The constant depletion of wild flora and fauna in India due to uncontrolled human activities, natural habitat destruction and covert poaching activities is threatening the ecological balance. The poaching and trafficking of wild species in the lure of money as well as fashion has wiped out a range of wildlife species that call for critical attention to tackle this menace. There are many transit routes through the states of Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Assam, which are major hubs for wildlife trafficking in India, in both domestic and international markets. The poaching of wild animals and plants slowly erases biodiversity, which in turn affects the survival of humans and other living species. Therefore, there is an urgent need to check ongoing wildlife crimes, raise the number of endangered species, rehabilitate exotic/extinct species and restore natural ecosystems. In this article, we collected wildlife crime data from web portals of various stakeholders, government agencies and authentic news sources, and discuss the current crime trends, challenges, and prevention approaches required to control and restore wildlife biodiversity in India.
The rapid increase in population and climate change is calling for sustainable methods to improve food production such as soil microbial management. Here we review the ecology and mechanisms of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Rhizosphere comprises both symbiotic and non-symbiotic microorganisms that influence plant growth positively by their effect on mineral nutrient uptake and bioavailability. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria facilitate resource acquisition and modulate phytohormone levels. Indirect mechanisms include production of antibiotics, lytic enzymes and siderophores, competition to harmful organisms, regulation of ethylene production, and induced systemic resistance. Plant growth-promoting substances suppress plant pathogens through competition for nutrients and space. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial increases crop yields. Numerous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are already marketed and are actually replacing mineral fertilizers and pesticides.
The production and consumption of maize (Zea mays) are the highest for human food as well as animal feed. Maize lacks essential amino acids (lysine, tryptophan), micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, Se, I), and various vitamins (vitamin A). Therefore, the issue of malnutrition is still prevalent in nations where maize is the staple crop and has led to the impairment in the growth and development of the ever-increasing population, ultimately causing significant economic losses. A combinatorial approach is being used to overcome this issue which includes dietary diversification and food supplements. Regardless of these approaches, maize biofortification holds immense potential, proving to be a sustainable and cost-effective solution to malnutrition. Here, we describe conceivable methods for developing biofortified maize cultivars to curb global malnutrition. Agronomic biofortification includes applying fertilizers having concoctions of sulfates, hydrates, and oxides to fortify maize in its edible parts. GWAS and QTL mapping have so far helped a lot in identifying genetic elements controlling a particular phenotype. Hence, modern breeding techniques have improved the maize germplasm but still face the huge challenge of low yield potential and environmental impacts. The underlying molecular mechanisms which help in the uptake and deposition of these essential micronutrients in the maize grain have been studied in detail. Recently, the transgenic approach has been most widely used as it gives a comprehensive analysis of the regulatory pathways. Bacterial as well as plant genes have been expressed in maize, but despite the massive potential, commercial production through this approach has not been put to reality yet. The most advanced and flexible approach which uses CRISPR/Cas9 has opened up new avenues of genome editing for multiple purposes. The economic and social constraints of every approach have also been discussed.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant genetic variation in the population, have become the molecular marker of choice. Generally, the efficient detection of SNPs requires specialized costly equipment. Although there are a few strategies for detecting SNPs through polymerase chain reaction, followed by restriction enzyme digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis, these methods are time-consuming and might be less diagnostic. Interestingly, the tetra primer amplification refractory mutation system (T-ARMS) strategy utilizes a pair of allele-specific primers in a single PCR for the diagnostic detection of SNPs in a codominant manner through standard agarose gel electrophoresis. The simplicity and robustness of the strategy have inspired the researchers to adopt this low-cost method of SNP detection in different crop plants. Here, we have described the principle, methods, and conditions for the T-ARMS strategy. The described methodology starts from the isolation of genomic DNA and ends with the post-PCR analysis of refractory amplicons in standard agarose gel electrophoresis. The limitations and future perspectives are also discussed. Taken together, T-ARMS evolves as a method of choice for low-cost SNP detection in plants.
Unlabelled: Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers are second most abundant polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular markers having enormous applications in genotyping and molecular breeding in different crops. Although standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for DNA amplification generally takes ~ 1.5 to 2 h, small amplicons can be effectively generated using dynamic heating and cooling through PCR with "V"-shaped thermal profile (VPCR) in ~ 15 to 20 min. Here, we evaluated the applicability of a partly modified VPCR method for amplifying InDels of tomato genome. Out of the 31 InDel markers tested in 15 diverse tomato genotypes, 29 markers resulted in sharp amplicons, where 26 markers were found to be polymorphic. Using this method, the individual DNA amplification reactions could be completed within ~ 30 min. The method was effective for primers varying in melting temperature (T m) and GC contents. Furthermore, the need for empirically determining suitable annealing temperature could be bypassed using this generalised thermal profile. Through our results, we advocate the use of this method of DNA amplification in other plants to achieve rapid genotyping using standard molecular biology equipments and procedures. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-023-03499-x.
Tropical fruits and vegetables are predominantly cultivated in warm climate zones, resulting in cultivar diversity in terms of structure, features, and physiology. These constitute a variety of bioactive ingredients such as vitamins, minerals, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, fatty acids, fiber, and their distinctive appearances attract customers across the world. The global production of fruit and vegetables has been attained a tremendous increase for the last few decades. However, huge losses at pre- and postharvest levels are major constraints in their judicious use. Traditional breeding strategies were used to minimize these losses, but their functionality is limited due to their time and labor intensiveness. Recent biotechnological, computational, and multiomics approaches not only address the losses concern but also aid in boosting crop productivity and nutritional values. This article emphasizes molecular tools that have been used to reduce losses of tropical fruits and vegetables at pre- and postharvest levels.
Shikha, K.; Chand, R.; Mishra, G.P.; Dikshit, H.K.; Devi, J.; Aski, M.S.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, S.; et al. Rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae Pers. de-Bary) of Pea (Pisum sativum L.): Present Status and Future Resistance Breeding Opportunities. Genes 2023, 14, 374. https://doi. Abstract: Uromyces viciae-fabae Pers. de-Bary is an important fungal pathogen causing rust in peas (Pisum sativum L.). It is reported in mild to severe forms from different parts of the world where the pea is grown. Host specificity has been indicated in this pathogen in the field but has not yet been established under controlled conditions. The uredinial states of U. viciae-fabae are infective under temperate and tropical conditions. Aeciospores are infective in the Indian subcontinent. The genetics of rust resistance was reported qualitatively. However, non-hypersensitive resistance responses and more recent studies emphasized the quantitative nature of pea rust resistance. Partial resistance/slow rusting had been described as a durable resistance in peas. Such resistance is of the pre-haustorial type and expressed as longer incubation and latent period, poor infection efficiency, a smaller number of aecial cups/pustules, and lower units of AUDPC (Area Under Disease Progress Curve). Screening techniques dealing with slow rusting should consider growth stages and environment, as both have a significant influence on the disease scores. Our knowledge about the genetics of rust resistance is increasing, and now molecular markers linked with gene/QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci) of rust resistance have been identified in peas. The mapping efforts conducted in peas came out with some potent markers associated with rust resistance, but they must be validated under multi-location trails before use in the marker-assisted selection of rust resistance in pea breeding programs.
Punjab Agriculture is trapped in the complex nexus of groundwater depletion and food insecurity. The policymakers are concerned about reducing groundwater extraction at any cost for irrigation without jeopardizing food security. In this regard, the Government of Punjab introduced the “Punjab Preservation of Subsoil Water Act, 2009”. The present paper examines the impact of the “Preservation of Sub SoilWater Act, 2009” on pre- and post-water levels in Punjab using the difference-in-difference (DiD) approach. The state has witnessed a severe fall of 0.50 m per year and 0.43 m per year for the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon season, respectively. Only 2.62 per cent of wells were in the range of 20–40 m depth in the state in 1996, which increased to 42 per cent and 67 per cent in 2018 for the pre-monsoon period, and post monsoon period respectively, depicting an increase of 25 times. The groundwater depth in high rice-growing(treated) districts declined by 1.53 and 1.39 m than the low rice-growing (control) districts in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods respectively post the enactment of PPSW Act, 2009. A roundwater governance framework is urgently needed to manage the existing and future challenges connected with the groundwater resource.
Melon fruit fly, Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae (Coquillet) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a serious pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables in Bihar and cucumber is the most preferred host of the pest. The purpose of the current study was to identify the optimum height of trap to capture maximum number of fruit flies. The results showed that the maximum mean number of fruit flies (25.31 flies per trap per day) was caught in trap at a height of 35 cm and it was followed by 70 cm (19.29 flies per trap per day), whereas, the minimum (15.97 and 13.37 flies per trap per day) were caught at the height of 105 and 140 cm. Correlation study revealed that the height of the traps had highly significant and negative correlation (-0.980**) with number of fruit flies catches per trap at weekly interval, which indicates that the maximum fruit fly catches were obtained near the ground level where the fruit lies. Four species of fruit flies were trapped in the pheromone traps: B. cucurbitae, B. caudata, B. tau and B. nigrofemoralis. These present findings suggest that for the monitoring of fruit flies, the cuelure (p-acetoxyphenyl 2 butanic) traps should be hanged at the height of 35 cm from ground level to get the maximum counts of fruit flies.
Ethiopia is gifted with diversified types of soils. Being the foundation of agricultural industries, soil is the driving force to sustain safe and profitable production. Soil is not only meant for production functions but is directly linked to many other functions and services of industrial and socio-economic relevance. Soil is vital for our shelter in mud housesMud house or houses made of clay bricks and tilesBricks and tiles. Similarly, clay ceramicsCeramics are popularly used in pottery, household utensilsHousehold utensils, mud or clay stoves and bins. Soils through sand and clays have tremendous contributions to the construction industriesConstruction industry, roads, and even embankments. Besides, Ethiopia has zeoliteZeolite, bentonite, volcanic material and kaolinKaolin deposits either in soil or in their weathered states and are of high industrial values. Clay rich soils, having a high potential of organic carbon sequestrationCarbon sequestration, open opportunities for carbon tradingCarbon trading in days to come, especially in forest soils. However, some emerging threats to soilsThreats to soils are alarming which need to be minimized by sustainable soil and land conservation and management options following the nexus approach.
Unlabelled: Developing multiple disease resistance through naturally available host resistance alleles is a challenging as well as rewarding area of research. Availability of host resistance alleles and the reliability of their identification through diagnostic molecular markers have paved the way for stacking of these resistance alleles for developing important genetic resources in tomato. Here we report the marker assisted stacking of Ty3, Mi1.2 and Ph3 alleles, governing leaf curl, root knot and late blight disease resistance, respectively, in superior F4 segregants of tomato derived from two diverse parents (i.e., BRDT-1 and H-88-78-1). Marker assisted selection was applied only on morphologically superior segregants at F2 and F3 generations, which helped us in identifying suitable lines even from a relatively small population. The diagnostic values of the employed molecular markers advocate that the identified superior segregants, carrying all the three aforementioned resistance alleles in homozygous condition, are suitable to be explored as valuable genetic resources for developing multiple disease resistance through rapid introgression of these genes in different genetic background of tomato. Identification of suitable segregants derived from these lines should be promising for obtaining improved cultivars in near future. Nevertheless, these lines might be further explored to decipher the intrinsic details of host's resistance mechanism involving genetic interactions between different resistance factors. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-022-01277-2.
Grafting in vegetables is an ancient technique to improve the yield through climate friendly practices. This technique was introduced in USA and become very popular in organic vegetables cultivation. Vegetable grafting is popular practice in many European and North American countries, Japan, Korea, and China. Because vegetable crops are so easy to grow, they are very sensitive to climate change. Drought, floods, and salt caused by temperature and precipitation shifts have severely impacted vegetable crop productivity. Vegetable crop cultivation is difficult to say the least in the face of a rapidly changing environment. Although grafting has traditionally been employed on woody and perennial fruit trees, it is increasingly being used to herbaceous plants like vegetables and flowers. In East Asia, grafting is used as a unique method for dealing with the many threats to intensive vegetable production. The genetic and physiological complexity of abiotic stress restricts the creation of tolerable cultivars at the commercial level. In addition, many vegetable crops lack resistant crossover suitable wild resistant sources, with the exception of a few. In this case, the surgical procedure of grafting a plant has been employed successfully to reduce a wide range of different environmental stress. In this chapter, we illustrate the efficacy of this plant propagation method through a review of research results on vegetable grafting.
Most of the commercial mango cultivars have the tendency of alternate bearing, which significantly reduces the productivity and profitability of the crop. But literatures on the exact physiological mechanism behind flowering in mango during on and off year are very scanty. Hence, an attempt has been made to understand the physio-chemical and nutritional basis for on- and off-season bearing in different commercial mango cultivars. Specific leaf weight and net assimilation rate were increased marginally at panicle emergence stage as compared to bud break stage. Carbohydrate and soluble protein contents in the bud at bud break stage were estimated significantly higher in on-season trees (195.25 µg g⁻¹ and 5.73 mg 100 g⁻¹, respectively). Activities of oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, catalase) in the bud were recorded significantly higher in off-season trees. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in the bud at bud break stage were estimated significantly higher in off-season trees (1.52, 0.22 and 0.53%, respectively), although secondary and micronutrient contents were estimated higher in on-season one. Finally, the generative buds per branch were estimated significantly higher in on-season trees (90.66%) as compared to off-season one (18.68%). Hence, it can be concluded that increased physio-chemical attributes in the bud at bud break stage has direct relation with panicle emergence in mango. However, increased macronutrients and higher activities of oxidative enzymes leads to off-season bearing, although increased secondary and micronutrient contents in the bud at bud break stage are helpful for improved flowering in mango.
Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) of maize, caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs., is an important foliar disease common across maize-producing areas of the world, including Bihar, India. In this study, virulence and distribution of races were observed against Ht-resistant genes and also identified the E. turcicum race population distribution in Bihar. For that, 45 E. turcicum isolates were collected from maize fields in Bhagalpur, Begusarai, Khagaria, Katihar and Samastipur districts between 2020 and 2022. These isolates were screened on maize differential lines containing Ht1, Ht2, Ht3 and HtN1 resistance genes. Five different physiological races were observed based on the symptoms response of the differential maize lines. These races are race 0, race 1, race 3, race 23N and race 123N. E. turcicum race 3 was the most prevalent race having 26.6% frequency followed by race 0 (24.4%) and race 1 (22.2%) and the least prevalent races were race 23N and 123N having 13.3% each. Varied resistance response of different isolates was observed on differential lines having different resistant genes. Despite the fact that virulence was seen against all Ht resistance genes, NCLB control might be increased by combining qualitative Ht resistance genes with quantitative resistance.
An analytical method for the quantitative determination of the insecticide spinetoram in cotton and soybean was established and validated using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Spinetoram is the mixture of two spinosyns, 3′-O-ethyl-5,6-dihydro spinosyn J and 3′-O-ethyl spinosyn L. The method involves extraction with ethyl acetate followed by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up with primary secondary amine (PSA), C18 and graphitised carbon black (GCB). The final quantitation of spinetoram was done by using LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization. The method was reproducible (Horwitz ratio (HorRat) < 0.5 at 25 ng g−1) and validated by the analysis of samples spiked at 25, 50 and 100 ng g−1 in soybean, cotton and soil. The recoveries of spinosyns were found to be more than 85% when spiked at different levels. The identities of spinosyns were confirmed by using the ion ratio. A field dissipation study was conducted in soybean and cotton to find out the environmental fate of spinetoram, and samples were analysed following the proposed analytical method. Both isomers were found to be dissipated quickly. The pre-harvest interval of spinetoram was calculated in different substrates.
Early blight disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin), is one of the most important fungal disease throughout the potato growing areas. Field experiments were conducted during winter (rabi) season, 2018–19 and 2019–20 at Vegetable Research Centre, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand for evaluating fungicides against early blight of potato. All the fungicides (mancozeb, hexaconazole, difenoconazole and chlorothalonil) were evaluated in vitro using poison food technique as well as field conditions. In vitro study revealed that chlorothalonil 75% wp gave the best results and showed 18.0 mm, 17.67 mm, 16.33 mm, 12.33 mm and 8.33 mm mycelial growth of Alternaria solani @25 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm and 200 ppm concentration at 7 days after inoculation. In field condition, chlorothalonil 75% WP @0.2% applied as foliar sprays at 10 days interval resulted the lowest disease severity i.e. 22.50% with highest tuber yield (317.90 q/ha). The findings regarding the economics of the potato cultivation clearly revealed that the treatment chlorothalonil @0.2% gave the highest benefit cost ratio i.e. 2.96. The early blight disease of potato may be controlled by applying chlorothalonil at a concentration of 0.25 three times at a 10-day interval, which increased production and provided extra benefits to farmers.
Marker-trait association study was undertaken to identify genomic regions linked to SSR markers with grain shape traits in rice. The association analysis identified 20 and 8 marker-trait association by GLM and MLM approaches, respectively at P values ≤ 0.005. GLM approach identified association for three traits on chromosome 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11 and 12 explaining 16.07% to 38.66% phenotypic variance whereas MLM approach detected association for four traits on chromosome 1, 4, 7, 8 and 11 explaining 15.51% to 27.24%. In GLM approach, the marker loci RM430_200 located on chromosome 5 showed highly significant association with test weight explained maximum phenotypic variance of 38.66%. While in MLM, marker RM320_250 located on chromosome 7 showed highly significant association with grain breadth accounted for 27.24% of phenotypic variance. The significant marker-trait association was lower in MLM compared to those in GLM. MLM method was proven to be useful in controlling false associations. The marker-trait association identified from the present study would be validated and utilized in marker assisted breeding programs of grain shape traits in rice.
Plant disease management is key to sustainable production of staple food crops. Calcium (Ca2+) signal and phytohormones play critical roles in regulating plant defense responses against pathogens. The Ca2+ signals are sensed, decoded and transduced by calmodulin and other Ca2+ -binding proteins, followed by interaction with and modulation of activities of target proteins such as calmodulin-binding proteins (CBPs). Members of the Arabidopsis CBP60 gene family, AtCBP60g and AtSARD1, have emerged as major regulators of immune responses. In this study, we identified a 15 member CBP60 gene family in rice (Oryza sativa) of which OsCBP60g-3, OsCBP60g-4, OsCBP60a and OsSARD-like1 genes were consistently upregulated in rice seedlings in response to infection with both fungal (Magnaporthe oryzae) and bacterial (Xanthomonas oryzae) pathogens as well as by salicylic acid (SA). OsCBP60g-4 and OsCBP60g-3 were induced maximally by SA and brassinosteroid (BR), respectively, and OsCBP60g-4 was expressed at 3-fold higher levels in the M. oryzae resistant rice genotype (IC-346004) as compared to the susceptible rice genotype (Rajendra Kasturi). The considerable expansion of the immunity clade and the up-regulation of several OsCBP60 genes in response to pathogens and defense hormones supports the importance of further investigating OsCBP60 genes as targets for increasing disease resistance in rice.
This study investigated the effects of treating bell pepper fruit cv. Rehana by dipping with spermidine and spermine (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM) and coating with chitosan (1%) on fruit quality, bio-active compounds, antioxidant enzyme activities, shelf life and senescence related compounds. The fruit were stored at 10 °C and 80–90% RH for 56 days. The results revealed that synergistic treatment of spermine 1.5 mM and chitosan 1% (T7) was most effective for reducing weight loss, electrolyte leakage, maintaining fruit quality and enhancing antioxidant activity over other treatments during storage. The bell pepper fruit of T7 treatment exhibited lowered weight loss by 47.6%, electrolyte leakage by 62.6%, malondialdehyde accumulation by 28.3% while maintaining higher total phenols by 68.8%, total carotenoid by 21.9%, ascorbic acid by 15%, total chlorophyll by 30.4%, catalase activity by 34.3% in comparison to control (T1) on the last day of storage. Other treatments showed intermediate effects. The results suggest potential beneficial influence of synergistic treatment of polyamines, particularly spermine 1.5 mM with chitosan in extending shelf life of bell pepper by about 28 days relative to control with notable preservation of bioactive compounds, antioxidant enzymes and slowing senescence indicators over untreated fruit.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important commercial vegetable crop. Thirty-one genotypes were collected from 8 states of India for evaluation of genetic diversity. Nineteen morphological (ten qualitative and nine quantitative) and seven biochemical traits facilitated an assessment of the genetic differences and structure of these eggplant genotypes. The recorded traits of leaf hair, leaf prickles, calyx prickles, fruit pedicel prickles, leaf blade colour, fruit colour, days to 50% flowering, days to first harvest, fruit weight, fruit girth, number of fruits/plant, yield/plant, total phenolics content, antioxidant capacity, chlorophyll content and sugar content were found significantly variable. Many of these characters are of noteworthy socio-economic and nutritional importance and could be used as breeding objectives to improve yield and quality. Result show that in future breeding program of BRBL-1 and IC-89888, yield traits (number of fruits/plant and yield/plant) are important for primary selection. The 2D PCA plot based on biochemical data showed that BRBL-8 was highlighted for its phenolics content, antioxidant properties, chlorophyll content and high sugar content. IIHR-562, IC-261802 and Pant Rituraj have potential for improvement of traits like, number of fruits/plant, yield/plant, total anthocyanin content, phenolics content and antioxidant capacity.
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