The massive rise of the world's population and consequent urbanization has resulted in a substantial global need for food, as well as a diminution of rural areas. The worldwide farming community is challenged with the enormous issue of feeding an ever-increasing human population on decreasing agricultural land. Conventional farming methods are proving ineffectual, and they seem to be incapable of meeting the world's future food demands. The use of nanotechnological techniques in the quest to improve global food production appears to be addressing the problems. Nanomaterials have recently been introduced into agriculture and have shown to be very promising for the long-term development of agroecosystems. A wide range of nanoparticles has already been introduced into agroecosystems to improve production. Phosphate is an essential component of genetic material that is required by all plant systems. Although exogenous phosphate supply is still used to improve yield and quality of output, the provision of phosphate nanomaterial has various advantages over the bulk form. Phosphate nanoparticles help to reduce the amount of phosphate required. In agroecosystems, these NPs also help to improve photosynthesis, plant development, and phosphate cycling. It also helps to improve the health of the agroecosystem due to its unique bioremediation characteristics. The use of phosphate nanoparticles in plant genetic transformation could aid in the development of new plant lines. This chapter discusses the importance of phosphate-containing nanoparticles as a modern agriculture approach in the establishment of a sustainable agroecosystem, as well as their function in raising agricultural productivity to feed the world's growing population.
Agriculture is an important component of the ecosystem, and every human being is directly or indirectly associated with it. The use of tools and technology in agriculture has improved over time and has also contributed to increasing food production. However, the bulge in a global population at a frightening rate and the yield plateau in most of the crops has added more concern to the subject. Nanomaterials might play a remarkable role in breaking the yield plateau and have proved to be significant in enhancing the shelf life of processed foods. Although the history of nanotechnological interventions can be traced back to the previous few decades, the employment of nanomaterials is still restricted in agricultural systems. The research in the field of agricultural nanotechnology is growing at a very faster pace, but there still exists a significant difference in the research and its practical applications. A plethora of reports are available that claim the several beneficial effects of introducing nanomaterials in agroecosystems; however, several few reports have also warned about their postapplication effects in the soil, human, and environment. This provokes a dire need for evaluation of interactions existing between nanomaterials concerning soil, plants, soil microflora, and the environment before their field applications. The present chapter, therefore, highlights the fate, advantages, and issues related to nanomaterials and their interaction with the components of agroecosystems.
The research in plant sciences is confronted by numerous nonbiological and biological stresses. The list includes increased incidence of diseases, pests, and nutrient losses, along with exposure to drought, salinity, flooding, temperature, and heavy metal stress. The merger of nanotechnology is catching the eye of researchers at a very rapid pace for the last 3 decades. The unique attributes of NPs like size, presence of reactive groups, and high surface-to-volume ratio establish them as a fascinating tool. Among an extensive array of NPs, the chitosan-based nanoparticles are gaining momentum owing to their low-cost, biodegradability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, plant growth regulation, antimicrobial activity, and stress inhibitory activity in plants. Over time, different types of chitosan-based NPs have been designed and tested for the enhancement of chitosan efficiency and ultimately widening the application areas of chitosan in plants. Therefore, the current chapter attempts to briefly discuss the plant protective roles of chitosan-based NPs specifically (mainly in the last 5 years) targeting its effect on the crop plant's growth and physiology along with the maintenance of agricultural sustainability. Additionally, the current challenges and future development opportunities are also discussed.
SNF1-related protein kinases (SnRKs) get their name from their fungal counterpart SFN1, which is a regulator of carbon metabolism. SnRK performs critical roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses by activating protein phosphorylation pathways. 1 SnRK has been identified as the critical switch in plant sugar signaling. SnRKs in plants may be classified into three subfamilies based on sequence similarity and gene structure: SnRK1, SnRK2, and SnRK3. Because of its important involvement at the interface of metabolic and stress signaling, SnRKs are promising candidates for modification to improve crop performance in adverse environments. The importance of the SnRK in abiotic stress tolerance was highlighted in this chapter, and its applications are likely to benefit crop breeding.
Background Chickpea is the most important legume crop in India, and its productivity is significantly lowered due to biotic constraints such as wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp . ciceris . Endophytes help plants to thrive better under stress conditions by regulating plant hormones and inducing systemic resistance. The aim of the present study was to identify chickpea root bacterial endophytes having antagonistic ability for the management of the Fusarium wilt. Results Twenty endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from the susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivar, amongst which 35% bacterial endophytes gave positive results for siderophore and 15% isolates were HCN producers, whereas 55% showed good growth on ACC-supplemented medium. Based upon 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, efficient endophytic bacterial isolates CRBE1, CRBE3 and CRBE7 were identified as Priestia megaterium, Brucella haematophila and Microbacterium paraoxydans , respectively. Bacterial endophyte CRBE7 and CRBE3 showed pronounced antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris under in vitro conditions. Inoculation of chickpea with isolated bacterial endophytes alone and in combination through seed priming resulted in significant biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt of chickpea under screenhouse conditions. Biopriming of chickpea seeds alone with CRBE3 and as consortium of CRBE3 + CRBE7 upsurged the phenol content in susceptible and resistant chickpea varieties JG 62 and HC 3, which indicated the role of promising endophytes as potential bio-agents under in vivo conditions. Conclusions Chickpea root bacterial endophytes Priestia megaterium (CRBE1), Brucella haematophila (CRBE3) and Microbacterium paraoxydans (CRBE7) exhibiting antagonistic activity could be incorporated in integrated disease management module against Fusarium wilt of chickpea.
Background Cutworms ( Agrotis spp.) are cosmopolitan and polyphagous pests distributed throughout world, which belong to the family Noctuidae, and about 26 species are found associated with agriculturally important crops in India and some other countries of world. The most prominent species belonging to genera Agrotis are Agrotis ipsilon , A. flammatra , A. plecta , A. spinifera and A. segetum . Cutworms cause substantial damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops particularly, at the seedling stage. This pest produces vitiating symptoms with a young stage (larvae) by feeding on the epidermis of leaves and eating away parts of the stem, tubers, etc. Results This review article is mainly focused on management of cutworm, which is very challenging due to larval hiding behaviour during the day time and feed actively at night. Efficient chemical control of cutworm may be obtained by adequately applying chemicals when young caterpillars are still on the leaves and therefore vulnerable. As per biology of cutworms, these pests remain hidden in cracks and crevices during most of life cycle so chemical control is often ineffective and economic. Sometimes, inadequate application of these chemicals is resulted into the development of resistance in these pests. Moreover, the adverse effects of the chemicals have led researchers to search for new control strategies. Recently, biological control has become a practical option for eco-friendly management of numerous insect pests. Among biological control, entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have broad potential to kill the cutworms in soil itself. Conclusions Various species of EPNs like Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. are found a quite effective and hold considerable potential to manage cutworms. So, the use of EPNs for the management of cutworms is a good alternate to chemical method.
Electrical energy storage system (ESS) has been used worldwide as ancillary support to the grid, aiding in frequency regulation and grid stability. Intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) can be effectively integrated into the grid by maintaining power balance using different types of energy storage. However, the power requirement during small frequent, and large persistent power variations in the load demand can be more effectively controllable with the combination of the different energy storage according to their operational characteristics. This paper evaluates the suitability of a dual energy storage system (DESS) integrated in a grid connected microgrid (MG) system for providing ancillary services to the utility grid. The DESS is a combination of battery bank storage (BBS) and pump hydro storage (PHS). The BBS is very fast responding and it can counter the immediate variations in the power whereas, the PHS system can counter the large variations of the power as needed in the MG system. Four different operating cases have been studied to obtain the optimal size of the DESS for optimizing not only the operational cost but also for the best combination size of the storage systems to counter the variability in power generations and the load demand in the power system. Day-ahead electricity market scheduling has been performed on the MG to control the net power demand variations on the distribution feeder of the utility grid. The simulation results show that the higher capacity of the DESS does not always provide the optimal operational cost of the MG system during the grid-connected mode. Therefore, optimal sizing of the storage system also plays an important role in providing the optimal solution. It has been found that the optimal size of the individual energy storage and the DESS is different for microgrids supporting or not supporting the grid. The study enables the system operator (SO) to choose the best combination of storage systems for the supportive and non-supportive operation of microgrid system.
Combine harvester leaves behind a swath of loose paddy residues, which interfere with wheat sowing operations in conventional seed drills. To avoid this problem, farmers resort to the burning of paddy residue, which not only leads to the loss of massive biomass but also causes environmental pollution. To enable the sowing of wheat in paddy stubble fields, various kinds of furrow openers were introduced by many researchers. Due to high maintenance and low performance of these furrow openers are not adopted up to the desired level. The main objective of this study is to develop a furrow opener and seed drill that overcomes the problem of existing furrow openers like the uniform seeding operation, least soil disturbance, and better straw handling capacity. The developed seed drill and double disc seed drill (control) were evaluated in a combine harvested field at three levels of forward speed (1.5, 2.1, and 2.8 kmh⁻¹) and height of cut (38, 45, and 52 cm) of straw. The results were evaluated in terms of plant emergence, tillers per meter area, effective tillers per meter area, plant height, pinnacle length, number of grains per ear head, weight of grain per ear head, and wheat yield. The fuel consumption was 12% less than the double-disc seed drill. Whereas, the average yield (4.6 t ha⁻¹) was also higher in notched concave disc seed drill. The Notched concave seed drill offers the means of drilling wheat into paddy stubble without burning, eliminating air pollution and loss of nutrients and organic carbon due to burning, at the same time as maintaining or increasing yield.
Increasing demand for safe food by an ever-growing human population emphasizes the urgency for increasing crop yields and reducing the losses caused by abiotic and biotic stresses; a partial solution to this problem is to develop a better understanding of plant–microbe interactions. Plant roots continuously release a wide range of compounds including organic acids in root exudates. These root exudates stimulate growth of specific microbial communities in the rhizosphere, which affect complex biological and physico-chemical interactions occurring between plant roots and the surrounding soil environment. In addition, organic acids are also released by different microbes and during decomposition of organic matter and plant residues in the soil. Interestingly, the available organic acids in the rhizosphere play crucial roles in various physio-chemical processes including the chemoattraction of microbes (both beneficial and pathogenic), mineralization and solubilization of complex minerals (P, K and Zn), biocontrol of phytopathogens, induction of systemic resistance, biogas formation, mitigation of abiotic stresses and, detoxification of metals and residual pesticides. Thus, organic acids play a significant role in the sustainable management of the soil ecosystem and in environmental sustainability. This review discusses the role of organic acids in the stimulation or enrichment of specific root-associated microbial communities and their effect on plant–microbe interactions at the root surface. In addition, the potential for root microbiome modification to enhance nutrient cycling and nutrient acquisition, and in amelioration of environmental stresses for increasing food production is discussed.
A thermostable, alkali-stable xylanase was produced from Bacillus pumilus SV-85S under submerged fermentation with activity 7505 IU/mL. The worldwide demand and prime focus of industries are making the product cost effective, to reduce the cost of the process, enzyme immobilization is one of the cost-effective methods for industrial sector. This paper reports covalent immobilization of highly thermostable alkali-stable xylanase on glutaraldehyde-activated aluminum oxide pellets. The immobilization yield and efficiency were found 48.05% and 83.13%, respectively. Immobilized xylanase retained approximately 50% of its initial activity at 70 °C whereas free enzyme lost almost all its activity. At pH 11, immobilized enzyme retained 51.07% of its activity while the activity of free enzyme was almost negligible. The immobilization increased the half-lives and D-values which resulted in improved thermostability. Thermodynamically, increase in enthalpy and free energy change after covalent immobilization could be credited to the enhanced stability. Immobilized xylanase could be reused for 8 consecutive batches retaining 55% of its initial activity on 5th cycle of reusability. The immobilized xylanase was found to be effective in papaya juice enrichment with 11% increase in yield, 2% increase in clarity, and 26% increase in reducing sugars. Immobilization on this support is significant as this support can sustain high mechanical resistance at high pH and temperature. This considerable stability and reusability of bound enzyme may be advantageous for its industrial application.
Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L) is one of the most important staple fibrous crops cultivated in India and globally. Its production and quality are greatly hampered by cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) caused by cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV). Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate biochemical resistance responses in different cotton varieties against CLCuV. Four commercial cotton varieties with susceptible (HS 6 and RCH-134 BG-II) and resistant (HS 1236 and Bunty) response were used to analyse the role of primary (sugar, protein and chlorophyll) and secondary (gossypol, phenol and tannin) biochemical compounds produced by the plants against infection of CLCuV. The resistant cultivars with increased activity of protein, phenol and tannin exhibited as biochemical barriers against CLCuV infection imparting the resistance in cotton cultivars. Whereas, other biochemical compounds including chlorophyll, sugar and gossypol did not show significant role in resistance against CLCuV. Nevertheless, these compounds virtually associated with basic physiological and metabolic mechanisms of cotton plants. Among the primary biochemical compounds, only protein activity proposed as first line of defence in cotton against CLCuV. The secondary level of defence line in resistance exhibited the activity of secondary biochemical compounds phenol and tannins which exhibited significant increase in their level while imparting resistance against CLCuV in cotton.
Relative efficacy of various approaches for management of Meloidogyne incognita and the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum has been tested in cucumber under protected cultivation conditions for two seasons. Management practices, namely, chemicals (fumigant, nonfumigant, and fungicide), organic amendments (neem cake, leaves, and oil opted as soil and seed treatment), and biocontrol agents (egg-parasitic fungus and Purpureocillium lilacinum), were combined for the management of the disease complex in a randomized block design. Two significant parameters were measured: plant growth parameters (shoot length, dry shoot weight, dry root weight, and yield) and disease parameters (galls per plant, final nematode population, egg masses per plant, and fungal incidence). All treatments significantly improved plant growth parameters and reduced nematode reproduction as compared to untreated check. The integration of formalin and neem oil seed treatment favors the low root galling index compared to all other treatments in both the seasons. Formalin and neem oil seed treatment reduced the nematode population and fungal incidence, and increased the yield of cucumber during both the seasons.
Heat stress is a genetically complex and physiologically diverse phenomenon. To overcome the effect of heat stress identification of genomic locations associated with heat stress tolerance is essential. This article provides the dataset of phenotyping used in the research article entitled “Mapping QTLs for grain yield components in wheat under heat stress”. The presented data included the phenotyping of the 249 RIL population of F8 and F9 generations under timely and late sown conditions during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 crop seasons, respectively. The RIL population was derived from the cross between HUW510 and HD2808 wheat genotypes. A total of eight agronomic traits were subjected to phenotype and the heat susceptibility index (HSI) of these traits was estimated to identify the effect of heat stress on the parents and RIL population. The presented dataset could be utilized to understand the genetic basis for heat stress tolerance in wheat.
Pyriproxyfen is a pyridine-based insecticide used for pest control in fruits and vegetables. It is a potent endocrine disruptor and hormone imitator. Considering its potential hazards to non-target organisms and the associated environment, a lab study was conducted for assessing persistence, mobility in sandy loam soil and associated risk to various non-target organisms and soil enzymes. Pyriproxyfen formulation was applied at 0.05 and 0.10 µg g⁻¹ soil which was equivalent to recommended and double dose of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha⁻¹, respectively. Three methods namely QuEChERS, liquid-solid extraction (LSE) and matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) were compared for achieving efficient sample preparation. MSPD was applied for final analysis as it gave better recoveries (94.2 to 104.3%) over other methods with limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) as 0.0001 and 0.0005 µg g⁻¹, respectively. Dissipation followed first order kinetics with half-lives of 7.6 and 8.2 days in both doses but residues retained over 45 days in soil. Leaching studies conducted at 50 and 100 µg of pyriproxyfen showed extremely poor leaching potential. Retention of over 90% residues in top 5 cm soil surface indicated minimal threat of ground and surface water contamination. Toxicological study demonstrated very different behaviour toward different enzymatic activities. Pyriproxyfen was relatively toxic for alkaline phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolase enzymes. β-glucosidase activity was triggered whereas arylsulfatase activity remained unaffected. Unacceptable risk to soil invertebrates at double dose application clearly indicated that its longer persistence in soil could be toxic to other non-target organisms and needs further investigations.
Soil phosphorous (P) can limit plant growth due to its fixation which stipulates the changes occuring due to imbalanced fertilization in pearl millet-wheat system. The study was aimed to identify the long-term effect of fertilizers and manures on availability of P due to changes in soil inorganic (Pi) and organic P (Po) pools at 0–15, 15–30, 30–60, and 60–90 cm. A sequential methodology was used to determine the effect of fertilizers and manures w.r.t. control (CK) on pools of P and their distribution in soil profile. Fertilizers and manures significantly increased the total and available P concentration. Labile (LOP) and moderately labile (MLOP) organic phosphorous concentrations significantly (P < .05) impacted throughout the soil profile. However, moderately and highly stable organic P pools (MSOP & HSOP) were significantly higher at surface soils. Integrating manures with fertilizers (NPKM) for 10 years increased the LOP and MLOP by 121.5 and 50.0%, while the concentration of MSOP and HSOP was higher under fertilizer treatments (NPK and BFSTCR) at surface soils. The Pi associated with Saloid-P, Aluminium-P, and Iron-P showed decreasing concentration, while calcium-phosphorous concentration increased at all soil depths. The increase in residual-P was more pronounced at lower depths. The proportion of Pi to the total P increased to 16.8% in fertilizer treatments at 30–60 and 60–90 cm soil, while Po proportions increased to 21.0% at 0–15 cm soil. Integrating manures with fertilizers could be a viable nutrient management practice of enhancing the Po and Pi and their availability to plants in sandy soils of Inceptisols.
The core particle represents the catalytic portions of the 26S proteasomal complex. The genes encoding α- and β-subunits play a crucial role in protecting plants against various environmental stresses by controlling the quality of newly produced proteins. The 20S proteasome gene family has already been reported in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice; however, they have not been studied in oilseed crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). In the present study, we identified 20S proteasome genes for α- (PA) and β-subunits (PB) in B. napus through systematically performed gene structure analysis, chromosomal location, conserved motif, phylogenetic relationship, and expression patterns. A total of 82 genes, comprising 35 BnPA and 47 BnPB of the 20S proteasome, were revealed in the B. napus genome. These genes were distributed on all 20 chromosomes of B. napus and most of these genes were duplicated on homoeologous chromosomes. The BnPA (α1-7) and BnPB (β1-7) genes were phylogenetically placed into seven clades. The pattern of expression of all the BnPA and BnPB genes was also studied using RNA-seq datasets under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Out of 82 BnPA/PB genes, three exhibited high expression under abiotic stresses, whereas two genes were overexpressed in response to biotic stresses at both the seedling and flowering stages. Moreover, an additional eighteen genes were expressed under normal conditions. Overall, the current findings developed our understanding of the organization of the 20S proteasome genes in B. napus, and provided specific BnPA/PB genes for further functional research in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.
Agriculture production faces many abiotic stresses, mainly drought, salinity, low and high temperature. These abiotic stresses inhibit plants’ genetic potential, which is the cause of huge reduction in crop productivity, decrease potent yields for important crop plants by more than 50% and imbalance agriculture’s sustainability. They lead to changes in the physio-morphological, molecular, and biochemical nature of the plants and change plants’ regular metabolism, which makes them a leading cause of losses in crop productivity. These changes in plant systems also help to mitigate abiotic stress conditions. To initiate the signal during stress conditions, sensor molecules of the plant perceive the stress signal from the outside and commence a signaling cascade to send a message and stimulate nuclear transcription factors to provoke specific gene expression. To mitigate the abiotic stress, plants contain several methods of avoidance, adaption, and acclimation. In addition to these, to manage stress conditions, plants possess several tolerance mechanisms which involve ion transporters, osmoprotectants, proteins, and other factors associated with transcriptional control, and signaling cascades are stimulated to offset abiotic stress-associated biochemical and molecular changes. Plant growth and survival depends on the ability to respond to the stress stimulus, produce the signal, and start suitable biochemical and physiological changes. Various important factors, such as the biochemical, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of plants, including the use of microbiomes and nanotechnology to combat abiotic stresses, are highlighted in this article.
Considering the immense significance of molecular hybridization in development of efficacious antiproliferative agents, the present research work demonstrates the expeditious synthesis of twelve electronically different and novel 2,4‐bis(2‐(E)‐arylidenehydrazinyl)quinazolines 4 a–4 l. Their exact molecular structures have been established by careful analysis of spectroscopic (IR, 1H & 13C‐NMR) and HRMS data. Observed results from the MTT assay indicated that all synthesized derivatives 4 a–4 l displayed substantial growth arrest for breast (MCF‐7) cancer cell line. Specifically, 2,4‐bis(2‐(E)‐4‐methoxy benzylidenehydrazinyl)quinazoline (4 a) and 2,4‐bis(2‐(E)‐4‐bromobenzylidenehydrazinyl) quinazoline (4 b) displayed lowest GI50=139.34±7.44 μM and 145.34±2.11 μM respectively, against breast (MCF‐7) cancer cell line. Additionally, molecular docking studies have been performed to investigate the type of favourable interactions of quinazoline bis‐hydrazones with active sites of protein (PDB ID : 4ASD). Computational studies show that derivative 4 a displayed high binding affinity into the ATP binding sites of 4ASD, which support in vitro results obtained in the present study. The present study demonstrates the expeditious synthesis of some novel 2,4‐bis(2‐(E)‐arylidenehydrazinyl)quinazolines under mild reaction conditions and thorough spectroscopic (IR, 1H & 13C‐NMR) and HRMS characterization. Amongst of them, especially 2,4‐bis‐ (2‐(E)‐4‐methoxybenzylidenehydrazinyl)quinazoline (4 a) displayed lowest GI50=139.34±7.44 μM value among all against MCF‐7 (breast) cancer cell line and also shows highest binding affinity into the ATP binding sites of 4ASD.
A meta-QTL analysis was conducted in Indian mustard to identify robust and stable meta-QTLs (MQTLs) by utilizing 1504 available QTLs, which included 891 QTLs for yield-related traits and 613 QTLs for quality traits. For yield-related traits, a total of 57 MQTLs (YRTs_MQTLs) were uncovered from the clustering of 560 projected QTLs, which had a 4.18-fold smaller confidence interval (CI) than that of the initial QTLs, whereas, for quality traits, as many as 51 MQTLs (Quality_MQTLs) were derived from 324 projected QTLs, which had a 2.65-fold smaller CI than that of the initial QTLs. Sixteen YRTs_MQTLs were observed to share chromosomal positions with 16 Quality_MQTLs. Moreover, four most promising YRTs_MQTLs and eight Quality-MQTLs were also selected and recommended for use in breeding programs. Four of these selected MQTLs were also validated with significant SNPs that were identified in previously published genome-wide association studies. Further, in silico functional analysis of some promising MQTLs allowed the detection of as many as 1435 genes, which also involved 15 high-confidence candidate genes (CGs) for yield-related traits and 46 high-confidence CGs for quality traits. After validation, the identified CGs can also be exploited to model the plant architecture and to improve quality traits through marker-assisted breeding, genetic engineering, and genome editing approaches.
As an agricultural state, Haryana (India) produces about six million metric tons (mt) of rice straw every year from rice cultivation. Currently, rice straw is either burned or ploughed into the field without being turned into a functional product. Burning of paddy straw pollutes the air, results in green house gas emission, particulate matter (2.5 and 10 µm) emission, considerable losses on the properties of the soil, soil nutrients, organic matter, productivity and biodiversity, and on and off-farm humans and animals’ health. The biochemically and functionally specified potential for optimal alternative use of the rice straw of 13 most widely produced rice varieties from Haryana’s eastern and western agro-climate zones was undertaken. Pusa-1401 variety had the highest cellulose (46.55%) and silica content (13.70%), while Pusa-1718 had hemicellulose (28.25%) and lignin (11.60%), respectively. Maximum nitrogen (0.81%), phosphorus (0.32%) and potassium (2.78%) were found in rice variety Pusa-1509, Pusa-1401 and Rice-6129. The findings seemed to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The biochemical profiles of rice straw cultivars were classified into distinct structural groups (C-H alkalanes, O-H alcohol, C = O, C–H alkanes) based on the FTIR spectrum in order to find the best alternative possibilities for bioethanol and compost production. According to the study, these rice straw varieties could be used to make lucrative industrial products.
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