Bharathidasan University
  • Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India
Recent publications
The potential of nanotechnology is a vast field that includes a variety of technologies in modernization in the agricultural and food industries. Diverse nanosensor types are being produced to gratify the altering agri/food industry load, comprising food components, elegant packaging, and speedy detection systems. It paves the new path for the latest research and directs the utilization of green nanomaterials for various applications, primarily in biotechnology and agricultural areas. It is mandatory for the understanding of mechanisms and their toxic properties. Quite a few nations around the globe have consequently been worried about testing their governmental outlines' suitability to deal with nanotechnologies. Environmental issues, socio-ethical issues, health and safety risks, issues connected to the receiving of goods via consumers, and market exact may prevail through the manufacturing and creation of green nanomaterials. We review the most recent nanosensor developments, concentrate on the vastly difficult assignments, and show potential possibilities from the preferred newest research in the agri-food sector. The significant points are (1) knowledge gaining and improvement of nanosensor life cycle techniques, risk assessment, toxicity, bioaccumulation, beneficial, and unconstructive crash assessment. (2) The toxicological essentials and the exposure risk linked with the procedure of nanosensors in agri/food and the environment are moreover addressed. (3) Regulation and laws are crucial for ruling nanosensor production, processing, implementation, and disposal. This chapter summarizes green nanomaterials, environmental impact, legal, health, and safety issues, and their purpose in the agricultural sector.
Contamination is today's most serious threat to all life on the planet. Hazardous organic pollutants are a hazard to the health of humans, animals, and the environment. These contaminants might be dangerous if they aren’t controlled. Many scientists have ramped up their efforts to discover safer, more sustainable, and more cost-effective ways to eliminate dangerous pollutants than utilizing hazardous chemicals and treatments now available. Environmental biotechnology uses natural resources like microorganisms and plants to remove harmful organic pollutants, including bioremediation and phytoremediation. Because of its low cost and concern for the environment, this technology presents an appealing alternative to more traditional cleanup methods. The limits of present biological approaches for the removal of organic contaminants, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, are discussed in this chapter, as are new initiatives to overcome the flaws.
The present work primarily focused on isolation of Chlorella vulgaris from industrial wastewater, and use as an effective feedstock for producing renewable biodiesel. Post isolation, the lipid was extracted from Chlorella vulgaris using Soxhlet’s extraction method; and the extracted lipid was converted into algal oil biodiesel, which was then characterized using GC-MS spectral analysis. From the optimized reaction parameters: reaction temperature (45 °C), methanol/ C. vulgaris bio-oil ratio (4:1), catalyst concentration (300 mg) of synthesized lipase immobilized magnetic nanoparticles, and reaction time (6 h) under continuous stirring, the highest yield of C. vulgaris biodiesel was recorded as 87.6%. Besides, the lipase immobilized nano-bio catalyst used in the production process, was found to be highly efficient for about 5 to 6 cycles without any significant loss in the conversion efficiency. Finally, the evaluated fuel properties of the produced C. vulgaris biodiesel were in good agreement with ASTM D6751 standards.
Control of multi drug resistant bacteria and their infection rate is a threat for biomedical and clinical research. Citrus fruits have proven effective against incurable bacterial infections suggesting alternate therapeutics to replace antibiotics in the near future. The antimicrobial potential of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), citron (Citrus medica), and wood apple (Limonia acidissima) fruit peel extracts against pathogenic microorganisms was focused in this study. The antimicrobial activities and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) values were determined using the agar well diffusion and micro dilution method respectively against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae), as well fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). HPLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR analyses were used to identify phytochemicals and functional groups in addition to cytotoxicity investigations using MTT assay. DMSO peel extract of C. aurantium has shown superior antimicrobial activity against the studied pathogens, particularly S. aureus (33 mm), followed by C. medica (DMSO extract – inhibition zone of 26 mm) against S. aureus. While the methanolic extract of C. aurantium had the lowest inhibitory zone against S. epidermis (12 mm). The MIC varied from 0.39 µg/mL to 6.24 µg/mL, while the MBC/MFC ranged from 0.78 µg/mL to 12.5 µg/mL.In all samples of studied fruit peel extracts, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, phenolics, and cardiac glycoside. Only the DMSO extract of C. aurantium contained flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds. The DMSO peel extract of C. aurantium exhibited eleven main peaks in HPLC and GC-MS analysis, revealing twelve chemicals in total. The FT-IR spectrum was used to determine the chemical composition of the peel extract. The DMSO peel extract of C. aurantium outperformed other extracts and even conventional medications in terms of antimicrobial activity. The results prove that this plant may be evaluated further to uncover active biomolecules in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics.
The replacement of fossil fuels with clean and renewable biofuels is of both research and market interest for realising a circular economy. However, microalgae-based biofuels have shown promise as alternative low-carbon biofuels to other crop-based biofuels, some key obstacles in their production remain to be addressed, such as high costs and low lipid productivity. In this study, a Chlorella sp. CSH4 was cultivated using a combined light regime and carbon supply regulation strategy to enhance sugar industrial wastewater bioremediation, biomass accumulation and lipid production. Blue light irradiance of 200 μmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹ together with 10 g/L glucose and 9.2 g/L glycerol supply was found to effectively enhance the biomass accumulation and pollutant-removal capacity of Chlorella sp. during the growth phase and its lipid production during the stationary phase. Furthermore, the biodiesel properties of the lipid retrieved from Chlorella sp., as demonstrated by its fatty acid profile, were found to be suitable for commercial application. Possible mechanisms were explored to explain how this combined strategy caused this microalga to exhibit highly efficient biomass and lipid production together with efficient pollutant removal. Moreover, upscaled semi-continuous treatment using both sugar industry wastewater and negligible carbon sources (e.g., food waste hydrolysate and crude glycerol) with a mass balance analysis was conducted to initially validate the feasibility of applying our combined strategy for microalgae-based wastewater treatment. In sum, this study demonstrated the feasibility of cultivating a microalga using a combined strategy comprising a light regime and carbon supply regulation to achieve both wastewater treatment and low-carbon biofuel production.
Highly activated perovskite materials are desired for magnetic applications. Herein, we report the facile synthesis of LaMnxCo(1−x)O3 (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) via a hydrothermal method and investigated their structure stability along with its magnetic features. The as-synthesized and doped samples are crystallized into rhombohedral with the R3¯c space group. The clear reconstruction in microstructure is visible from spherical to nanorods after the addition of Mn and this is due to the lattice destruction when Co is replaced by Mn. The magnetically favourable oxidation state of the cobaltite is confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectra. It has been shows the mixed (Mn4+/3+) valence state for the doped samples and can be influenced for oxygen defective perovskite formation. Therefore, sustainable ferromagnetic order at low temperature is observed due to the existence of Co³⁺ at high spin state along with Co²⁺ state. The isothermal magnetization curve at room temperature reveals the paramagnetic state of the materials. From this work it can be validated that a dopant controlled defective structure can effectively activate the perovskite oxides properties and be able to fabricate similar perovskite system by adopting this process for future magnetic devices applications.
A new organic Carbonyl Guanidinium Hippurate [CGH] crystal is grown and its crystal structure was solved for first time in literature. Structural stability via hydrogen bond interactions and the structural parameters were investigated and weighted up with the theoretical interpretation. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic behavior was expended to recognize the various functional groups accommodated in CGH. The diverse inter contacts existing within the crystal were visualized through 3D Hirshfeld surface analysis and 2D fingerprint plot of CGH ensures the percentage of interactions takes place in. The natural bond orbital evaluation interprets all the possible inter and intra molecular interactions appear in the crystal structure for stabilization. The CGH specimen has thermal stability up to 183 °C and the lesser defect nature for the better NLO effect has been confirmed with diminish dielectric constant and dielectric loss at higher frequencies. The linear optical studies reveal that the material has high transmission window in the region of 280–1100 nm and low band gap with green emission tendency. HOMO-LUMO plot and MESP map indicates the ICT interactions present in the molecule. Intensity dependent open aperture z-scan confirms the sequential two photon absorption arising from excited state absorption and thus CGH crystal can be used for developing nonlinear absorption based laser safety devices.
Pure and (7, 12 and 17 wt%) fluorine doped vanadium oxide was synthesized by simple one-step hydrothermal treatment. XRD confirms the formation of mixed phases of orthorhombic V2O5 and monoclinic V3O7. Increasing trend in crystallite size with fluorine content was observed due to the replacement of fluorine in oxygen sites of vanadium oxide lattices. FESEM and EDX analysis ascertains the formation of platelets with uniform doping of vanadium pentoxide. Both samples exhibit maximum absorption in UV region and the band gap slightly decreases due to fluorine doping. The impedance characterization signal was analysed in the specific frequency range from 100 KHz to 0.01 Hz. The dielectric parameters are dependent on the frequency and different dopant ratios. The dielectric dispersion signal shows to decrease in dielectric values as frequency increases. The microstructure properties are successfully studied using Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. Under Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 9 ns, 100 μJ) excitation, both pure and fluorine doped vanadium oxide exhibit reverse saturable absorption. 17 wt% F doped V2O5 possesses a higher 2PA coefficient which arises mainly from the synergetic effect from the contribution of nanoplatelet morphology and incorporation of F as decorative element upon V2O5. Also two-photon absorption induced optical limiting action was witnessed and this makes them potential candidate for fabrication of laser safety googles.
The conception of \(\kappa{-}Q{-}\omega{-}\text{FT}\) and \(\kappa{-}Q{-}\omega{-}\text{FM}\) was taught in this article . Furthermore, we generalized the \(\kappa{-}Q{-}\omega{-}\text{FT}\) of T-Ideals and \(\kappa{-}Q{-}\omega{-}\text{FM} \) of T-Ideals in T-Algebra, explained some of the theorems and propositions, and investigated several related algebraic characteristics.KeywordsFuzzy set (FS)Fuzzy subset (FSb)Fuzzy T-Ideal (FTI)\(\kappa{-}Q\)–Fuzzy translation and multiplication \((\kappa{-}Q{-}{\text{FT}}\;\text{and}\;\kappa{-}Q{-}{\text{FM}} )\)Mathematics Subject ClassificationMSC2020-zbMATH-03B52
Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes added V2O5 composite (MWCNT/V2O5) films were prepared by hydrothermal technique. The influence of various levels of MWCNT on the electrochromic properties of MWCNT/V2O5 films was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature and belong to orthorhombic crystal system of V2O5. Raman and FTIR spectral analyses confirmed the formation of V2O5 phase and the influence of MWCNT on the vibrational frequencies of V2O5 films. V2O5 film added with 1 wt.% MWCNT showed enhanced transmittance and the bandgap of V2O5 increases with further increase in the addition of MWCNT in V2O5 films. The electrochromic studies revealed electrochromic reversibility of 82% (1 wt.% MWCNT added film) and 82.5% (5 wt.% MWCNT added film) whereas after 100 cycles the films added with 1 wt.% and 5 wt.% of MWCNT acquired excellent electrochromic reversibility of 92% and 88%, respectively. Further the switching kinetics of the film added with 1 wt.% MWCNT is 1.8 s for coloration and 2.4 s for bleaching processes.
The banana stem weevil, Odoiporus longicollis (Olivier), is a serious threat to banana cultivation world over. Since banana is a food crop, the use of naturally infecting biological control agents could be an effective alternative to manage the insect pest instead of harmful chemicals. Also, the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi against O. longicollis was used in bioassay. Among the Beauveria bassiana isolates tested the median lethal concentration (LC50) 10.468 × 105 conidia ml−1 when treated with B. bassiana (NRCBEFPMP1), two other isolates of B. bassiana, namely NRCBEPF22 and NRCBEPF2, were also effective against O. longicollis and recorded LC50 of 12.617 × 105 and 12.891 × 105 conidia ml−1, respectively. The results of bioassay with different Metarhizium spp. showed variations in efficacy, where the most virulent isolate was M. quizhouense (NRCBEPF11) with LC50 8.050 × 105 conidia ml−1. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that B. bassiana and M. quizhouense caused infection by cuticle penetration and completed the infection process in 15 days. The composition of volatile organic compounds released by B. bassiana and M. anisopliae during pathogenesis showed that a significantly high number of known insect volatiles were present in infected insects. Consequently, these volatiles were emission in Insect attractant, Odorant receptor agonist, Plant hormone Plant, and Microbial Metabolites, through the biological activity, such as Methyl salicylate, Benzaldehyde, alpha-Terpineol, Limonene, Benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy, Phthalic acid, 1-Octadecene, Phenylacetaldehyde, 3-Octanone, Octanal, Methylheptenone and 2-Ethyl-1-hexyl alcohol. Overall, the results show that EPF could significantly reduce damage by O. longicollis and produce a wide profile of secondary metabolites. Further, analysis was used for principal components to determine whether separated classes of fungi can be distinguished from one another based on their metabolite profiles.
Farmland bird populations have declined globally raising concerns over habitat loss for a wide range of species. In this study, we explored the significance of agroecosystems for birds at different temporal and spatial scales along the Cauvery delta region, South India. Our results recorded a wide range of 102 species, with passerines and wetland birds dominating the landscapes. Among the guild types, omnivores and insectivores were the well-represented groups followed by carnivores, granivores, frugivores, and nectarivores. Species richness and diversity were recorded higher during winter which could be associated with the maturing phase of rice paddies in the agroecosystem. There were significant differences recorded in species diversity and richness between the cropping period and the non-cropping periods, thus recognizing the high potential of paddy ecosystems in biodiversity conservation. The results of the multivariate analysis revealed that the diversity of birds in the agroecosystem was more influenced by the woody vegetation cover, crop cover, and field size; however, bird abundance was related to farm activities, plantations, and herbaceous cover surrounding the agroecosystem. Fewer generalist species revealed an interesting pattern of taxonomic homogenization with monoculture cropping patterns that could influence the adaptability and functional traits of the other species. The results of the study highlight that both HNV and the non-HNV zones attract a rich diversity of birds and the conservation of this traditional agricultural belt would aid in the conservation of threatened species and biodiversity globally.
The enticing features of metal molybdates make them an attractive candidate for energy storage systems. This report describes the synthesis of three distinct single-phase bismuth molybdates (Bi2MoxOy; α-Bi2Mo3O12, β-Bi2Mo2O9, and γ-Bi2MoO6) using the gel matrix particle growth method and their application in high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors. The single phase and purity of the synthesized Bi2MoxOy particles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and further verified by Raman analysis. The UV-visible spectra show the electronic and optical behaviours of the as-synthesized α, β, and γ Bi2MoxOy. The morphologies of the as-synthesized three different Bi2MoxOy phases were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle formation was further investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the interplanar spacings of the Bi2MoxOy phases were in accordance with the planes. The surface area and pore volume of the prepared samples were analysed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The electrochemical properties of the products were confirmed by various tests, including cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3 M KOH. Among the three phases, α-Bi2Mo3O12 exhibits a huge specific capacitance (Cs) of 714 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. Furthermore, it displays an admirable cycling stability of 86.55% after 5000 cycles. The chosen α-Bi2Mo3O12 electrode possesses an increased energy density of 47.5 W h kg-1 at 1 A g-1 with a capacitive retention rate of 71.90% at 5 A g-1 after 10 000 cycles. A remarkable electrochemical performance of Bi2Mo3O12 with an exceptional power density of 750 W kg-1 was observed for the prepared asymmetric device. Bismuth molybdate's notable performance indicates that it can be an active material for energy storage applications.
Across disciplines—biological, ecological, evolutionary, or environmental—researchers increasingly recognize the importance and the need for cost-effective, non-invasive techniques for in-situ morphological measurements of organisms in diverse research contexts. By applying a non-invasive technique using digital images taken under field conditions, we successfully measured the body sizes of wild Painted Storks (Mycteria leucocephala) in two different biogeographic regions of India, spatially separated by 20° of latitude. We have used the wild Painted Storks as model species for measuring their morphometrics using a non-invasive technique that could easily be applied to similar species, rare, endemic, colonial, aquatic, and even those with cultural taboos. Our results satisfactorily classify and predict the sexes of the species and their biogeographic origin based on independent morphological variables using Machine Learning algorithms. The BayesNet yielded the correct classification instances (Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) = 0.985), outperforming all the other tested classifying algorithms. A strong relationship was observed between the local bioclimatic conditions and the morphological variations in wild Painted Storks reflecting clear eco-geographic patterns. Without this non-invasive technique, it would be almost impossible to collect morphological measurements at a large scale from live birds under field conditions. Our study is a testimony to the effectual use of the non-invasive digital method for in-situ measurements from free-living wild species in the field, assuming significance, especially from climate change perspectives, biology, ecology, and conservation.
Novel biologically active molecules have been isolated from the tunic biomass of marine ascidian fauna. In these findings, we evaluated the antimicrobial, antioxidant molecules of methanol and ethanol tissue extracts of tunic ascidians Phallusia nigra. In addition, these experiments along with FT-IR and ¹H NMR analysis allowed us to identify the mainly composed active functional groups. The antimicrobial properties of crude extract of ascidians exhibited a zone of inhibition against all six pathogens. The best antimicrobial activity (29 ± 1.1 mm) was observed by the methanol extract of P. nigra toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Besides, the enriched antimicrobial potential was tested in 100 µl concentration of methanol and ethanol against all pathogens. In comparison to methanol extracts, ethanol extracts were more efficient in a higher antioxidant potential of 41.24 ± 2.16%. In the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) system, the strongest radical scavenging activity of 58.62 ± 2.62% was exhibited by the standard ascorbic acid when compared to the tested extracts. FT-IR spectrum indicates the presence of alcohol, phenol, alkanes, and carboxylic acid in functional groups. The ¹H NMR spectrum designates the presence of phenol and amide group of derivatives. The results were found to be responsible for such excellent antimicrobial and antioxidant molecules with unidentified potential compounds. The non-toxic ascidian extractions is an authentic source for pharmacological applications especially utilized for human clinical trials, but much more attention is needed for this unique fauna, particularly on the Indian coast. Graphical abstract
Semiconducting Indium-doped copper sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrate by a simple and economical chemical bath deposition technique. The depositions were carried out for 40 min. The electrical studies namely resistivity, resistance, and sheet resistance of CuS and CuS: In were carried out using four-point probe apparatus. The structural, optical, and morphological characterization were studied and compared with those of CuS: In with the bare CuS thin films. XRD studies confirmed that all the prepared thin films have the hexagonal structure of copper sulfide without any secondary phase after doping and the crystallite size was found to be decrease from 69 to 53 nm. Optical absorption analysis of samples shows a red-shift in the band edge of In: CuS thin films relative to CuS film so that the bandgap energy was decreased from 1.95 eV to 1.86 eV. The functional groups present in the CuS and In: CuS samples were confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman frequency assignments. Morphological studies of CuS and CuS: In are interpreted using SEM and constituents present in the prepared thin films are viewed by EDS. Further the photocatalytic properties of the prepared films were studied by degrading methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) textile dyes. Maximum degradation efficiency achieved by the photocatalyst is to be 95% and 93% respectively for MB and RhB.
Gas detected with nanosized oxide materials attracts consideration due to its promising capability of identifying different poisonous gases in atmosphere. In this study, the Cu-doped SnO2–TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal method using stannic chloride, titanium isopropoxide and copper nitrate as precursors. Structural characterization revealed that the items correspond to nanostructures of Cu particles deposited on SnO2–TiO2 surface. The characterizations studies of hybrid nanocomposites were determined by X-ray diffractrogram, scanning electron microscopy, FTIR and UV–Vis spectroscopy analyses. Optimized nanocomposite was fabricated into high sensitive gas thick film to sense gas molecules. The prepared sensor device using the films exhibits higher responses (sensitivities) to reducing group of gases. The improved sensitivity of this nanocomposite propagates the gas diffusivity of the sensing film comprising Cu-doped SnO2–TiO2. This sensing film will also increase the sensor response due to its catalytic and electrical sensitization effects of Cu and titanium oxide.
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1,329 members
P. Senthilraja
  • Department of Bioinformatics
Annamalai Rajendran
  • Department of Marine Sciences
Nanda Kumar
  • School of Marine Sciences
Kadalmani Balamuthu
  • Department of Animal Science
P A Azeez
  • Department of Environmental Management
Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India