# Boise State University

• Boise, Idaho, United States
Recent publications
High-functioning autism, informally known as Asperger’s, involves diminished social skills considered important for university instruction. In an experiment, 370 freshmen and sophomores mostly Caucasian students from a western U. S. university responded to a survey to investigate whether male or female instructors might equally benefit from higher initial student impressions of their teaching ability. Role Congruity Theory suggests that individuals will be supported when their characteristics align with their group’s social roles. The theory implies that women should follow female stereotypes involving more empathy and social skills and less systemization. Examples of social skills include smooth back-and-forth conversations, appropriate eye contact, and interest in students. An example of systemization includes having a specific order in how things are done in a classroom. In contrast, men should follow male stereotypes involving more systemization and less empathy and social skills. As autism is more associated with male characteristics, female university instructors who reveal their male-oriented high-functioning autism might receive lower initial impressions. In contrast, men who reveal their high-functioning autism would receive higher impressions. Results showed that student impressions of female instructors were not significantly different when autism was revealed (p < .26). In contrast, the results show that male instructors had higher student impressions if they reveal their autistic characteristics (p < .01). This research is unique in its focus on the relationship between instructor gender, autism revelations, and student impressions of the instructors. Implications for future research and practice are provided.
This paper describes the author’s exploratory experience of porting the build systems of two large software distributions, the LLVM and GCC programming-language translation systems, to the Amake build tool. Amake is an enhanced derivative of the very popular GNU Make. Amake adds automatic language-independent dependency analysis and site-wide heterogeneous target caching. Amake also supports GNU Make’s parallel-build capabilities. This experience included (mostly) expected changes to both of these build systems, but somewhat surprising changes to Amake’s design and implementation. A description of the former changes is hoped to encourage developers to migrate their build systems to Amake. The latter changes showcase Amake’s most recently added features.
Despite many calls, there is little research addressing teachers’ knowledge of reading assessments and how they utilize assessments for reading instruction. Therefore, the current research developed and validated a reliable measure of teachers’ perceptions and knowledge of reading assessments, called the Perceptions and Knowledge of Assessment in Literacy Survey (PKALS). Through the analysis of two separate administrations, we provide evidence for validity of the PKALS and examine the associations between teachers’ characteristics and their performance on the PKALS. This research also found that teacher experience was correlated with higher knowledge; however, teachers’ certification and graduate degree status were not. The PKALS can support future researchers and teacher preparation programs to identify gaps in teacher knowledge, allowing for interventions to promote student reading success.
Instructional reform in STEM aims for the widespread adoption of evidence based instructional practices (EBIPS), practices that implement active learning. Research recognizes that faculty social networks regarding discussion or advice about teaching may matter to such efforts. But teaching is not the only priority for university faculty – meeting research expectations is at least as important and, often, more consequential for tenure and promotion decisions. We see value in understanding how research networks, based on discussion and advice about research matters, relate to teaching networks to see if and how such networks could advance instructional reform efforts. Our research examines data from three departments (biology, chemistry, and geosciences) at three universities that had recently received funding to enhance adoption of EBIPs in STEM fields. We evaluate exponential random graph models of the teaching network and find that (a) the existence of a research tie from one faculty member i\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$i$$\end{document} to another j\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$j$$\end{document} enhances the prospects of a teaching tie from i\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$i$$\end{document} to j\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$j$$\end{document}, but (b) even though faculty highly placed in the teaching network are more likely to be extensive EBIP users, faculty highly placed in the research network are not, dimming prospects for leveraging research networks to advance STEM instructional reforms.
Self-cleaving ribozymes are RNA molecules that catalyze the cleavage of their own phosphodiester backbones. These ribozymes are found in all domains of life and are also a tool for biotechnical and synthetic biology applications. Self-cleaving ribozymes are also an important model of sequence to function relationships for RNA because their small size simplifies synthesis of genetic variants and self-cleaving activity is an accessible readout of the functional consequence of the mutation. Here we used a high-throughput experimental approach to determine the relative activity for every possible single and double mutant of five self-cleaving ribozymes. From this data, we comprehensively identified non-additive effects between pairs of mutations (epistasis) for all five ribozymes. We analyzed how changes in activity and trends in epistasis map to the ribozyme structures. The variety of structures studied provided opportunities to observe several examples of common structural elements, and the data was collected under identical experimental conditions to enable direct comparison. Heat-map based visualization of the data revealed patterns indicating structural features of the ribozymes including paired regions, unpaired loops, non-canonical structures and tertiary structural contacts. The data also revealed signatures of functionally critical nucleotides involved in catalysis. The results demonstrate that the data sets provide structural information similar to chemical or enzymatic probing experiments, but with additional quantitative functional information. The large-scale data sets can be used for models predicting structure and function and for efforts to engineer self-cleaving ribozymes.
Observations of planet Earth from space are a critical resource for science and society. Satellite measurements represent very large investments and United States (US) agencies organize their effort to maximize the return on that investment. The US National Research Council conducts a survey of Earth science and applications to prioritize observations for the coming decade. The most recent survey prioritized a visible to shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer and a multispectral thermal infrared imager to meet a range of needs for studying Surface Biology and Geology (SBG). SBG will be the premier integrated observatory for observing the emerging impacts of climate change by characterizing the diversity of plant life and resolving chemical and physiological signatures. It will address wildfire risk, behavior, and recovery as well as responses to hazards such as oil spills, toxic minerals in minelands, harmful algal blooms, landslides, and other geological hazards. The SBG team analyzed needed instrument characteristics (spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions, measurement uncertainty) and assessed the cost, mass, power, volume, and risk of different architectures. We present an overview of the Research and Applications trade‐study analysis of algorithms, calibration and validation needs, and societal applications with specifics of substudies detailed in other articles in this special collection. We provide a value framework to converge from hundreds down to three candidate architectures recommended for development. The analysis identified valuable opportunities for international collaboration to increase the revisit frequency, adding value for all partners, leading to a clear measurement strategy for an observing system architecture.
We demonstrate the ability to tailor self-assembled growth of In0.5Ga0.5As quantum dots (QDs) on GaSb(111)A surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy. Spontaneous formation via the Volmer-Weber growth mode produces QDs with excellent structural and optical quality. By harnessing tensile strain to reduce their band gap energy, these QDs are characterized by light emission that extends into the midwave infrared wavelength range of 3.2-3.9 μm (0.318-0.388 eV). As we increase QD size, we can tune the band alignment from type-III to type-II, where light emission occurs due to interband recombination between quantum confined electrons in the InGaAs QDs and holes in the GaSb barriers. Of particular interest is an unusual blue-shift in emission wavelength with increasing QD size, which we attribute to the incorporation of Sb into the InGaAs QDs from the GaSb barriers. By expanding this approach to produce tensile-strained QDs from other narrow band gap semiconductors, we anticipate the development of a range of highly tunable mid-infrared light sources.
Java Pathfinder (JPF) was originally developed as an explicit state software model checker and subsequently evolved into an extensible Java bytecode analysis framework that has been successfully used to implement techniques such as symbolic and concolic execution, compositional verification, parallel execution, incremental program analysis, and many more. Apart from its original domain of concurrent Java programs, JPF now supports the verification of new domains such as UMLs, numeric programs, graphical user interfaces, and Android applications.
Stream acoustics has been proposed as a means of monitoring discharge and wave hazards from outside the stream channel. To better understand the dependence of sound on discharge and wave characteristics, this study analyzes discharge and infrasound data from an artificial wave feature. This feature, known as Boise Whitewater Park: Phase 1 (BWPP1), is adjusted to accommodate daily changes in recreational use and seasonal changes in irrigation demand. Significant sound is only observed when discharge exceeds ~35 m3/s, and even above that threshold the sound-discharge relationship is non-linear and inconsistent. When sound is observed, it shows consistent dependence on wave type within a given year, but the direction of this dependence varies among the three years studied (2016, 2021, and 2022). These findings support previous research that establishes discharge and stream morphology as significant controls on stream acoustics and highlights the complex, combined effects of these variables.
Climate change has increased the severity and frequency of droughts over the last decades. To alleviate the adverse impacts of droughts, an effective planning and management framework requires high-resolution spatiotemporal data. TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) dataset provides sufficient accuracy with fine spatio-temporal resolution. However, it only covers a short temporal span, which limits its applicability for drought studies. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and accurate temporal extension of TMPA using four Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based models. To improve AI-based model precipitation estimations, fusion techniques including Orness, Orlike and genetic algorithm (GA)-based weighting methods were employed. Results show that fusion approaches provide more accurate estimates of precipitation. Different timescales of n-SPI time series and drought spatial maps were prepared to visually evaluate the performance of long-term TMPA (LT-TMPA) alongside statistical error indices. The results confirm that this dataset is effective for meteorological drought monitoring over southern Iran. Finally, drought risk assessment was carried out to determine the spatiotemporal characteristics of droughts through Severity-Duration-Frequency (SDF) contour maps. In contrast to the traditional SDF curves, SDF contour maps provide a superior understanding of drought for policymakers since they preserve spatial information.
Natural variation in migratory strategies across the range of the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) creates a unique opportunity for comparative research of annual cycles. However, it can be logistically and technically challenging to track such a small but highly mobile species. We tagged American Kestrels with light-level geolocators or satellite transmitters with the aim of estimating migration timing and connectivity, and we monitored a subset of satellite-tagged individuals during the breeding season to assess transmitter function and wear. We recovered geolocators from six of 49 (12%) tagged individuals. One geolocator-tagged individual migrated approximately 1235 km from its Idaho breeding grounds to New Mexico near the Arizona border for the winter and returned to Idaho the following spring. The other five recaptured individuals remained near (<200 km) the breeding grounds year-round. The low reliability of recovery and low precision of locations suggested major limitations of using geolocators to track this species. Most satellite transmitters (18 of 22, 82%) failed prior to migration, but one satellite-tagged individual migrated approximately 5945 km from Canada to Nicaragua, and three others transmitted ≥1 location during migration. Transmitters stopped functioning while on live individuals despite showing no visible damage and maintaining adequate battery levels. These results suggest further testing and development are needed before these recently developed tags are deployed again on American Kestrels. Both individuals with complete migration tracks showed evidence of short distance (250–350 km) post-breeding movements to southern stopover sites where they stayed 1–3 mo before migrating onward. Although sample sizes were small, migration patterns were consistent with latitudinal leap-frog patterns described in previous studies and revealed an interesting pattern of a prolonged post-breeding stopover before longer migration. Further, the migration track from Canada to Nicaragua represents the longest recorded migration path for this species.
Individualizing instruction is a time-consuming aspect of classroom practice. Testing multiple interventions, and monitoring each to see which is most effective for a student can be prohibitively time consuming. However, Brief Experimental Analysis (BEA) is an assessment procedure that can be used to quickly identify an intervention that is likely to be successful with an individual student. BEA provides teachers with a method to efficiently collect data and predict which intervention is most likely to be successful before a significant amount of time and resources are invested. The BEA process can be used with students at a variety of grade levels for the purpose of academic and behavior intervention. This paper describes how to implement BEA in reading with students with intellectual disabilities in order to prepare them for opportunities in postsecondary education. We will also discuss how to overcome hurdles that practitioners may experience implementing the process.
In Educational Duct Tape, Jake Miller compares, contrasts, and selects a plethora of technology tools for educators in a creative and entertaining way. By offering snapshots from his personal and professional life, the author created a pleasant and easy-to-read book. He emphasizes that technology should not be employed as the end objective, but rather as a means to an end. Throughout the book, he argues that educational technology tools should be utilized to solve classroom problems, address learning objectives, and accomplish specific goals exactly as we use duct tape to mend minor problems in our daily lives. The book is complemented with educational technology podcasts and online resource hubs for each chapter, which include supplementary tools, videos, and discussion sections.
This forum provides a space to engage with the challenges of designing for intelligent algorithmic experiences. We invite articles that tackle the tensions between research and practice when integrating AI and UX design. We welcome interdisciplinary debate, artful critique, forward-looking research, case studies of AI in practice, and speculative design explorations. --- Juho Kim and Henriette Cramer, Editors
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• Department of Geosciences
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• Biomolecular Research Center
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