Children can learn words incidentally from stories. This kind of learning is enhanced when stories are presented both aurally and in written format, compared to just a written presentation. However, we do not know why this bimodal presentation is beneficial. This study explores two possible explanations: whether the bimodal advantage manifests online during story exposure, or later, at word retrieval. We collected eye‐movement data from 34 8‐to 9‐year‐old children exposed to two stories, one presented in written format (reading condition), and the second presented aurally and written at the same time (bimodal condition). Each story included six unfamiliar words (non‐words) that were repeated three times, as well as definitions and clues to their meaning. Following exposure, the learning of the new words' meanings was assessed. Results showed that, during story presentation, children spent less time fixating the new words in the bimodal condition, compared to the reading condition, indicating that the bimodal advantage occurs online. Learning was greater in the bimodal condition than the reading condition, which may reflect either an online bimodal advantage during story presentation or an advantage at retrieval. The results also suggest that the bimodal condition was more conducive to learning than the reading condition when children looked at the new words for a shorter amount of time. This is in line with an online advantage of the bimodal condition, as it suggests that less effort is required to learn words in this condition. These results support educational strategies that routinely present new vocabulary in two modalities simultaneously.
This article provides a commentary on the development of an integrated all‐age eating disorders service in the Eating disorders service within the NHS in Dorset. Previously separate services existed for those under the age of 18 and those age 18 and over. The change from traditional age based services to the all age service was prompted by the observed problems with transitions for patients, their families and the service such as discontinuities in care, and distress to patients and families. In addition the literature on transitions although limited in eating disorders showed that patient and carer perspectives were mostly negative about transitions. The aim was to create an all‐age service working with patients of different ages, through developing the competencies of the team to appropriately meet the needs of the all age population. This paper describes the context and rationale for this change, its implementation using the organisational change policy approach to service transformation, including addressing the concerns of the stakeholders (patients, carers, staff, and mental health service commissioners), as well as observed changes in the service and its development. Since the all‐age service started in 2016, new research has become available on both the improvement of the transition experience and the potential advantages of all‐age services and relevant aspects are discussed.
This chapter examines the way in which S-D logic has evolved since its introduction in 2004. However, it starts with an examination of a precursor paper co-authored by Lusch in the 1990s that foreshadows the transcendent, unifying spirit of the 2004 foundational paper. The rest of the chapter examines the argumentation surrounding the many changes to the Foundational Premises that have occurred over the past twenty years and explores the rhetorical strategies that have been recruited in their promotion and defence. The chapter finishes by considering the persuasive nature of the claim that S-D logic uses an open source development model.
The author discusses the value of a rhetorical approach in the analysis of scholarly discourse and provides an overview of how rhetoric will be used in the study. The chapter discusses the various ways in which the rhetorical perspective has been used to deconstruct academic writing in the social sciences, including marketing, and then introduces the concepts of persuasive proof, rhetorical argumentation, rhetorical style, and kairos. The major tools of the methodology are covered with a practical focus on introducing the reader to the sort of insights and intricacies that the approach helps to uncover.
This opening chapter provides a brief introduction to S-D logic, its foundational text and evolution, and the reasons why the nature of its persuasive discourse should be given close attention. The concept of ‘marketing’ marketing thought is examined within the context of scholarly publication practice and within the context of the co-creation of value that is central to S-D logic itself. The rhetorical nature of the key S-D logic concept of the value proposition is introduced and discussed in the context of debates around persuasion and manipulation in both rhetoric and marketing scholarship. The scope of the study is explained and its structure introduced.
Systems thinking has been a component in Vargo and Lusch’s work since its inception, stretching back even to the paper Lusch co-authored in the early 1990s that we examined in chapter 4 (Kiel et al., Toward a New Paradigm for Marketing: The Evolutionary Exchange Paradigm. Behavioral Science, 37(1), 59–76, 1992). However, the extent to which the systems perspective has moved towards the centre of S-D logic has certainly increased over the past fifteen years. Consequently, this chapter analyses the way in which systems thinking (that is, perspectives on the market as a system that are influenced by General Systems Theory, first- and second-order cybernetics, and the broader ‘systems thinking’ movement) has been used rhetorically in the development of S-D logic. After a quite promising start in the work of Fisk (Marketing Systems: An Introductory Analysis. Harper International, 1967), systems approaches have had a patchy reception and uptake by marketing scholars, most recently finding a sympathetic home in the sub-field of macromarketing. This chapter looks at the rhetorical tensions behind the systems concept in marketing and wider business and management studies and asks what persuasive (as well as conceptual) advantage does its adoption bring to S-D logic? The chapter finishes with a consideration of the rhetoric of transcendence in S-D logic and a final reflection on how this relates to the compelling value proposition at the core of the logic.
This chapter examines the rhetorical structures and strategies embedded in the document that forms the foundational moment of S-D logic, the 2004 Journal of Marketing article by Vargo and Lusch. It describes the ways in which the authors construct a rhetorical history that drives their portrayal of the logic and the manner in which they expound it. As such, this chapter deconstructs the mythic framework around the inception and evolution of S-D logic that works to persuasively position the work as an inevitable, organic continuation of the evolution of general marketing thought. Of central importance in this analysis is a consideration of the part played by agon (generative struggle) and kairos (opportune timing) both in the rhetorical argumentation articulated by Vargo and Lusch and in the framing constructed through editorial decisions around the article’s presentation. The chapter also investigates the rhetorical energy generated through the particular choices of lexicon in the foundational paper and it finishes by advancing a rhetorically-derived formulation of the core value proposition at its heart.
This chapter provides a detailed reading of the website instituted by the founders of S-D logic. The website provides up-to-date discourse around the logic as well as acting as a repository for a large number of canonical articles from the founders. As the most editorially ‘free’ of all long-form distribution platforms involved in the dissemination of S-D logic thinking, the structure, content and style of the website is an essential artefact for rhetorical investigation in any analysis of S-D logic as a persuasive enterprise. As part of its analysis of the digital platform of S-D logic marketing, this chapter also considers the nature of the visual rhetoric surrounding S-D logic.
A tenet of ecology is that temporal variability in ecological structure and processes tends to decrease with increasing spatial scales (from locales to regions) and levels of biological organization (from populations to communities). However, patterns in temporal variability across trophic levels and the mechanisms that produce them remain poorly understood. Here we analyzed abundance time series of spatially structured communities (i.e., metacommunities) spanning basal resources to top predators from 355 freshwater sites across three continents. Specifically, we used a hierarchical partitioning method to disentangle the propagation of temporal variability in abundance across spatial scales and trophic levels. We then used structural equation modeling to determine if the strength and direction of relationships between temporal variability, synchrony, biodiversity, and environmental and spatial settings depend on trophic level and spatial scale. We found that temporal variability in abundance decreased from producers to tertiary consumers but did so mainly at the local scale. Species population synchrony within sites increased with trophic level, whereas synchrony among communities decreased. At the local scale, temporal variability in precipitation and species diversity were associated with population variability (linear partial coefficient, β = 0.23) and population synchrony (β = −0.39) similarly across trophic levels, respectively. At the regional scale, community synchrony was not related to climatic or spatial predictors, but the strength of relationships between metacommunity variability and community synchrony decreased systematically from top predators (β = 0.73) to secondary consumers (β = 0.54), to primary consumers (β = 0.30) to producers (β =0). Our results suggest that mobile predators may often stabilize metacommunities by buffering variability that originates at the base of food webs. This finding illustrates that the trophic structure of metacommunities, which integrates variation in organismal body size and its correlates, should be considered when investigating ecological stability in natural systems. More broadly, our work advances the notion that temporal stability is an emergent property of ecosystems that may be threatened in complex ways by biodiversity loss and habitat fragmentation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Individuals have increasingly high expectations of return to activity following total hip replacement (THR) surgery. The current literature demonstrates marked improvements in pain following THR. However, there is limited evidence showing objective improvement in daily activity. This randomized pilot trial aimed to determine the effect of an intervention where outdoor walking distance is used as a goal to increase daily activity of older adults using a commercial activity monitor at 3 to 6 months post THR. Findings suggested that the participants in the intervention group had higher activity levels after THR, compared to those in the control group. The Cohen’s effect sizes were larger for the changes in the gait, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale data in the intervention group in contrast to the control group. However, further research with a larger sample size is required to provide tangible evidence on the significance of the effect of the purposeful walk compared to step count.
This paper evaluates an established five-day drama project, designed, and delivered by a professional company, aimed to support the development of self-confidence of seven men with a history of substance misuse in a category C prison. The project involved creation of a safe space, improvised role-play, development of communication skills, and exploration of substance misuse, culminating in a performance. Audience members included prison staff, governors, healthcare staff, and prisoners. A mixed method approach was used to evaluate the project. Participant’s pre and post project self-confidence and feelings of positivity were collated by a questionnaire compromising of closed questions and measured using a Likert scale. On the last day of the project qualitative interviews were conducted using open ended questions. The findings conclude that the use of drama can support development of self-confidence in men in prison. The project encouraged skills such as, commitment, communication, collaboration, and motivation enhancing the likelihood of rehabilitation and promoting crime abstinence. Further research with a larger sample size will identify if the changes the men experienced were statistically significant and maintained.
Aim To explore the experiences of older adults (65+) living with acquired brain injury regarding their sense of well‐being during physical rehabilitation within the Greek Healthcare System. Background With the increasing ageing population and the life‐changing effects of acquired brain injury, there is a need to focus on care for older people and their potential to live well. Rehabilitation systems deserve greater attention, especially in improving the well‐being of those who are using them. Design A qualitative study design with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used. Methods Fourteen older adults living with acquired brain injury and undergoing physical rehabilitation in Greece were purposively sampled. Semi‐structured interviews were conducted to collect data and were thematically analysed using van Manen's and Clarke and Braun's methods. The COREQ checklist was followed. Results Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) Challenges of new life situation, (2) Seeking emotional and practical support through social interaction, (3) Identifying contextual processes of rehabilitation, (4) Realising the new self. Conclusions The subjective experiences, intersubjective relations and contextual conditions influence the sense of well‐being among older adults living with acquired brain injury, thus impacting the realisation of their new self. The study makes the notion of well‐being a more tangible concept by relating it to the degree of adaptation to the new situation and the potential for older adults to create a future whilst living with acquired brain injury. Relevance for Clinical Practice Identifying the factors that impact older adults' sense of well‐being during rehabilitation can guide healthcare professionals in enhancing the quality of care offered and providing more dignified and humanising care. Patient or Public Contribution Older adults living with acquired brain injury were involved in the study as participants providing the research data.
Just as the superhero comic became threatened by market forces in the 1950s, new challenges arrived in the 1970s, a decade that saw the genre commercially imperilled once more. Between 1985 and ’86, DC Comics published Crisis on Infinite Earths, a twelve-part maxi-series, written by Marv Wolfman and drawn by George Perez, that sought to destroy the DC Universe and, in the wake of story’s aftermath, reboot their entire line of comics from the beginning again. This, however, did not happen as Wolfman envisioned due to several factors involving conflicts with DC’s editorial leaders and a backlash orchestrated by long-term super-readers for whom wiping the slate clean was nothing less than an act of cultural vandalism. Although Crisis has often been described as a reboot, this chapter challenges that viewpoint by arguing that the ‘event-series’ operates not as a beginning again but as an end-point, a final hurrah for DC’s master-narrative continuity. I argue that Crisis is better understood as a ‘pre-boot,’ a story that rationalizes the end of DC continuity at that stage to prepare the ground for legitimate reboots to follow. Although Crisis did not completely wipe the slate clean, as many scholars have claimed, DC instead employed numerous strategies of regeneration, juggling reboots, retcons, and relaunches that would not recalibrate master-narrative continuity, as Wolfman intended, but led to the imaginary world becoming more confusing. This chapter also explores the way that readers responded at the time to indicate what is at stake when editors disrespect the time and investment that ‘super-readers’ have spent in staying up-to-date with the DC Universe.
This chapter focuses on the Batman franchise. Beginning in the 1980s, a decade that saw the acceleration and accumulation of discourses hinged onto a platonic ideal of Batman as ‘grim and gritty,’ a Foucauldian regime of truth scaffolded by binary oppositions between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ interpretations, between camp crusader and Dark Knight. Throughout this chapter, I illustrate the ways that Batman has been regenerated and refreshed, rather than rebooted, across the character’s eighty-plus year life-span, challenging and complicating the notion that early Batman comics represent an ‘ur-text’ for the ‘grim and gritty’ incarnation that approaches dominance in the 1980s. The second half of the chapter turns to the Batman film series, providing an archaeology of the franchise that details the way in which the commercial and critical failure of Joel Schumacher’s twin Batman films prompted the system to ‘crash,’ a failure that Christopher Nolan’s Batman Begins (2005) sought to restore by rebooting the film series from the beginning again. I will show that production and promotional discourses mobilized paratexts to establish that the reboot differed in tone and tenor from Schumacher’s ‘bad’ object, Batman and Robin (1997). The chapter concludes by exploring the in media res film reboots that followed Nolan’s The Dark Knight Trilogy, namely Zak Snyder’s Batman V Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016) and Matt Reeves’ The Batman , both of which unwittingly tapped into the regime of truth by marshalling similar texts and authors to discursively project an idealized vision of the Dark Knight and Dark Detective to audiences and, especially, fans.
This chapter continues to define the reboot concept against the erroneous uses of the term in press discourse, focusing primarily on the various ways that academics have unwittingly embraced definitions advanced by entertainment critics rather than tracking the term’s original meaning as it emerged from superhero comics fandom. Throughout, I challenge misuses in scholarly literature by comparing and contrasting several concepts that should not be equated with reboot terminology, including prequels, sequels, revivals, spin-offs, (re-)adaptations, and remakes. I conclude this chapter by arguing that distinguishing between conceptual frameworks allows for a more nuanced and focused understanding of the various ways in which entertainment franchises become ‘new’ again through strategies of regeneration.
This chapter picks up where the previous one left off, focusing primarily on John Byrne’s six-part Man of Steel (1986), a mini-series that sought to reboot DC’s archetypal superhero from the beginning again. Exploring Byrne’s creative process and the story contained within Man of Steel, this chapter also considers the fan response, as well as journalistic discourses that shared commonalities with the backlash that wreathed the launch of soft-drink, New Coke, in 1985, exemplifying that both the Superman reboot and New Coke became embroiled in discourses that performed ideals of authenticity, nation, and masculinity. I also consider Man of Steel’s commercial performance and the impact of reboot on the comics world.
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