Bowie State University
Recent publications
In this paper, we study a new generalization of the Lorentz cone $$\mathcal{L}^n_+$$ L + n , called the monotone extended second-order cone (MESOC). We investigate basic properties of MESOC including computation of its Lyapunov rank and proving its reducibility. Moreover, we show that in an ambient space, a cylinder is an isotonic projection set with respect to MESOC. We also examine a nonlinear complementarity problem on a cylinder, which is equivalent to a suitable mixed complementarity problem, and provide a computational example illustrating applicability of MESOC.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career barriers persist for individuals from marginalized communities due to financial and educational inequality, unconscious bias, and other disadvantaging factors. To evaluate differences in plans and interests between historically underrepresented (UR) and well-represented (WR) groups, we surveyed more than 3000 undergraduates enrolled in chemistry courses. Survey responses showed all groups arrived on campus with similar interests in learning more about science research. Over the 4 years of college, WR students maintained their interest levels, but UR students did not, creating a widening gap between the groups. Without intervention, UR students participated in lab research at lower rates than their WR peers. A case study pilot program, Biosciences Collaborative for Research Engagement (BioCoRE), encouraged STEM research exploration by undergraduates from marginalized communities. BioCoRE provided mentoring and programming that increased community cohesion and cultivated students' intrinsic scientific mindsets. Our data showed that there was no statistical significant difference between BioCoRE WR and UR students when surveyed about plans for a medical profession, graduate school, and laboratory scientific research. In addition, BioCoRE participants reported higher levels of confidence in conducting research than non-BioCoRE Scholars. We now have the highest annual number of UR students moving into PhD programs in our institution's history.
Study abroad programs are growing in institutions across America and around the world as more and more institutions focus on the need for internationalization across programs. Student participation in study abroad programs is also increasing, with one exception. Minority student participation has not kept pace with other groups. Is this lack of participation due to economic issues, fear, and language barriers, or are there potentially other factors that might be affecting minority student participation rates? This chapter investigates minority students’ perspectives on study abroad programs from within the Historically Black Colleges and Universities, as study abroad programs are important to the overall educational experience of the entire community.
The study uses panel data for the period 2010–2021 to determine whether there is a long-run cointegration relationship between real output growth and capital market development in, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. Using the ARDL and the Markov Switching Regression, the study finds that capital market development measured with market capitalization is positively and significantly related to real GDP growth in the selected North African countries. The error correction term is negative and significant, indicating the subsequent corrections of the deviations of real GDP growth from the long-term value. The paper suggests the need for an expansion and enhancement of capital markets in financing the economies of the selected countries.
This study explores why Black college students are not utilizing social media to prepare for career advancement after graduation. The research suggests students are oblivious to how using it irresponsibly can impact careers. The issue is vital because; 1) There is a disparity of Blacks getting access to white-collar jobs despite having a degree, 2) Recruiters use social media to weed out prospects, and 3) There is a gap in college curriculums that fail to teach students to brand themselves professionally. The sample was one hundred Bowie State University students, instrumentation was an open-end survey, and the framework was empirical probability.
Analyzing network traffic data to detect suspicious network activities (i.e., intrusions) requires tremendous effort due to the variability of the data and constant changes in network traffic patterns. This study introduces an approach to predict future network event (normal and attack) frequencies by generating forecast models and estimating their attack risks. Wavelet transform is used to extract features, and the multivariate time series method, Vector Auto Regression with eXogenous variables (VARX), is utilized to predict future network traffic events. Attack risks for network events are estimated with an adaptive threshold method and assessed by performing classification with two machine learning techniques. We also performed a comparative evaluation to examine the relationship among different time scales (one second, five seconds, and fifteen seconds) and three wavelets in determining attack risks. Our analysis results indicate that wavelet features with VARX show the capability to analyze multivariate network traffic time series data to forecast future network events and estimate their attack risks.
The present human population is more than three times what it was in 1950. With that, there is an increasing demand for the consumption of fossil fuels for various anthropogenic activities. This consumption is the major source of carbon dioxide emission causing greenhouse effects leading to global warming. The dependency on fossil fuels around the globe is such that it would be hard to move away from it any time soon. Hence, we must work on strategies to improve carbon dioxide fixation as we are making advancements in clean energy technology. This review explores the natural carbon dioxide fixation pathways in plants and various microorganisms and discusses their limitations and alternative strategies. It explains what necessitates the exploration of synthetic pathways and discusses strategies and matrices to consider while evaluating various pathways. This review also discusses the recent breakthroughs in the field of nanosciences that could accelerate chemical methods of carbon dioxide fixation.
ABSTRACT Students majoring in non-STEM fields often identify introductory biology courses as irrelevant and overly rigorous. Resistance to enroll in a required general education science course, coupled with negative attitudes toward the subject, can adversely affect the academic performance of students; this can especially be present in students from under-represented minority groups. Therefore, instructors have to intentionally design a curriculum that overcomes these factors as they educate non-major students enrolled in introductory biology. BioArt, a learning community, was formed between introductory biology and introduction to graphic design courses to improve the attitudes and academic performance of students in the biology course at a Historically Black College and University (HBCU). The BioArt model incorporated a common theme, project-based learning, and opportunities for experiential learning. To measure outcomes, traditional examinations, non-traditional assessments, failure/withdraw rates, and student attitudes were evaluated. Using this model, introductory biology became less intimidating, more relevant, and improved academic success among freshman minority students. Thus, the BioArt model can be utilized as an intervention at different institutions of higher learning.
We conducted lab experiments at a historically black university (HBCU), replicating the design and procedure, but not the results, of previous stereotype threat studies. The experimental design has two factors: stereotype salience (priming) and the identity of the experimenter (a less-threatening black woman vs. a more-threatening white man). Unlike previous studies, we found no effect of stereotype threat on student performance. We find little evidence that black students at the HBCU are affected by stereotype threat, regardless of the identity of the experimenter. We found no significant difference in the number of questions answered correctly by subjects in the control and treatment conditions in either the white male or the black female experimenter sessions. Finally, we found little evidence to support our prediction that subjects would respond differently to the identity of the ex-perimenter. Having a black female experimenter, as opposed to a white male experimenter, had no effect on the number of questions answered correctly.
The COVID-19 pandemic shut down undergraduate research programs across the United States. A group of 23 colleges, universities, and research institutes hosted remote undergraduate research programs in the life sciences during Summer 2020. Given the unprecedented offering of remote programs, we carried out a study to describe and evaluate them. Using structured templates, we documented how programs were designed and implemented, including who participated. Through focus groups and surveys, we identified programmatic strengths and shortcomings as well as recommendations for improvements from students’ perspectives. Strengths included the quality of mentorship, opportunities for learning and professional development, and a feeling of connection with a larger community. Weaknesses included limited cohort building, challenges with insufficient structure, and issues with technology. Although all programs had one or more activities related to diversity, equity, inclusion, and justice, these topics were largely absent from student reports even though programs coincided with a peak in national consciousness about racial inequities and structural racism. Our results provide evidence for designing remote Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REUs) that are experienced favorably by students. Our results also indicate that remote REUs are sufficiently positive to further investigate their affordances and constraints, including the potential to scale up offerings, with minimal concern about disenfranchising students.
Since the inception of the mathematics education enterprise, whiteness and antiBlackness are two foundational components, ideological and social constructs. These constructs help to understand how the law, race, class, power, and other forms of oppression operate to establish, maintain, and elevate racism (white supremacy) in and out of the mathematics education enterprise. The article uses critical race theory in mathematics education to examine the enterprise from a historical to contemporary perspective to illustrate how whiteness and antiBlackness have been normalized and used to exclude Blackness. I argue for a liberatory response anchored in African frames to address the atrocities against Black people in and out of mathematics education.
Assessing the effectiveness of different molecular markers is essential for identification of appropriate ones for crop improvement and conservation, hence, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and start codon targeted (SCoT) markers were used for this study. Sixty-six accessions with different genomes obtained from International Transit Center, Belgium, were used for DNA extraction, amplification with ISSR and SCoT markers and agarose gel electrophoresis. The reproducible bands were scored for analyses. We identified high allelic richness of 299 (ISSR) and 326 (SCoT). Polymorphic information contents (ISSR: 0.9225; SCoT: 0.9421) were high but SCoT exhibited higher level of informativeness. The two markers demonstrated high percentage polymorphic loci (ISSR: 91.21–100%; SCoT: 96.97–100%). Other genetic indicators including effective number of alleles, Nei’s genetic diversity, and Shannon information index were higher in SCoT and further elucidated the usefulness of the markers. Intraspecific genetic diversity, interspecific genetic diversity, coefficient of gene differentiation and level of gene flow revealed extensive gene flow and larger variability within the accessions. Both ISSR and SCoT grouped the accessions via dendrogram, biplot and structure analyses. Though the two marker systems varied in their informativeness, they demonstrated high effectiveness in resolving genetic diversity (GD) of the different accessions, with higher efficiency in SCoT markers. Due to higher GD indices exhibited by SCoT, AS is the most genetically endowed one. Our study showed that SCoT markers are more informative than ISSR for GD exploration, assessment and cluster resolution of Musa species, thereby revealing the potential of SCoT markers for improved breeding and conservation.
With over 1,000 public and private Blockchains (coinmarketcap.com, 2020), an acceptance model can facilitate an objective and comparative assessment of existing and future solutions. The novelty of this paper is a new methodology of assessing blockchains using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al., 2003) alongside the distinguishing characteristics of blockchain implementations: trust, utility, and support. The paper distinctly aggregates existing approaches to present a concise assessment model. The distinguishing characteristics of trust, utility, and support in the context of UTAUT are beneficial for comparing and evaluating the myriad of blockchain implementations. The research encourages the examination of existing and future solutions using the UTAUT-focused attributes. The study has broader implications for blockchain solutions by providing contextual constructs necessary for acceptance and use.
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1,130 members
William T Lawrence
  • Department of Natural Science
G. Ude
  • Department of Natural Science
Roman Sznajder
  • Department of Mathematics
Tanya Smith Brice
  • College of Professional Studies
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