The concept of elder abuse has become increasingly prominent in public health. It raises problems that call for critical discussion, especially in light of the COVID pandemic. This essay offers such discussion, including discussion of whether the concept is worth retaining at all.
Context: Public opinion on the performance of health system actors is polarized today, but it remains unclear which actors enjoy the most (least) trust among Democrats and Republicans, whether the Covid-19 pandemic has influenced how people view their own physicians, and whether doctors have retained the ability to influence public beliefs about policy issues. Methods: We conducted two national surveys in 2022 and 2023 to examine these questions. Findings: Democrats rate the performance of medical research scientists and public health experts during the pandemic more highly than do Republicans and independents. About three in ten Republicans say that the pandemic decreased their trust in their personal doctors. Nonetheless, most Americans report confidence in physicians. We replicate the findings of Gerber et al. (2014) to demonstrate that respondents continue to have more positive views of doctors than other professionals, and that public opinion is responsive to cues from a doctors' group. Conclusions: What polarizes Democrats and Republicans today is not whether medical scientists and public health experts are competent, but whether the advice offered by these actors is in the public interest and should guide policymakers' decisions. Democrats strongly believe the answer to these questions is yes, while Republicans exhibit skepticism.
Sea ice is a heterogeneous, evolving mosaic of individual floes, varying in spatial scales from meters to tens of kilometers. Both the internal dynamics of the floe mosaic (floe‐floe interactions), and the evolution of floes under ocean and atmospheric forcing (floe‐flow interactions), determine the exchange of heat, momentum, and tracers between the lower atmosphere and upper ocean. Climate models do not represent either of these highly variable interactions. We use a novel, high‐resolution, discrete element modeling framework to examine ice‐ocean boundary layer (IOBL) turbulence within a domain approximately the size of a climate model grid. We show floe‐scale effects could cause a marked increase in the production of fine‐scale three‐dimensional turbulence in the IOBL relative to continuum model approaches, and provide a method of representing that turbulence using bulk parameters related to the spatial variance of the ice and ocean: the floe size distribution and the ocean kinetic energy spectrum.
Deficits in reward learning are core symptoms across many mental disorders. Recent work suggests that such learning impairments arise by a diminished ability to use reward history to guide behaviour, but the neuro-computational mechanisms through which these impairments emerge remain unclear. Moreover, limited work has taken a transdiagnostic approach to investigate whether the psychological and neural mechanisms that give rise to learning deficits are shared across forms of psychopathology. To provide insight into this issue, we explored probabilistic reward learning in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 33) or schizophrenia (n = 24) and 33 matched healthy controls by combining computational modelling and single-trial EEG regression. In our task, participants had to integrate the reward history of a stimulus to decide whether it is worthwhile to gamble on it. Adaptive learning in this task is achieved through dynamic learning rates that are maximal on the first encounters with a given stimulus and decay with increasing stimulus repetitions. Hence, over the course of learning, choice preferences would ideally stabilize and be less susceptible to misleading information. We show evidence of reduced learning dynamics, whereby both patient groups demonstrated hypersensitive learning (i.e. less decaying learning rates), rendering their choices more susceptible to misleading feedback. Moreover, there was a schizophrenia-specific approach bias and a depression-specific heightened sensitivity to disconfirmational feedback (factual losses and counterfactual wins). The inflexible learning in both patient groups was accompanied by altered neural processing, including no tracking of expected values in either patient group. Taken together, our results thus provide evidence that reduced trial-by-trial learning dynamics reflect a convergent deficit across depression and schizophrenia. Moreover, we identified disorder distinct learning deficits.
Background Owing to structural-level, interpersonal-level, and individual-level barriers, Latino men have disproportionately high rates of physical inactivity and experience related chronic diseases. Despite these disparities, few physical activity (PA) interventions are culturally targeted for Latino men. Objective This study reported the feasibility and acceptability of Hombres Saludables PA intervention for Latino men. We also reported the preliminary efficacy of the intervention on PA change and provided the results of the exploratory moderator and mediator analysis. Methods We completed a 6-month, single-blind, pilot randomized controlled trial of Hombres Saludables with Latino men aged between 18 and 65 years. Men were randomized to either (1) a theory-driven, individually tailored, internet-based and SMS text message–based, Spanish-language PA intervention arm or (2) a nutrition and wellness attention contact control arm that was also delivered via the web and SMS text message. We assessed the primary study outcomes of feasibility using participant retention and acceptability using postintervention survey and open-ended interview questions. We measured the preliminary efficacy via change in minutes of moderate to vigorous PA per week using ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometry (primary measure) and self-reported minutes per week using 7-day Physical Activity Recall. Participants completed the assessments at study enrollment and after 6 months. Results The 38 participants were predominantly Dominican (n=8, 21%) or Guatemalan (n=5, 13%), and the mean age was 38.6 (SD 12.43) years. Retention rates were 91% (21/23) for the PA intervention arm and 100% (15/15) for the control arm. Overall, 95% (19/20) of the intervention arm participants reported that the Hombres study was somewhat to very helpful in getting them to be more physically active. Accelerometry results indicated that participants in the intervention group increased their PA from a median of 13 minutes per week at study enrollment to 34 minutes per week at 6 months, whereas the control group participants showed no increases. On the basis of self-reports, the intervention group was more likely to meet the US PA guidelines of 150 minutes per week of moderate to vigorous PA at 6-month follow-up, with 42% (8/19) of the intervention participants meeting the PA guidelines versus 27% (4/15) of the control participants (odds ratio 3.22, 95% CI 0.95-13.69). Exploratory analyses suggested conditional effects on PA outcomes based on baseline stage of motivational readiness, employment, and neighborhood safety. Conclusions The PA intervention demonstrated feasibility and acceptability. Results of this pilot study indicate that the Hombres Saludables intervention is promising for increasing PA in Latino men and suggest that a fully powered trial is warranted. Our technology-based PA intervention provides a potentially scalable approach that can improve health in a population that is disproportionately affected by low PA and related chronic disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03196570; https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03196570 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) RR2-10.2196/23690
Causal reasoning is a fundamental cognitive ability that enables individuals to learn about the complex interactions in the world around them. However, the mechanisms that underpin causal reasoning are not well understood. For example, it remains unresolved whether children's causal inferences are best explained by Bayesian inference or associative learning. The two experiments and computational models reported here were designed to examine whether 5- and 6-year-olds will retrospectively reevaluate objects-that is, adjust their beliefs about the causal status of some objects presented at an earlier point in time based on the observed causal status of other objects presented at a later point in time-when asked to reason about 3 and 4 objects and under varying degrees of information processing demands. Additionally, the experiments and models were designed to determine whether children's retrospective reevaluations were best explained by associative learning, Bayesian inference, or some combination of both. The results indicated that participants retrospectively reevaluated causal inferences under minimal information-processing demands (Experiment 1) but failed to do so under greater information processing demands (Experiment 2) and that their performance was better captured by an associative learning mechanism, with less support for descriptions that rely on Bayesian inference. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Five- and 6-year-old children engage in retrospective reevaluation under minimal information-processing demands (Experiment 1). Five- and 6-year-old children do not engage in retrospective reevaluation under more extensive information-processing demands (Experiment 2). Across both experiments, children's retrospective reevaluations were better explained by a simple associative learning model, with only minimal support for a simple Bayesian model. These data contribute to our understanding of the cognitive mechanisms by which children make causal judgements.
Bowers et al. argue that deep neural networks (DNNs) are poor models of biological vision because they often learn to rival human accuracy by relying on strategies that differ markedly from those of humans. We show that this problem is worsening as DNNs are becoming larger-scale and increasingly more accurate, and prescribe methods for building DNNs that can reliably model biological vision.
Echinoderms produce functional gametes throughout their lifespan, in some cases exceeding 200 years. The histology and ultrastructure of echinoderm ovaries has been described but how these ovaries function and maintain the production of high‐quality gametes remains a mystery. Here, we present the first single cell RNA sequencing data sets of mature ovaries from two sea urchin species ( Strongylocentrotus purpuratus [Sp] and Lytechinus variegatus [Lv] ), and one sea star species ( Patiria miniata [Pm] ). We find 14 cell states in the Sp ovary, 16 cell states in the Lv ovary and 13 cell states in the ovary of the sea star. This resource is essential to understand the structure and functional biology of the ovary in echinoderms, and better informs decisions in the utilization of in situ RNA hybridization probes selective for various cell types. We link key genes with cell clusters in validation of this approach. This resource also aids in the identification of the stem cells for prolonged and continuous gamete production, is a foundation for testing changes in the annual reproductive cycle, and is essential for understanding the evolution of reproduction of this important phylum.
The sample of asteroid (101955) Bennu was collected from the Nightingale sample site by the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security–Regolith Explorer spacecraft and arrived on Earth on 24 September 2023. To better understand Bennu's parent body, we identified boulders over 2 m in diameter around the Nightingale region and analyzed normal albedo, morphology, and surface roughness. We found that boulders can be separated into two groups based on albedo, and four groups using morphology including angularity, texture, and the presence or absence of clasts, layers, and bright spots: Type A is rounded, rugged, and clastic, with the highest root‐mean square deviation roughness; Type B is sub‐angular with intermediate roughness and polygonal surface fractures; Type C is angular, has distinct fractures, and the lowest roughness; and Type D is sub‐angular with intermediate roughness and bright spots. Unsupervised clustering algorithms showed that our Type A‐D classification represents the diversity in the morphology and albedo data. Using documented contacts between boulder groups, we conclude that boulders on Bennu originated on a single, heterogeneous parent body that experienced vertical mixing via impacts prior to or during its disruption. The boulder morphologies on Bennu bear striking resemblance to those on asteroid Ryugu, potentially suggesting a shared origin. Finally, from analyses of sample collection images, we predict that the sample will be heterogeneous in morphology, brightness, and degree of aqueous alteration and dominated by darker Type A and B material. These predictions are supported by initial analyses of the Ryugu sample.
Background While Option B + has made great strides in eliminating vertical transmission of HIV and improving access to lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for women, the postpartum period remains a risk period for disengagement from HIV care and non-adherence. Methods Longitudinal qualitative data was collected from 30 women living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa from pregnancy through 1 year postpartum to examine key barriers and facilitators to HIV treatment adherence across this transition. Participants were also asked about their preferences for behavioral intervention content, format, and scope. The intervention development process was guided by Fernandez et al.’s Intervention Mapping process and was informed by the qualitative data, the wider literature on ART adherence, and Transition Theory. Results The Womandla Health Intervention is a multicomponent intervention consisting of four individual sessions with a lay health worker and four peer group sessions, which span late pregnancy and early postpartum. These sessions are guided by Transition Theory and utilize motivational interviewing techniques to empower women to ascertain their own individual barriers to HIV care and identify solutions and strategies to overcome these barriers. Conclusions This intervention will be tested in a small scale RCT. If successful, findings will provide an innovative approach to HIV treatment by capitalizing on the transition into motherhood to bolster self-care behaviors, focusing on ART adherence and also women’s overall postpartum health and psychosocial needs.
Comparative “omics” studies have revealed unique aspects of human neurobiology, yet an evolutionary perspective of the brain N-glycome is lacking. We performed multiregional characterization of rat, macaque, chimpanzee, and human brain N-glycomes using chromatography and mass spectrometry and then integrated these data with complementary glycotranscriptomic data. We found that, in primates, the brain N-glycome has diverged more rapidly than the underlying transcriptomic framework, providing a means for rapidly generating additional interspecies diversity. Our data suggest that brain N-glycome evolution in hominids has been characterized by an overall increase in complexity coupled with a shift toward increased usage of α(2-6)–linked N -acetylneuraminic acid. Moreover, interspecies differences in the cell type expression pattern of key glycogenes were identified, including some human-specific differences, which may underpin this evolutionary divergence. Last, by comparing the prenatal and adult human brain N-glycomes, we uncovered region-specific neurodevelopmental pathways that lead to distinct spatial N-glycosylation profiles in the mature brain.
Ecosystem restoration has traditionally focused on re-establishing vegetation and other foundation species at basal trophic levels, with mixed outcomes. Here, we show that threatened shorebirds could be important to restoring coastal wetland multifunctionality. We carried out surveys and manipulative field experiments in a region along the Yellow Sea affected by the invasive cordgrass Spartina alterniflora. We found that planting native plants alone failed to restore wetland multifunctionality in a field restoration experiment. Shorebird exclusion weakened wetland multifunctionality, whereas mimicking higher predation before shorebird population declines by excluding their key prey – crab grazers – enhanced wetland multifunctionality. The mechanism underlying these effects is a simple trophic cascade, whereby shorebirds control crab grazers that otherwise suppress native vegetation recovery and destabilize sediments (via bioturbation). Our findings suggest that harnessing the top-down effects of shorebirds – through habitat conservation, rewilding, or temporary simulation of consumptive or non-consumptive effects – should be explored as a nature-based solution to restoring the multifunctionality of degraded coastal wetlands.
Background Assisted living (AL) is an increasingly common, place of care for dying persons. However, it remains unclear to what extent residents are able to age in place or if AL represents an additional transition before death. Objectives Examine the sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, health care utilization, and end-of-life care pathways of AL residents before death. Research Design A national cohort study of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries residing in large AL communities (25+ beds) during the month of January 2017 with 3 years of follow-up, using administrative claims data. Subjects 268,812 AL residents. Measures Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and health care utilization at the end of life. Results Between 2017 and 2019, 35.1% of the study cohort died. Decedents were more likely than the overall AL population to be 85 years old or older (76.5% vs. 59.5%), and diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia (70.3% vs. 51.6%). Most decedents (96.2%) had some presence in AL during the last year of life, but over 1 in 5 left AL before the last month of life. Among those in AL on day 30 before death, nearly half (46.4%) died in place without any health care transition, while 13.2% had 3 or more transfers before dying. Conclusions AL is an important place of care for dying persons, especially for those with dementia. These findings indicate a need to assess existing policies and processes guiding the care of the frail and vulnerable population of dying AL residents.
Purpose To assess a new method for inferring glaucoma status using prescriptions data. Methods The study population comprised all individuals living in Denmark in the period 1995 to 2018 and included 6,930,571 individuals. We used information from The National Prescription Registry on claimed prescriptions as the basis for our study ( N = 223,592). We inferred glaucoma status using data on claimed prescriptions, in-hospital ICD-10 diagnoses, and in-hospital glaucoma surgeries. We infer glaucoma status in three ways using the prescription pattern: glaucoma inferred by (i) the use of a first claimed prescription, (ii) the use of a second claimed prescription with a gap of at least 90 days, and (iii) the use of a third claimed prescription for glaucoma medication, again with a gap of at least 90 days between prescriptions. Furthermore, we compared the results with alternative indications for glaucoma, namely in-hospital ICD-10-diagnosed glaucoma and in-hospital glaucoma surgery. Results We first determined that glaucoma status could be inferred from claimed prescription data and found that a single claimed prescription was highly correlated with the more restricted composite measure of glaucoma ( R ² = 0.80, p <0.0001), with a kappa coefficient of 80%. Focusing on individuals with a confirmed in-hospital glaucoma diagnosis, we found a high sensitivity of 88% using anti-glaucomatous prescriptions as a surrogate marker for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We then derived several descriptive insights. The prevalence of glaucoma increased during the period from 1996 to 2018, while the incidence was constant. We also found a decreasing trend in the ratio of the number of people diagnosed annually in hospitals to the number of people filling prescriptions. This indicated a relative increase in the number of patients treated or managed in the secondary sector. Finally, using data on diagnoses and claimed prescriptions, we found that the proportion of total noncompliant patients, i.e., patients who do not claim their prescription at any time in the study period (two decades) was at most 11.8%. This share is calculated on the basis of diagnosed patients who did not have surgery. The results was not sensitive to the glaucoma inference rule. Conclusion Anti-glaucomatous medicine prescriptions can be used to infer glaucoma status, with useful implications for epidemiological research. The sensitivity is particularly high for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
The carbonaceous asteroid Ryugu has been explored by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to elucidate the actual nature of hydrous asteroids. Laboratory analyses revealed that the samples from Ryugu are comparable to unheated CI carbonaceous chondrites; however, reflectance spectra of Ryugu samples and CIs do not coincide. Here, we demonstrate that Ryugu sample spectra are reproduced by heating Orgueil CI chondrite at 300°C under reducing conditions, which caused dehydration of terrestrial weathering products and reduction of iron in phyllosilicates. Terrestrial weathering of CIs accounts for the spectral differences between Ryugu sample and CIs, which is more severe than space weathering that likely explains those between asteroid Ryugu and the collected samples. Previous assignments of CI chondrite parent bodies, i.e., chemically most primitive objects in the solar system, are based on the spectra of CI chondrites. This study indicates that actual spectra of CI parent bodies are much darker and flatter at ultraviolet to visible wavelengths than the spectra of CI chondrites.
Introduction The World Health Organization developed Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment Plus (ETAT+) guidelines to facilitate pediatric care in resource-limited settings. ETAT+ triages patients as nonurgent, priority, or emergency cases, but there is limited research on the performance of ETAT+ regarding patient-oriented outcomes. This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of ETAT+ in predicting the need for hospital admission in a pediatric emergency unit at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of pediatric emergency unit patients enrolled over a 4-week period using fixed random sampling. Diagnostic accuracy of ETAT+ was evaluated using receiver operating curves (ROCs) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with associated sensitivity and specificity (reference category: nonurgent). The ROC analysis was performed for the overall population and stratified by age group. Results A total of 323 patients were studied. The most common reasons for presentation were upper respiratory tract disease (32.8%), gastrointestinal disease (15.5%), and lower respiratory tract disease (12.4%). Two hundred twelve participants were triaged as nonurgent (65.6%), 60 as priority (18.6%), and 51 as emergency (15.8%). In the overall study population, the area under the ROC curve was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.99). The ETAT+ sensitivity was 93.8% (95% CI, 87.0%–99.0%), and the specificity was 82.0% (95% CI, 77.0%–87.0%) for admission of priority group patients. The sensitivity and specificity for the emergency patients were 66.0% (95% CI, 55.0%–77.0%) and 98.0% (95% CI, 97.0%–100.0%), respectively. Conclusions ETAT+ demonstrated diagnostic accuracy for predicting patient need for hospital admission. This finding supports the utility of ETAT+ to inform emergency care practice. Further research on ETAT+ performance in larger populations and additional patient-oriented outcomes would enhance its generalizability and application in resource-limited settings.
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