Genotoxicity testing relies on the detection of gene mutations and chromosome damage and has been used in the genetic safety assessment of drugs and chemicals for decades. However, the results of standard genotoxicity tests are often difficult to interpret due to lack of mode of action information. The TGx-DDI transcriptomic biomarker provides mechanistic information on the DNA damage-inducing (DDI) capability of chemicals to aid in the interpretation of positive in vitro genotoxicity data. The CometChip ® assay was developed to assess DNA strand breaks in a higher-throughput format. We paired the TGx-DDI biomarker with the CometChip ® assay in TK6 cells to evaluate three model agents: nitrofurantoin (NIT), metronidazole (MTZ), and novobiocin (NOV). TGx-DDI was analyzed by two independent labs and technologies (nCounter ® and TempO-Seq ® ). Although these anti-infective drugs are, or have been, used in human and/or veterinary medicine, the standard genotoxicity testing battery showed significant genetic safety findings. Specifically, NIT is a mutagen and causes chromosome damage, and MTZ and NOV cause chromosome damage in conventional in vitro tests. Herein, the TGx-DDI biomarker classified NIT and MTZ as non-DDI at all concentrations tested, suggesting that NIT’s mutagenic activity is bacterial specific and that the observed chromosome damage by MTZ might be a consequence of in vitro test conditions. In contrast, NOV was classified as DDI at the second highest concentration tested, which is in line with the fact that NOV is a bacterial DNA-gyrase inhibitor that also affects topoisomerase II at high concentrations. The lack of DNA damage for NIT and MTZ was confirmed by the CometChip ® results, which were negative for all three drugs except at overtly cytotoxic concentrations. This case study demonstrates the utility of combining the TGx-DDI biomarker and CometChip ® to resolve conflicting genotoxicity data and provides further validation to support the reproducibility of the biomarker.
Although previous studies have focused on the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on various professional groups (particularly in the health and nursing care sector), this study aims to close a research gap by assessing perspectives of students and young professionals in epidemiology and public health in Germany in terms of shifts in workload, work content, and related challenges caused by the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between mid-February and mid-March 2022. Quantitative data were analyzed via standardized mean differences. Qualitative data based on answers to open-ended questions were analyzed via a qualitative content analysis. Overall, 172 individuals participated in this survey. Results indicate that students felt burdened the most by lack of exchange with other students and lecturers. Study participants employed in public health experienced changes in their employment because they had changes in their work content and administration, which was accompanied by a high burden due to the workload. Multiple demands that can have an impact on both acquired skills and mental health during the professional qualification phase were mentioned by the participants. Therefore, more in-depth analyses are needed to investigate the impact the pandemic will have on the (future) public health workforce in the long run.
Background: Reference to so-called real-world data is more often made in marketing authorization applications for medicines intended to diagnose, prevent or treat rare diseases compared to more common diseases. We provide granularity on the type and aim of any external data on efficacy aspects from both real-world data sources and external trial data as discussed in regulatory submissions of orphan designated medicinal products in the EU. By quantifying the contribution of external data according to various regulatory characteristics, we aimed at identifying specific opportunities for external data in the field of orphan conditions. Methods: Information on external data in regulatory documents covering 72 orphan designations was extracted. Our sample comprised public assessment reports for approved, refused, or withdrawn applications concluded from 2019–2021 at the European Medicines Agency. Products with an active orphan designation at the time of submission were scrutinized regarding the role of external data on efficacy aspects in the context of marketing authorization applications, or on the criterion of “significant benefit” for the confirmation of the orphan designation at the time of licensing. The reports allowed a broad distinction between clinical development, regulatory decision making, and intended post-approval data collection. We defined three categories of external data, administrative data, structured clinical data, and external trial data (from clinical trials not sponsored by the applicant), and noted whether external data concerned the therapeutic context of the disease or the product under review. Results: While reference to external data with respect to efficacy aspects was included in 63% of the approved medicinal products in the field of rare diseases, 37% of marketing authorization applications were exclusively based on the dedicated clinical development plan for the product under review. Purely administrative data did not play any role in our sample of reports, but clinical data collected in a structured manner (from routine care or clinical research) were often used to inform on the trial design. Two additional recurrent themes for the use of external data were the contextualization of results, especially to confirm the orphan designation at the time of licensing, and reassurance of a large difference in treatment effect size or consistency of effects observed in clinical trials and practice. External data on the product under review were restricted to either active substances already belonging to the standard of care even before authorization or to compassionate use schemes. Furthermore, external data were considered pivotal for marketing authorization only exceptionally and only for active substances already in use within the specific therapeutic indication. Applications for the rarest conditions and those without authorized treatment alternatives were especially prominent with respect to the use of external data from real-world data sources both in the pre- and post-approval setting. Conclusion: Specific opportunities for external data in the setting of marketing authorizations in the field of rare diseases were identified. Ongoing initiatives of fostering systematic data collection are promising steps for a more efficient medicinal product development in the field of rare diseases.
Background Randomized test-treatment studies aim to evaluate the clinical utility of diagnostic tests by providing evidence on their impact on patient health. However, the sample size calculation is affected by several factors involved in the test-treatment pathway, including the prevalence of the disease. Sample size planning is exposed to strong uncertainties in terms of the necessary assumptions, which have to be compensated for accordingly by adjusting prospectively determined study parameters during the course of the study. Method An adaptive design with a blinded sample size recalculation in a randomized test-treatment study based on the prevalence is proposed and evaluated by a simulation study. The results of the adaptive design are compared to those of the fixed design. Results The adaptive design achieves the desired theoretical power, under the assumption that all other nuisance parameters have been specified correctly, while wrong assumptions regarding the prevalence may lead to an over- or underpowered study in the fixed design. The empirical type I error rate is sufficiently controlled in the adaptive design as well as in the fixed design. Conclusion The consideration of a blinded recalculation of the sample size already during the planning of the study may be advisable in order to increase the possibility of success as well as an enhanced process of the study. However, the application of the method is subject to a number of limitations associated with the study design in terms of feasibility, sample sizes needed to be achieved, and fulfillment of necessary prerequisites.
Angioedema is a relatively rare but potentially life-threatening adverse reaction to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). As with hereditary forms of angioedema (HAE), this adverse reaction is mediated by bradykinin. Research suggests that ACEi/ARB-induced angioedema has a multifactorial etiology. In addition, recent case reports suggest that some ACEi/ARB-induced angioedema patients may carry pathogenic HAE variants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between ACEi/ARB-induced angioedema and HAE genes via systematic molecular genetic screening in a large cohort of ACEi/ARB-induced angioedema cases. Targeted re-sequencing of five HAE-associated genes ( SERPING1 , F12 , PLG , ANGPT1 , and KNG1 ) was performed in 212 ACEi/ARB-induced angioedema patients recruited in Germany/Austria, Sweden, and Denmark, and in 352 controls from a German cohort. Among patients, none of the identified variants represented a known pathogenic variant for HAE. Moreover, no significant association with ACEi/ARB-induced angioedema was found for any of the identified common [minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%] or rare (MAF < 5%) variants. However, several non-significant trends suggestive of possible protective effects were observed. The lowest p -value for an individual variant was found in PLG (rs4252129, p.R523W, p = 0.057, p .adjust > 0.999, Fisher’s exact test). Variant p.R523W was found exclusively in controls and has previously been associated with decreased levels of plasminogen, a precursor of plasmin which is part of a pathway directly involved in bradykinin production. In addition, rare, potentially functional variants (MAF < 5%, Phred-scaled combined annotation dependent depletion score >10) showed a nominally significant enrichment in controls both: 1) across all five genes; and 2) in the F12 gene alone. However, these results did not withstand correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, our results suggest that HAE-associated mutations are, at best, a rare cause of ACEi/ARB-induced angioedema. Furthermore, we were unable to identify a significant association between ACEi/ARB-induced angioedema and other variants in the investigated genes. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to draw more definite conclusions concerning variants with limited effect sizes, including protective variants.
We present the long-term outcomes of 44 patients who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after vaccination with the adenoviral vector ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 COVID-19 vaccine. Assessment of the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale was performed within 3–6 months after the initial hospital admissions. Patient outcomes ranged from good recovery (13 patients, 29.6%) to moderate disability (11 patients, 25.0%) and severe disability or vegetative state (6 patients, 13.6%). Fatal outcomes were reported in 14 patients (31.8%).
The present successor article comprises more than 180 substances representing a continuative compilation of toxicologically evaluated starting materials prompted by the wide use and high number of homeopathic and anthroposophic medicinal products (HMP) on the market together with the broad spectrum of active substances of botanical, mineral, chemical or animal origin contained therein, and by the equally important requirement of applying adequate safety principles as with conventional human medicinal products in line with the European regulatory framework. The February 2019 issue of the Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology journal includes the antecedent article bearing the same title and entailing safety evaluations of more than 170 raw materials processed in HMP. This part 2 article highlights scientific evaluation following recognized methods used in toxicology with a view to drug-regulatory authority's assessment principles and practice in the context of HMP, and offers useful systematic, scientifically substantiated and simultaneously pragmatic approaches in differentiated HMP risk assessment. As a unique feature, both articles provide the most extensive publicly available systematic compilation of a considerable number of substances processed in HMP as a transparent resource for applicants, pharmaceutical manufacturers, the scientific community and healthcare authorities to actively support regulatory decision making in practice.
Ketamine and its enantiomer S‐ketamine (esketamine) are known to produce rapid‐onset antidepressant effects in major depression. Intranasal esketamine has recently come into the market as an antidepressant. Besides experience from short‐term use in anesthesia and analgesia, the experience with ketamine as long‐term medication is rather low. The use of ketamine and esketamine is limited due to potential neurotoxicity, psychocomimetic side effects, potential abuse and interindividual variability in treatment response including cessation of therapy. Therefore, taking a look at individual patient risks and potential underlying variability in pharmacokinetics may improve safety and dosing of these new antidepressant drugs in clinical practice. Differential drug metabolism due to polymorphic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and gene‐drug interactions are known to influence the efficacy and safety of many drugs. Ketamine and esketamine are metabolized by polymorphic CYP enzymes including CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2A6. In antidepressant drug therapy, usually multiple drugs are administered which are substrates of CYP enzymes, increasing the risk for drug‐drug interactions (DDIs). We reviewed the potential impact of polymorphic CYP variants and common DDIs in antidepressant drug therapy affecting ketamine pharmacokinetics, and the role for dose optimization. The use of ketamine or intranasal esketamine as antidepressants demands a better understanding of the factors that may impact its metabolism and efficacy in long‐term use. In addition to other clinical and environmental confounders, prior information on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic determinants of response variability to ketamine and esketamine may inform on dose optimization and identification of individuals at risk of adverse drug reactions.
Most blockers of both hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) channels and pancreatic ß-cell ATP-sensitive K⁺ (KATP) channels access their binding sites from the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. It is unknown whether binding to intracellular components competes with binding of these substances to K⁺ channels. The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique, a laser-scanning confocal microscope, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were used to study hERG channels expressed in HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 cells and KATP channels from the clonal insulinoma cell line RINm5F. When applied via the pipette solution in the whole-cell configuration, terfenadine blocked both hERG and KATP currents with much lower potency than after application via the bath solution, which was not due to P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of terfenadine. Such a difference was not observed with dofetilide and tolbutamide. 37–68% of hERG/EGFP (enhanced green-fluorescent protein) fusion proteins expressed in HEK 293 cells were slowly diffusible as determined by laser-scanning microscopy in the whole-cell configuration and by FCS in intact cells. Bath application of a green-fluorescent sulphonylurea derivative (Bodipy-glibenclamide) induced a diffuse fluorescence in the cytosol of RINm5F cells under whole-cell patch-clamp conditions. These observations demonstrate the presence of intracellular binding sites for hERG and KATP channel blockers not dialyzable by the patch-pipette solution. Intracellular binding of terfenadine was not influenced by a mutated hERG (Y652A) channel. In conclusion, substances with high lipophilicity are not freely diffusible inside the cell but steep concentration gradients might exist within the cell and in the sub-membrane space. Graphical Abstract
Background Percutaneous procedures (e.g. Pascal, MitraClip and Tendyne) are used to treat symptomatic primary and secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) in various degrees of severity according to the European guidelines. The surgical procedures have a higher degree of recommendation under defined conditions. The presented work analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of percutaneous procedures, the results in clinical trials and gives an outlook on the importance of newer procedures, such as transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR).Methods The effectiveness and safety (e.g. MR reduction, complication rates) of the procedures compared with treatment alternatives in clinical trials are assessed using a literature review (2003–2022) and the BfArM database.ResultsIn recent years, treatment with MitraClip has also been proven in clinical trials (e.g. MR reduction ≤ 1+). It is now used for the treatment of primary and secondary MR. In comparison, the analysis of a study from the BfArM database on direct annuloplasty (2-year follow-up, use in high-risk surgery patients, secondary MR ≥ 3+) shows the specific advantages (overall distinct improvement of NYHA classes and MR grades) and risks (e.g. anchor detachment with partly ineffective MR reduction in 8.3% of implanted patients).DiscussionThere has been a rapid development in transcatheter procedures for the treatment of mitral regurgitation in the last years. They have advantages but also carry product-specific risks (e.g. for TMVR the LVOT obstruction). For MitraClip, the extended indication (intermediate surgical risk) is currently being investigated in a clinical trial (REPAIR MR). The BfArM welcomes the expansion of corresponding evidence and will keep an eye on further developments with respect to the availability of safe and efficient medical devices for patients.
Sacituzumab govitecan (SG) is an antineoplastic agent which combines a humanized monoclonal antibody binding to trophoblast cell surface antigen-2 (Trop-2)-expressing cancer cells, linked with cytotoxic moiety SN-38 (govitecan) with topoisomerase I inhibitor action. On 22 November 2021, a marketing authorization valid through the European Union (EU) was issued under the European Medicines Agency (EMA)’s accelerated assessment program for SG as monotherapy for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) who have received two or more prior systemic therapies, including at least one of them for advanced disease. The assessment was based on results from an open-label, randomized, phase III trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of SG versus treatment of physician’s choice (TPC) in patients with mTNBC who received at least two prior treatments including at least one of them for advanced disease. The efficacy results in the overall population, based on mature data, showed a statistically significant improvement of SG over TPC in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The median PFS was 4.8 months versus 1.7 months [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.43, n = 529; 95% CI 0.35-0.54; P < 0.0001] and the median OS was 11.8 months versus 6.9 months (HR = 0.51, n = 529; 95% CI 0.41-0.62; P < 0.0001). The most common (>30%) side effects of SG were diarrhea, neutropenia, nausea, fatigue, alopecia, anemia, constipation and vomiting. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the scientific review of the application leading to regulatory approval in the EU.
Background: The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) is an in vitro test system for the detection of a sensitization in the context of allergies to drugs. Its reported sensitivity varies largely and seems to be affected by different parameters. In review articles, the average LTT performance was often calculated by combining overall mean sensitivities of various published studies, but without considering different patient characteristics or varying patient numbers per publication. Objective: This meta-analysis aims to investigate the impact of different patient-specific and methodical parameters on the sensitivity of the LTT based on data on the level of the individual patient extracted from single studies. Methods: We performed an advanced literature search in Pubmed and screened the identified publications according to previously defined inclusion criteria. In total, individual patient data from 721 patients were extracted from 30 studies. Random-effects meta-regression analyses were performed. Results: The analysis indicate that the ELISA-based read-out is more sensitive compared to the classical radioactivity method (ELISA: 80% vs. radioactivity: 66%;p=0.084). Interestingly, DRESS/DHISS is associated with a higher probability of a positive LTT test result compared to other investigated clinical phenotypes ("DRESS/DHISS" vs. "bullous reaction"; OR: 2.52;p-value=0.003). Our analysis also revealed an impact of the time to testing period after the occurrence of the allergic event ("<2 weeks" vs. "2 weeks-2 months"; OR: 2.12;p-value=0.034). Conclusion: The read-out method and relevant clinical parameters affect the sensitivity of the LTT. These findings are based on a meta-analysis providing a higher level of evidence than a single study or previous reviews not considering individual patient data.
In 2018, high levels of the IARC class IIA carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were analytically verified in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) valsartan, resulting in extensive regulatory action on angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists and recall of finished drug products by the pharmaceutical industry to ensure patient safety. The root cause of contamination was the unintended reaction of common reagents utilized during drug synthesis. This lead to serious effects on drug quality and immediate regulatory action. Thus, routine analysis of drug product contents are inevitable and necessitate thoroughly performed work up procedures of the product as well as adequate validated analytical methods. The nature of N-nitrosamines (NA), ranging from small, semi-volatile compounds up to highly polar molecules, effort sophisticated requirements in terms of instrumental analysis. Up today, gas as well as liquid chromatographic devices coupled to mass spectrometers are the most widespread systems for analysis. Gas chromatographic – mass spectrometric (GC-MS) systems, obviously superior towards liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for detecting small volatile compounds like NDMA, reach their limits for broadly designed studies including polar or acidic NA. In this study, a complementary and highly sensitive approach by means of liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is presented, including detection of 13 NA deduced from major classes of secondary amines. Thereby, the fully validated approach was performed in accordance to ICH and European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. Quantitative proof-of-concept measurements with various APIs and market authorized tablets as representative drug formulations conclude applicability for further presumably contaminated substances. The approach employs organic or inorganic extraction steps with solid phase extraction (SPE). The limit of detection for the most prominent NA, NDMA and N-diethylnitrosamine (NDEA), were both 0.025 parts-per-billion (ppb) per matrix, respectively.
The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products (SBPs; also called biosimilars) were adopted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2009. In 2019, the ECBS considered that a more tailored and potentially reduced clinical data package may be acceptable in cases where this was clearly supported by the available scientific evidence. The goal of this publication is to review the current clinical experience and scientific evidence and to provide an expert perspective for updating the WHO guidelines to provide more flexibility and clarity. As the first step, the relevant guidelines by other regulatory bodies were reviewed in order to identify issues that might help with updating the WHO guidelines. Next, a literature search was conducted for information on the long-term efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of biosimilars to identify possible long-term problems. Finally, a search for articles concerning the role of clinical studies in the benefit-risk evaluation of biosimilars was conducted. The analysis of other guidelines suggested that the WHO guidelines may need more emphasis on the importance of the state-of-the-art physicochemical and structural comparability exercise and in vitro functional testing. The use of "foreign" reference product will also need clarifications. The value of in vivo toxicological tests in the development of biosimilars is questionable, and the non-clinical part needs revisions accordingly. The concepts of "totality of evidence," "stepwise development," and "residual uncertainty" were applied in the evaluation of the clinical sections of the guideline. The review of long-term safety and efficacy demonstrated the robustness of the current biosimilar development concept. The analysis of the roles of different development phases suggested that the large efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity studies are, in most cases, redundant. The residual uncertainty of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of biosimilars that has shaped the current regulatory guidelines is now substantially reduced. This will allow the re-evaluation of the non-clinical and clinical requirements of the current WHO main guideline. The shift of the relative impact of the development phases towards physico-chemical and in vitro functional testing will provide a relief to the manufacturers and new challenges to the regulators.
Human brain cells generated by in vitro cell programming provide exciting prospects for disease modeling, drug discovery and cell therapy. These applications frequently require efficient and clinically compliant tools for genetic modification of the cells. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) fulfill these prerequisites for a number of reasons, including the availability of a myriad of AAV capsid variants with distinct cell type specificity (also called tropism). Here, we harnessed a customizable parallel screening approach to assess a panel of natural or synthetic AAV capsid variants for their efficacy in lineage-related human neural cell types. We identified common lead candidates suited for the transduction of directly converted, early-stage induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived later-stage, radial glia-like neural progenitors, as well as differentiated astrocytic and mixed neuroglial cultures. We then selected a subset of these candidates for functional validation in iNSCs and iPSC-derived astrocytes, using shRNA-induced downregulation of the citrate transporter SLC25A1 and overexpression of the transcription factor NGN2 for proofs-of-concept. Our study provides a comparative overview of the susceptibility of different human cell programming-derived brain cell types to AAV transduction and a critical discussion of the assets and limitations of this specific AAV capsid screening approach.
A webinar series that was organised by the Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences Biophar-maceutics focus group in 2021 focused on the challenges of developing clinically relevant dissolution specifications (CRDSs) for oral drug products. Industrial scientists, together with regulatory and academic scientists, came together through a series of six webinars, to discuss progress in the field, emerging trends, and areas for continued collaboration and harmonisation. Each webinar also hosted a Q&A session where participants could discuss the shared topic and information. Although it was clear from the presentations and Q&A sessions that we continue to make progress in the field of CRDSs and the utility/success of PBBM, there is also a need to continue the momentum and dialogue between the industry and regulators. Five key areas were identified which require further discussion and harmonisation. Citation: McAllister, M.; Flanagan, T.; Cole, S.; Abend, A.; Kotzagiorgis, E.; Limberg, J.; Mead, H.; Mangas-Sanjuán, V.; Dickinson, P.A.; Moir, A.; et al. Developing
Subsequent to the dietary uptake of nitrate/nitrite in combination with acetaldehyde/ethanol, combination effects resulting from the sustained endogenous exposure to nitrite and acetaldehyde may be expected. This may imply locoregional effects in the upper gastrointestinal tract as well as systemic effects, such as a potential influence on endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC). Salivary concentrations of the individual components nitrate and nitrite and acetaldehyde are known to rise after ingestion, absorption and systemic distribution, thereby reflecting their respective plasma kinetics and parallel secretion through the salivary glands as well as the microbial/enzymatic metabolism in the oral cavity. Salivary excretion may also occur with certain drug molecules and food constituents and their metabolites. Therefore, putative combination effects in the oral cavity and the upper digestive tract may occur, but this has remained largely unexplored up to now. In this Guest Editorial, published evidence on exposure levels and biokinetics of nitrate/nitrite/NOx, NOC and acetaldehyde in the organism is reviewed and knowledge gaps concerning combination effects are identified. Research is suggested to be initiated to study the related unresolved issues.
We report upon PanelDesign, a framework to support the design of diagnostic next generation DNA sequencing panels with epidemiological information. Two publicly available resources, namely Genomics England PanelApp and Orphadata, were combined into a single data set to allow genes in a given NGS panel to be ranked according to the frequency of the associated diseases, thereby highlighting potential core genes as defined by the Eurogenetest/ESHG guidelines for diagnostic next generation DNA sequencing. In addition, PanelDesign can be used to evaluate the contribution of different genes to a given disease following ACMG (American College of Medical Genetics) technical standards.
There is growing recognition across broad sectors of the scientific community that use of genomic biomarkers has the potential to reduce the need for conventional rodent carcinogenicity studies of industrial chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals through a weight-of-evidence approach. These biomarkers fall into 2 major categories: (1) sets of gene transcripts that can identify distinct tumorigenic mechanisms of action; and (2) cancer driver gene mutations indicative of rapidly expanding growth-advantaged clonal cell populations. This call-to-action article describes a collaborative approach launched to develop and qualify biomarker gene expression panels that measure widely accepted molecular pathways linked to tumorigenesis and their activation levels to predict tumorigenic doses of chemicals from short-term exposures. Growing evidence suggests that application of such biomarker panels in short-term exposure rodent studies can identify both tumorigenic hazard and tumorigenic activation levels for chemical-induced carcinogenicity. In the future, this approach will be expanded to include methodologies examining mutations in key cancer driver gene mutation hotspots as biomarkers of both genotoxic and nongenotoxic chemical tumor risk. Analytical, technical, and biological validation studies of these complementary genomic tools are being undertaken by multisector and multidisciplinary collaborative teams within the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute. Success from these efforts will facilitate the transition from current heavy reliance on conventional 2-year rodent carcinogenicity studies to more rapid animal- and resource-sparing approaches for mechanism-based carcinogenicity evaluation supporting internal and regulatory decision-making.
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