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    ABSTRACT: The swift evolution rate of avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus demands constant efforts to update inactivated vaccines to match antigenically with the emerging new field virus strains. Recently, a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (rHVT)-AI vaccine, rHVT-H5, expressing the HA gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 clade 2.2 A/Swan/Hungary/499/ 2006 strain inserted into FC-126 strain of HVT vector, has been developed to combat current threats in poultry industry. Here, we present the results of two trials where rHVT-H5 was tested alone or in combination with inactivated H5N1 vaccines (the latter vaccines contained antigens produced by using a clade 2.1.3 HPAI H5N1 virus [A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007] in the first trial or mixture of antigen produced by strain A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007 and A/Ck/Banten-Tangerang/2010 [bivalent vaccine] for second trial) in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) carrying maternally derived antibodies to H5N1 and then challenged with Indonesian HPAI H5N1 field isolates. The effectiveness of vaccination was evaluated on the basis of clinical protection (morbidity and mortality) and measurement of virus shedding after challenge. Immune response to vaccination was followed by serology. In the first experiment, chickens were vaccinated at the day of hatch with rHVT-H5 alone (Group 1) or combined with inactivated vaccine at day old (Group 2) or at 10 days of age (Group 3). The chickens along with nonvaccinated hatch-mates were challenged at 28 days of age with the HPAI H5N1 field isolate dade 2.1.3 A/Chicken/WestJava-Subang/29/2007. Eighty, 100%, and 80% clinical protection was recorded in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A similar experiment was performed a second time, but the chicks in Group 3 received the inactivated vaccine earlier, at 7 days of age. Challenge was performed at 28 days of age using a different H5N1 isolate, clade 2.1.3 A/Ck/Purwakarta-Cilingga/142/10. Clinical protection achieved in the second trial was 95%, 75%, and 90% in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Shedding of challenge virus was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups compared with controls in both experiments. Vaccinated birds developed hemagglutination inhibition antibody response to H5N1 by the time of challenge. These experiments confirmed that the rHVT-H5 vaccine applied alone or in combination with inactivated H5N1 vaccines could provide high level (> 80%) clinical protection against divergent HPAI H5N1 field isolates after single immunization by 4 wk of age and a significant reduction in the excretion of challenge virus.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Avian Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β β β β β (TGF-β β β β β) is a two-chain polypeptide with molecular weight of 25 kDa which takes significant role in the steroidogenesis process. In the ovarian oocyte in particular, TGF-β β β β β has an important role in regulating reproductive function. TGF-β β β β β represents a key intrafollicular protein that regulates follicle development and aromatization process. The purpose of this research was to characterize and identify a protein fraction of TGF-β β β β β from the bovine isolated oocytes, which is synthesized during in vitro oocyte maturation process. Oocytes were collected from follicles with diameter of 3-8 mm. Oocytes were then matured in TCM 199 media supplemented with 5 μ μ μ μ μg/mg LH, 3% BSA, and 50 μ μ μ μ μg/ml gentamicin sulfate, and cultured in CO 2 incubator (5%, 38.5 o C) for 20 hours. TGF-β β β β β receptors were identified immunohistochemically. Characteristics of the TGF-β β β β β protein were determined using SDS PAGE and TGF-β β β β β specification was tested using Western Blotting. The results showed that TGF-β β β β β receptors were identified and found in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs). TGF-β β β β β protein was isolated from bovine oocytes with molecular weight 25 kDa and it was identified by Western blotting methods in the same molecular weight.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals
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