating AB strains are carbapenem-resistant (CRAB), which severely complicates therapeutics with available antibiotics. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria constitute a promising therapeutic alternative. Previously, we determined that Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus R3 (LR-R3) exerts a strong inhibitory capacity on the model strain A118 (susceptible to antibiotics). In this analysis, the antimicrobial activity of LR-R3 against type CRAB hypervirulent strain AB5075 was evaluated. Figure 1 A) Transwell migration assay. AB5075 viability after 24h exposure to LR-R3 CFCM. B) CFCM activity obtained from 96h culture of LR-R3 on CRAB strains. Methods The inhibitory activity of cell pellet and its cell-free supernatants (CFCM) were determined, respectively, by the soft-agar overlay method, CFCM activity, and transwell migration assay. Also, killing assays and scanning microscopy imaging were performed under co-culture conditions. Lastly, AB5075 transcriptional response when exposed to LR-R3 was assessed by RT-qPCR. Results The lactic acid bacteria LR-R3 demonstrated a strong inhibitory capacity on AB5075 strain (inhibition halo diameter, DHI >20 mm), with loss of cell viability at 4h of co-culture conditions. The CFCM of LR-R3 also showed similar antimicrobial activity on AB5075 (Fig 1A) and against others CRAB strains (Fig 1B), suggesting that the inhibitory effect observed is due to the presence of a compound or metabolite produced and secreted by the lactobacillus. Microscopy images showed increase formation of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and the presence of nanotubes. In addition, significant changes in the expression levels of the studied genes were observed in AB5075 in co-culture with LR-R3: increase in the expression of genes involved in biofilm (csuAB, csuB, ompA); and decrease in the expression of genes involved in the synthesis and utilization of iron (bauA, exbD, bfnA, basE, pirA), and genes related to fatty acid and lipid metabolism (paaA, paaB). Conclusion The results obtained allowed the identification of Lcb. rhamnosus R3 as a probiotic strain with antagonistic activity on the nosocomial pathogen A. baumannii. In addition, it was shown that LR-R3 alters iron and fatty acid metabolism, by virtue of this interaction. This work constitutes the basis for future studies necessary to elucidate the mechanism involved. Disclosures Robert A. bonomo, MD, Entasis, Merck, VenatoRx, Wockhardt: Grant/Research Support
Heterogeneity in susceptibility and infectivity is a central issue in epidemiology. Although the latter has received some attention recently, the former is often neglected in modeling of epidemic systems. Moreover, very few studies consider both of these heterogeneities. This paper is concerned with the characterization of epidemic models with differential susceptibility and differential infectivity under a general setup. Specifically, we investigate the global asymptotic behavior of equilibria of these systems when the network configuration of the Susceptible-Infectious interactions is strongly connected. These results prove two conjectures by Bonzi et al. (J Math Biol 62:39–64, 2011) and Hyman and Li (Math Biosci Eng 3:89–100, 2006). Moreover, we consider the scenario in which the strong connectivity hypothesis is dropped. In this case, the model exhibits a wider range of dynamical behavior, including the rise of boundary and interior equilibria, all based on the topology of network connectivity. Finally, a model with multidirectional transitions between infectious classes is presented and completely analyzed.
Nearly one in every two adults aged 18–29 currently lives with their parents, compared to slightly more than one in four in 1960. The literature focuses on changing labor market conditions and marriage–childbearing delays to account for this shift. Using a Blinder–Oaxaca procedure, we identify a role for housing affordability, measured by market‐level median housing rent or price to median household income ratios, as an additional factor in the increase in coresidency since but not before 2000. We endogenize the marriage–childbearing decision with a Heckman selection model and attribute up to a quarter of the observed 9‐percentage‐point increase in the coresidence share between 2000 and 2021 to a decrease in housing affordability. We find a nonlinear relationship between affordability and coresidence with the relationship strongest in the least affordable metros where affordability constraints might be more binding. Overall, these results show changes in market‐level housing affordability are associated with the increase in young adult coresidence over the first two decades of the 21st century.
Early COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) transfusion to outpatients with COVID-19 decreases progression to hospitalization, but the mechanism of how CCP reduces severity is unknown. Among 882 COVID-19 participants transfused with CCP or control plasma in a randomized controlled trial, 21 cytokines and chemokines were measured using electrochemiluminescence assays. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to evaluate the difference between early (transfused within 5 days of symptom onset) CCP vs early control plasma and late (transfused 6–9 days after symptom onset) CCP vs late control plasma at each visit. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the difference in the slope of cytokine change. Median cytokine and chemokine levels were similar between the early CCP and early control groups pre-transfusion. At the day 14 visit, only the median IL-6 ( P = 0.014) and IL-16 ( P = 0.036) levels were lower in the early CCP group compared to the early control group, but these differences were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (requiring P < 0.0024). IL-6 levels decreased significantly faster in the early CCP group from screening to the day 14 visit compared to the early control group ( P < 0.001). No difference was observed in the slope of cytokine change from screening to day 90 between early CCP and early control groups. Late control and late CCP arms showed similar cytokine and chemokine levels through study follow-up. One mechanism by which early CCP transfusion reduces hospitalization may be by decreasing IL-6 levels, as the reduction is associated with better recovery from COVID-19. IMPORTANCE This study examined the role that cytokines may have played in the beneficial outcomes found when outpatient individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 were transfused with COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) early in their infection. We found that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 decreased significantly faster in patients treated early with CCP. Participants with COVID-19 treated with CCP later in the infection did not have the same effect. This decrease in IL-6 levels after early CCP treatment suggests a possible role of inflammation in COVID-19 progression. The evidence of IL-6 involvement brings insight into the possible mechanisms involved in CCP treatment mitigating SARS-CoV-2 severity.
Drawing from in‐depth interviews with an ethnically diverse sample of Black, Indigenous, and people of color living in Portland, Oregon, this article draws upon the concept of racial gaslighting , which Davis and Ernst ( Politics, Groups, and Identities , 2019, 7, 761) describe as the political, social, economic, and cultural process that pathologizes those who resist or question the racial status quo. Racial gaslighting may create cycles of self‐blame among racialized people who question their own perceptions of reality, even in purportedly progressive contexts. While the term gaslighting has historically been used to describe abusive interpersonal relationship dynamics, racial gaslighting is applicable to the emotional and mental health impacts of structural racism on racialized people. This research addresses how the historical, political, and demographic landscape of places may contribute to racial gaslighting. In particular, this study demonstrates how seemingly progressive contexts fuel the conditions for racial gaslighting.
We present an adaptive-order positivity-preserving conservative finite-difference scheme that allows a high-order solution away from shocks and discontinuities while guaranteeing positivity and robustness at discontinuities. This is achieved by monitoring the relative power in the highest mode of the reconstructed polynomial and reducing the order when the polynomial series no longer converges. Our approach is similar to the multidimensional optimal order detection (MOOD) strategy, but differs in several ways. The approach is a priori and so does not require retaking a time step. It can also readily be combined with positivity-preserving flux limiters that have gained significant traction in computational astrophysics and numerical relativity. This combination ultimately guarantees a physical solution both during reconstruction and time stepping. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method using a standard suite of very challenging 1d, 2d, and 3d general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics test problems.
Purpose We examined whether having a history of cancer and chronic diseases was associated with guideline-concordant colorectal cancer (CRC) screening utilization. Methods Self-reported data from the 2020 and 2021 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in Oregon and West Virginia were used. Guideline-concordant CRC screening was the outcome of interest. The exposure was having a personal history of cancer, chronic diseases, or both. Multivariable logistic regressions were applied to assess the abovementioned association. Results Among 10,373 respondents aged 45–75 years, 75.5% of those with a history of cancer and chronic diseases had guideline-concordant CRC screening use versus 52.8% of those without any history (p-value < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, having a history of cancer (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.11–2.71), chronic diseases (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.14–1.59), and both cancer and chronic diseases (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.62–2.82) were positively associated with screening uptake compared to respondents without any history. Regardless of disease history, older age was associated with greater CRC screening uptake (p-value < 0.05). Among respondents with chronic diseases only or without any condition, those with a health care provider had 1.7-fold and 2.7-fold increased odds of receiving CRC screening, respectively. However, current smokers were 28% and 34% less likely to be screened for CRC among those with chronic diseases only and without any conditions, respectively. Conclusion Having a personal history of cancer and chronic diseases appears to be positively associated with guideline-concordant CRC screening use. Effective implementation of patient-centered communication through primary care initiatives may increase adherence to CRC screening recommendations.
In the current study, the structural and external validity of data derived from two shorter versions of the Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport (MATS) were examined using multilevel analyses. Evidence of model–data fit was shown for both a 5-factor model comprising 19 items (with subscales assessing teamwork preparation, execution, evaluation, adjustments, and management of team maintenance) and a single-factor model comprising five items (providing a global estimate of teamwork). In general, data from both versions were positively and significantly correlated with (and distinct from) athletes’ perceptions of team cohesion, collective efficacy, performance satisfaction, enjoyment in their sport, and commitment to their team and their coaches’ transformational leadership. The measures appear well suited to detect between-teams differences, as evidenced by intraclass correlation coefficients and acceptable reliability estimates of team-level scores. In summary, the 19-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Short and five-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Global provide conceptually and psychometrically sound questionnaires to briefly measure teamwork in sport.
We report experimental differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron impact excitation of bands I to V of benzene at incident energies of 10, 12.5, 15, and 20 eV. They are compared to calculations using the Schwinger multichannel method while accounting for up to 437 open channels. For intermediate scattering angles, the calculations reveal that the most intense band (V) emerges from surprisingly similar contributions from all its underlying states (despite some preference for the dipole-allowed transitions). They further shed light on intricate multichannel couplings between the states of bands I to V and higher-lying Rydberg states. In turn, the measurements support a vibronic coupling mechanism for excitation of bands II and IV and also show an unexpected forward peak in the spin-forbidden transition accounting for band III. Overall, there is decent agreement between theory and experiment at intermediate angles and at lower energies and in terms of the relative DCSs of the five bands. Discrepancies between the present and previous experiment regarding bands IV and V draw attention to the need of additional experimental investigations. We also report measured DCSs for vibrational excitation of combined C–H stretching modes.
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report increased distress relative to parents of children with neurotypical development. Parent well-being is generally considered a key determinant of parenting behavior, thus increased distress may spill over into less optimal parenting in families of children with ASD. However, evidence is mixed regarding the degree to which parenting is actually compromised in this population, suggesting the possibility of buffering, wherein the parenting of children with ASD may be robust against spillover from increased parental distress. The current study tested competing spillover and buffering models with regard to relations among child ASD status, parental distress, and parenting behavior. Parents of preschoolers with (n = 73) and without (n = 55) ASD completed self-report measures of parenting stress, depressive symptoms, and emotion dysregulation, as well as of positive and negative parenting behaviors. Families of preschoolers with ASD reported higher distress and negative parenting, and lower positive parenting than did their counterparts. Findings supported the spillover model for negative parenting such that increased parental distress accounted for status-group differences in negative parenting. In contrast, potential buffering was observed for positive parenting in that an inverse association between distress and parenting was observed for parents of children with neurotypical development only. Findings highlight the potential benefit of intervention to reduce parental distress in families of children with ASD, but also suggest some existing ability of these families to buffer certain parenting behaviors from deleterious effects of parent distress.
Habitat alteration and climate change are important threats to terrestrial biodiversity in the tropics. Endorsing flagship or umbrella species can help conserve sympatric biodiversity, restore degraded ecosystems and achieve United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs). The Ethiopian wolf ( Canis simensis ) is a rare and endemic Ethiopian canid. It is Africa’s most endangered canid species and is restricted to several isolated patches of Afroalpine habitats. While its behavioural ecology and conservation biology have been well studied, studies of the Ethiopian wolf’s significance for the conservation of its habitat and sympatric species are lacking. Here we use geographical range overlap and geospatial modelling to evaluate the importance of the Ethiopian wolf as a flagship and/or umbrella species. We assess whether conservation interventions targeting the Ethiopian wolf could help to restore and protect Afroalpine habitat and conserve sympatric species whilst simultaneously providing a wide range of socioeconomic and environmental benefits. We found that Ethiopian wolves share their range with 73 endemic and/or threatened vertebrate species, 68 of which are Afroalpine ecosystem species, and at least 121 endemic and/or threatened plant species. Ethiopian wolves are taxonomically distinctive and charismatic species classified as Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Thus, they meet both the flagship and umbrella species criteria to restore Afroalpine habitats and conserve threatened sympatric species. A conservation strategy protecting and restoring Afroalpine habitat has the potential to contribute to achieving at least five of the 17 UN SDGs. The protection of flagship and umbrella species should be integrated into broader regional biodiversity and habitat conservation.
We investigate the longitudinal relationship between urbanization and children's dietary diversity using a large, detailed survey conducted in Cebu, Philippines, during its period of rapid transformation in the 1990s. Using a panel of 1840 children observed at ages 8, 11, and 15, we model children’s weekly consumption of food items included in the meat, seafood, rice, vegetables, beans, tubers, fruits, and dairy groups. Within child-household variation in the characteristics of urban communities (barangays) during this period helps us to empirically identify potential causal relationships. We find that urbanization is significantly positively associated with children’s consumption of meat, fruit, and meals prepared at home and negatively associated with the consumption of vegetables and sweets. Models allowing for interactions between household socioeconomic status (SES) and local community urbanization reveal nuanced relationships with children’s dietary outcomes. Children from lower SES households have greater dietary diversity if living in communities with greater urbanization and consume significantly larger amounts of meat, fruits, and dairy. Urbanization is also associated with more frequent consumption of meals prepared at home and less consumption of sweet foods, on average. Overall, the findings suggest that the urbanization of local communities during this stage of development contributes to improvements in children’s diets.
Background Governments are passing laws to restrict the sale of flavoured tobacco products (FTPs), but retailer compliance with such policies may vary. This study compared tobacco retailer compliance with local ordinances restricting the sale of FTPs across various localities in Southern California. Methods Attempts to purchase FTPs from a random sample of tobacco retailers in a convenience sample of four cities in Southern California with FTP sales restrictions were made from June to August 2022. Trained shoppers of legal tobacco purchasing age entered tobacco retailers and purchased prohibited FTPs if they were on display or asked salespersons for menthol cigarettes or a flavoured e-cigarette, completing purchases if they were made available. Results Among 141 stores, 39.9% of stores were non-compliant with local ordinances. Non-compliance varied by city, occurring in 49.3%, 43.8%, 15.4% and 0% of stores across four cities. The highest proportion of non-compliance was among vape or tobacco shops (91.2%) followed by convenience and liquor stores (36.4%), grocery stores and pharmacies (15.4%), and gas stations (13.5%). Conclusion Prior to California’s statewide sales restriction on flavoured tobacco, compliance with local sales restrictions was variable across cities and store types.
Using primary data from 388 employer-sponsored retirement plan participants, this study exam-ines factors related to the decision between self-directed and pre-determined investment options (i.e. target date funds and risk-based portfolios). Results from binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that those with unusual needs such as an early retirement and longer life expectancy were more likely to choose self-directed investment option over pre-determined investment options. However, those with greater loss aversion were more likely to choose target date funds rather than making active investment decisions. The findings of this study help our understanding of retirement plan participants’ investment portfolio choice and provide policy implications on default investment options in employer-sponsored retirement plans.
Community-based HIV treatment initiation and continuation helps to address social determinants of health (SDOH) barriers to care and increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake and adherence. Similarly, community-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (cbPrEP) services can help address SDOH barriers such as transportation costs and stigma. However, few studies have examined cbPrEP programming in the Washington, District of Columbia (DC) area where more Blacks are disproportionately affected by HIV and have low PrEP uptake. This study aims to adapt and pilot a community-based ART intervention (cbART) intervention for cbPrEP service delivery for Black adults in the Washington, DC area. The adaptation of the cbART intervention will be informed by the ADAPT-ITT framework and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. For Aim 1, in-depth and key informant interviews will be conducted with PrEP program managers at community-based organizations (N = 10), DC health department representatives (N = 8), PrEP providers (N = 10) and current and potential Black PrEP users (n = 24). The interviews will provide an initial assessment of barriers and facilitators to PrEP services and inform the decisions on how to adapt the cbART intervention for cbPrEP services. In Aim 2, we will train and pilot test the cbPrEP intervention for acceptability, feasibility, and appropriateness with Black adults (n = 60). Enrolled participants will complete a survey at baseline and at 45 days post-enrollment. In-depth interviews will be conducted with a subset (N = 16) of participants, those who did not enroll (N = 10) and providers implementing the cbPrEP intervention (N = 8). Alternative strategies to PrEP service delivery are needed to increase PrEP uptake among those most in need in the DC area. If cbPrEP delivery is found to be acceptable, feasible, and appropriate, it could have a significant impact on DC’s Ending the HIV Epidemic efforts and will inform future efforts to investigate the intervention’s efficacy on PrEP uptake and continuation among Black adults in DC.
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