Digitalization is increasingly seen as a strategic means for firms to yield competitive and environmental advantages. Still, current empirical research does not yet provide ample evidence on how a firm's strategic posture towards digitalization connects to environmental performance. This study examines the link between digital orientation and environmental performance as well as the moderating role of technological turbulence. The natural-resource-based view and literature on strategic orientations provide the conceptual foundations. The hypotheses are tested with data from 515 U.S. Standard and Poor's 500 companies with 2,800 firm observations from 2009 to 2019. The results indicate that, first, a firm's digital orientation has a significant and positive effect on environmental performance and, second, this effect is even more pronounced in technologically turbulent business environments. In sum, our findings suggest that managers can improve their firm's environmental performance and competitive position by increasing the digital orientation within their organizations. We thus add to the literature on the natural-resource-based view by identifying digital orientation as a strategy aligned with the natural environment. Finally, we derive practical implications for managers and policymakers aiming to bring together digitalization and green strategies.
In dryland ecosystems, tree and shrub seedling establishment, growth and survival are limited by access to water and nutrients. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase seedling establishment and survival by enhancing nutrient and water acquisition. We executed a fully-factorial greenhouse experiment to determine the interactive effect of AMF (with and without), water deficit (four levels), and soil layer (topsoil and subsoil) on the biomass, growth, nutrient concentrations, and mycorrhizal root colonization of seedlings of Commiphora myrrha, a tree species that dominates large areas of dry forest and woodland in the Horn of Africa. Mycorrhizal seedlings had higher root and shoot biomass than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. They also had higher nutrient concentrations in root and shoot. Plant biomass was higher when plants were grown in topsoil at lower soil moisture levels. Mycorrhizal responsiveness was highest at lower soil moisture. The drought response index was higher for mycorrhizal than for non-mycorrhizal plants, indicating enhanced mycorrhizal benefits at lower water supply. Seedlings grew better in topsoil than in subsoil. Mycorrhizal colonization of roots of C. myrrha seedlings was higher with lower moisture and higher in topsoil than in subsoil. The increased performance of mycorrhizal C. myrrha indicates that mycorrhization is a major component of the adaptive strategy of seedlings of this species, similar to other species in these dryland deciduous ecosystems. We conclude that for restoration purposes with this species, nursery seedlings should be mycorrhized because of their enhanced growth performance.
Introduction: Due to the shorter half-life as compared with albumin, serum prealbumin concentrations have been proposed to be useful nutritional biomarkers for the assessment of patients at nutritional risk. In a post-hoc analysis of patients at nutritional risk from a randomized-controlled nutritional trial, we therefore tested the hypothesis that (a) prealbumin is associated with higher all-cause 180-day mortality rates and that (b) individualized nutritional support compared to usual care nutrition more effectively improves survival at 30 days in patients with low prealbumin levels compared to patients with normal prealbumin levels. Methods: We performed a pre-specified cohort study in patients included in the pragmatic, Swiss, multicenter, randomized-controlled EFFORT trial comparing the effects of individualized nutritional support with usual care. We studied low prealbumin concentrations (<0.17 g/l) in a subgroup of 517 patients from one participating centre. Results: A total of 306 (59.2%) patients (mean age 71.9 years, 53.6% men) had low admission prealbumin levels (<0.17 g/L). There was a significant association between low prealbumin levels and mortality at 180-days [115/306 (37.6%) vs. 47/211 (22.3%), fully adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.59, 95%CI 1.11 to 2.28, p=0.011]. Prealbumin levels significantly improved the prognostic value of the Nutritional Risk Screening total score regarding mortality prediction at short- and long-term. The difference in mortality between patients receiving individualized nutritional support and usual care nutrition was similar for patients with low prealbumin levels compared with patients with normal prealbumin levels [HR 0.90 (95%CI 0.51 to 1.59) vs. HR 0.88 (95%CI 0.35 to 2.23)] with no evidence for interaction (p=0.823). Conclusion: Among medical inpatients at nutritional risk, low admission prealbumin levels correlated with different nutritional markers and higher mortality risk; but patients with low or high prealbumin levels had a similar benefit from nutritional support. Further studies should identify nutritional markers that help further personalize nutritional interventions. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02517476 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background Patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) show sex-specific differences in hip muscle function, hip morphology, and symptoms. Possible differences in hip muscle characteristics between men and women with FAIS are unknown. Purpose To compare hip muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and fatty infiltration between men and women with FAIS and investigate possible associations with patient-reported outcomes. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods We retrospectively analyzed preoperative axial pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scans of 104 patients (54 women) who underwent hip surgery for FAIS. The main outcome measures were side-to-side percentage asymmetry in hip muscle CSA and involved-side fatty infiltration as measured with the Goutallier scale for a total of 10 hip muscles. Patient-reported outcomes included duration of hip symptoms, iHOT-12 (12-item International Hip Outcome Tool), and Hip Sports Activity Scale. Results Women showed larger hip abductor muscle CSA asymmetry than men ( P = .018), particularly for the gluteus medius ( P = .049), while men exhibited more fatty streaks (grade 1) in the gluteus medius ( P = .015) than women. Duration of symptoms was associated only with fatty infiltration of obturator externus in men ( r S = –0.55, P = .018). iHOT-12 was associated with CSA asymmetry of the gluteus minimus ( r = –0.41, P = .011) and iliopsoas ( r = –0.36, P = .028) in men and with piriformis fatty infiltration ( r S = –0.56, P = .030) in women. The Hip Sports Activity Scale was associated with iliopsoas CSA asymmetry ( r S = 0.32, P = .026) and with fatty infiltration of the tensor fasciae latae ( r S = –0.45, P = .046) and obturator externus ( r S = –0.50, P = .023) in women. Conclusion Patients with FAIS demonstrated few sex-specific quantitative and qualitative alterations of hip muscles. Women showed greater hip abductor muscle atrophy than men, particularly for the gluteus medius, while men showed a higher degree of fatty infiltration in this same muscle. The duration of hip symptoms was not associated with muscle atrophy. Patient-reported hip pain/function and sport activity level were only moderately associated with isolated muscular variables.
Background Quantitative and qualitative procedures are necessary components of instrument development and assessment. However, validation studies conventionally emphasise quantitative assessments while neglecting qualitative procedures. Applying both methods in a mixed methods design provides additional insights into instrument quality and more rigorous validity evidence. Drawing from an extensive review of the methodological and applied validation literature on mixed methods, we showcase our use of mixed methods for validation which applied the quality criteria of congruence, convergence, and credibility on data collected with an instrument measuring interprofessional collaboration in the context of Swiss healthcare, named the Swiss Instrument for Evaluating Interprofessional Collaboration. Methods We employ a convergent parallel mixed methods design to analyse quantitative and qualitative questionnaire data. Data were collected from staff, supervisors, and patients of a university hospital and regional hospitals in the German and Italian speaking regions of Switzerland. We compare quantitative ratings and qualitative comments to evaluate the quality criteria of congruence, convergence, and credibility, which together form part of an instrument’s construct validity evidence. Results Questionnaires from 435 staff, 133 supervisors, and 189 patients were collected. Analysis of congruence potentially provides explanations why respondents’ comments are off topic. Convergence between quantitative ratings and qualitative comments can be interpreted as an indication of convergent validity. Credibility provides a summary evaluation of instrument quality. These quality criteria provide evidence that questions were understood as intended, provide construct validity, and also point to potential item quality issues. Conclusions Mixed methods provide alternative means of collecting construct validity evidence. Our suggested procedures can be easily applied on empirical data and allow the congruence, convergence, and credibility of questionnaire items to be evaluated. The described procedures provide an efficient means of enhancing the rigor of an instrument and can be used alone or in conjunction with traditional quantitative psychometric approaches.
Purpose In Switzerland, about one in three children is born by caesarean section (CS). For many women, this means a restricted birth experience, limited observation of the birth process and a restricted involvement. We evaluated an extended gentle CS protocol, which offered early intraoperative skin-to-skin contact and the possibility of observing the delivery of the baby from the abdomen through a transparent drape. Methods This is a cross-sectional study incorporating data from a purposely tailored questionnaire and clinical routine data. The extended gentle CS protocol was compared with the gentle CS, which does not allow the possibility of observing the delivery. Data were collected online and analysed by multivariable regression for quantitative data and content analysis for all text responses to open questions, respectively. Results 193 women completed the questionnaire. Of these, 154 had a gentle CS and 39 had an extended gentle CS. Multivariable regression did not reveal a statistically significant difference for extended gentle CS with regard to satisfaction with childbirth, mother-to-child bonding, or breastfeeding duration. Nevertheless, early intraoperative skin-to-skin contact was associated with the fulfilment of birth expectations. Furthermore, most women who experienced an extended gentle CS would prefer the same procedure for any potential future CS. Conclusions Although our study showed no statistically significant difference in satisfaction from using a transparent drape, most women expressed a preference for this technique. We recommend that the option of an extended gentle CS should be offered to all women for whom CS is indicated.
We study the properties of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formed on titanium-doped diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) a-C:H:Si:O films during ablation processing with linearly-polarized beams of a visible femtosecond laser (wavelength 515 nm, pulse duration 320 fs, pulse repetition rates 100 kHz-2 MHz, scanning beam velocity 0.05–1 m/s). The studies are focused on (i) laser ablation characteristics of Ti-DLN films at different pulse frequencies and constant fluence close to the ablation threshold, (ii) effects of the polarization angle rotation on the properties of low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL), and (iii) nanofriction properties of the ‘rotating’ LIPSS using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in a lateral force mode. It is found that (i) all LSFL are oriented perpendicular to the beam polarization direction, so being rotated with the beam polarization, and (ii) LSFL periods are gradually changed from 360 ± 5 nm for ripples parallel to the beam scanning direction to 420 ± 10 nm for ripples formed perpendicular to the beam scanning. The obtained results are discussed in the frame of the surface plasmon polaritons model of the LIPSS formation. Also, the findings of the nanoscale friction behavior, dependent on the LIPSS orientation relative to the AFM tip scanning direction, are presented and discussed.
Statistische Auswertungen von Brückeneinsturzdaten zeigen, dass Massivbrücken signifikant seltener einstürzen als Brücken aus Stahl oder Holz. Da weltweit die Hauptursache für Brückeneinstürze Hochwasser und damit verbundene fluviale Prozesse wie Auskolkung, Muren etc. und Anpralle sind, liegt die Vermutung nahe, dass die hohe Eigenlast der Massivbrücken zu einem insgesamt robusteren Verhalten bei diesen Ereignissen führt. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags soll geprüft werden, ob die IABSE‐Einsturzdatenbank diese These bestätigt und Hinweise auf weitere Ursachen identifiziert werden können. Dazu wird die IABSE‐Einsturzdatenbank mittels Verfahren der Künstlichen Intelligenz und des maschinellen Lernens (KI/ML) untersucht. Die KI/ML‐Analyse bestätigt die bisherige These allerdings nicht. Im Weiteren werden Ursachen für die Ablehnung der These, wie z. B. die Repräsentativität der Daten, diskutiert. Es wird eine Erweiterung der Datenbank für Ereignisse mit großen Einsturzzahlen empfohlen. KI/ML‐based Analysis and Interpretation of the IABSE‐Bridge Collapse Database Statistical analyses of bridge collapse data show that concrete bridges collapse significantly less frequently than bridges made of steel or wood. Since the main causes of bridge collapses worldwide are floods and associated fluvial processes, such as scouring, debris flows, etc. and impacts, it is reasonable to assume that the high dead load of concrete bridges leads to an overall more robust behavior in these events. This paper will examine whether the IABSE collapse database confirms this hypothesis and whether indications of further causes can be identified. For this purpose, the IABSE collapse database is examined using artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) methods. However, the AI/ML analysis does not confirm the previous thesis. The reasons for the rejection of the thesis, such as the representativeness of the data, are also discussed. An extension of the database for events with large numbers of collapses is recommended.
Background In 2016, Chile implemented the Food Labeling and Advertising Law to fight childhood obesity through front-of-package food labelling, marketing restrictions and school activities and programs. Nevertheless, little is known on its influence on key stakeholders in vulnerable peripheral regions of the country. This study aimed at identifying important influencing factors including the Food Labeling and Advertising Law on dietary habits and physical activity patterns of second graders in Chile, as perceived by school representatives and the children themselves. Methods Semi-structured interviews with four school directors and 17 groups of three second graders, informal interviews with 9 key teachers and 4 food services staff complemented with documented observations were carried out in four primary schools of the Chilean city of Punta Arenas, in the Magallanes Punta Arenas region. The different sources allowed for triangulation of results. Results FLAL seems to have a negligible influence on young children’s diet and physical activity in the study region. Barriers are children’s deeply rooted dietary habits, excessive screen-time, the parents’ lacking problem awareness, limited time for parenting practices and bad role modeling. Environmental barriers are overloaded schools due to insufficient coordination between governmental entities, lacking funds for sound teacher training and unsafe neighborhoods limiting children’s play. Conclusions Policy interventions aimed at reducing childhood obesity need to include and empower schools, families and local communities as active partners and consider their framework conditions for greater influence on dietary habits and physical activity.
How does the grand challenge of refugees influence nascent entrepreneurs in host countries? To explore this question, we build on social identity theory and analyse how the 2015 European refugee event is related to the strength of different founder social identities (i.e. Darwinian, Communitarian, and Missionary founder social identities) of nascent entrepreneurs in the countries accommodating the refugees. Using a dataset of 6,096 nascent entrepreneurs from 24 European countries, we reveal a positive relationship between the refugee event and the strength of the Communitarian founder social identity. This relationship is even stronger when the previous percentage of foreign migrants in a country is lower and is mediated by the human health and social work industry. Interestingly, we do not find significant relationships between the refugee event and the strengths of the Darwinian or Missionary founder social identity, respectively. Hence, refugees as a grand challenge are likely to have divergent influences on different types of entrepreneurship in society.
Purpose: Following increased interest in physical literacy (PL), development of appropriate tools for assessment has become an important next step for its operationalization. To forward the development of such tools, the objective of this study was to build the foundations of the Évaluation de la Littératie Physique (ELIP), designed to help reduce existing tensions in approaches to PL assessment that may be resulting in a low uptake into applied settings. Methods: We followed two steps: (1) the development of the first version of ELIP by deploying a Delphi method (n = 30); and (2) the modification of items through cognitive interviews with emerging adults (n = 32). Results: The expert consensus highlighted four dimensions of PL to be assessed—physical; affective; cognitive; and social—with new perspectives, including a preference for broad motor tests over fitness. Conclusion: Results offer new insights into the assessment of emerging adults’ PL, but ELIP still requires further work concerning validity, reliability, and sensitivity.
This paper introduces a titanium-based planar ultrasonic microscalpel. The concept of silicon-based planar ultrasonic transducers has already been proven, but they are not yet suitable for clinical use due to material failure. The main objective of this work was to develop a smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective ultrasonic scalpel that could be used as an alternative or supplementary device to current surgical instruments. Various prototypes were fabricated and characterized, differing in bonding by three epoxy adhesives and two solder pastes as well as three variations in tip design. The instruments were designed to operate in the frequency range of commercial instruments and to generate a longitudinal displacement amplitude. The electro-mechanical characterization through impedance analysis and vibration measurements was complemented by an in vitro cutting trial and an acute in vivo animal experiment in comparison to commercial ultrasonic and electrosurgical devices. The operating frequency was around 40 kHz and 48 kHz depending on whether matched or unmatched operation was used. Unmatched operation turned out to be more suitable, achieving displacement amplitudes of 25.3 μm and associated velocity amplitudes of up to 7.9 m/s at an electrical power of 10.2 W. The cutting ability was demonstrated in vivo by successful dissection even under anticoagulation. The geometry of the instrument tip was found to have a major influence on cutting performance by affecting the resonance behaviour and tissue penetration.
The output of a sensorimotor performance can be measured with the joint position sense (JPS) test. However, investigations of leg dominance, sex and quality measures on this test are limited. Therefore, these potential influencing factors as well as reliability and consistency measures were evaluated for angular reproduction performance and neuromuscular activity during the active knee JPS test in healthy participants. Twenty healthy participants (10 males; 10 females; age 29 ± 8 years; height 165 ± 39 cm; body mass 69 ± 13 kg) performed a seated knee JPS test with a target angle of 50°. Measurements were conducted in two sessions separated by two weeks and consisted of two blocks of continuous angular reproduction (three minutes each block). The difference between reproduced and target angle was identified as angular error measured by an electrogoniometer. During reproduction, the neuromuscular activity of the quadriceps muscle was assessed by surface electromyography. Neuromuscular activity was normalized to submaximal voluntary contraction (subMVC) and displayed per muscle and movement phase. Differences between leg dominance and sex were calculated using Friedman-test ( α = 0.05). Reliability measures including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland–Altman analysis (bias ± limits of agreement (LoA)) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were analysed. No significant differences between leg dominance and sex were found in angular error and neuromuscular activity. Angular error demonstrated inter-session ICC scores of 0.424 with a bias of 2.4° (± 2.4° LoA) as well as MDC of 6.8° and moderate intra-session ICC (0.723) with a bias of 1.4° (± 1.65° LoA) as well as MDC of 4.7°. Neuromuscular activity for all muscles and movement phases illustrated inter-session ICC ranging from 0.432 to 0.809 with biases between − 2.5 and 13.6% subMVC and MDC from 13.4 to 63.9% subMVC. Intra-session ICC ranged from 0.705 to 0.987 with biases of − 7.7 to 2.4% subMVC and MDC of 2.7 to 46.5% subMVC. Leg dominance and sex seem not to influence angular reproduction performance and neuromuscular activity. Poor to excellent relative reliability paired with an acceptable consistency confirm findings of previous studies. Comparisons to pathological populations should be conducted with caution.
How far has the transition process to a circular economy progressed? How can this transition process be promoted? So far, the indicators used to analyse such questions have mostly been based on aggregate recycling rates or waste volumes. However, circular economy is much more than that. This paper develops a concept for empirically measuring the transition process along a company’s value chain. The concept distinguishes 27 business activities that are relevant for the circular economy and thus enables detailed statements about the transition to the circular economy along the entire value chain and the three dimensions of the circular economy, i.e. efficiency, closing the resource loop and extending product life. Based on this concept, a representative survey of 8,000 Swiss companies was conducted. The data allow – for the first time and for a representative sample – the analysis of the determinants of the transition process to a circular economy using econometric estimations. The results suggest that the transition process has just started; most companies involved in circular economy activities focus on efficiency enhancing measures rather than on extending the life of products/services or closing the loop. In addition, the results show that circular economy pioneers are characterized by a willingness to invest a significant amount of available capital in the breadth of circular activities, have greater financial flexibility, and in some cases face greater non-price competition. Ultimately, the results suggest that the transition to a circular economy can only be successful if the necessary framework conditions are set in such a way that it is profitable for the company to significantly increase the degree of circularity.
Timely availability of weed infestation maps is a key prerequisite for the implementation of site-specific weed management practices. Low-altitude aerial imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has shown significant potential for weed detection in crops. However, most studies focused on wide-spaced row crops such as maize and sunflower and evaluated proposed methods on single or few well-characterized experimental sites at specific points in time representing a limited range of application scenarios. This study evaluated the feasibility of weed detection in on-farm wheat fields characterized by a narrow row spacing, throughout the early and late developmental stages using UAV imagery and ground-based high-resolution imagery. Image data was obtained for nine sites, representing a wide range of management and pedoclimatic conditions. These sites can be seen as a representative sample of scenarios that would be encountered in practice. A high within- and across-site as well as temporal variation was observed for weed infestation levels and weed population species composition, highlighting the need for spatially and temporally resolved weed mapping. Image-based classification of vegetation objects as crop or weed plants was achieved with an accuracy of 0.88 and 0.72 in ground-based high-resolution images and UAV-based aerial images captured from an altitude of 10 m, respectively. The accuracy of pixel-wise, vegetation-index-based weed infestation estimation during the late vegetative stages varied strongly across sites. Our results highlight the critical importance of a high ground resolution for weed detection using object-based image analysis during the critical growth stages of wheat and of robust methods that are applicable across a range of scenarios. This suggested that future research aiming at a rapid implementation of site-specific weed management in wheat should focus on the development of ground-based systems. Yet, aerial monitoring of wheat stands during late developmental stages using currently available equipment offers significant potential for reducing weed pressure with site-specific weed control measures in the context of crop rotations.
Advanced driver assistances are becoming increasingly common in commercial cars, not only to assist but also to free drivers from manual driving whenever possible. Soon, drivers should be allowed to engage in non-driving-related tasks. The fact that responsibility for driving is shifting from humans to machines must be considered in the development of these assistances in order to guarantee safety and trust. In this article, we introduce AdVitam (for Advanced Driver-Vehicle Interaction to Make future driving safer), an autonomous system aiming at maintaining driver’s situation awareness and optimizing takeover quality during conditionally automated driving (L3-SAE). The information conveyed to drivers is dynamically adapted to achieve these goals, depending on the driving environment and the driver’s physiological state. This system consists of three connected modules. The first module ( Driver State ) predicts the driver’s state with machine learning and physiological signals as inputs. The second module ( Supervision ) uses different interfaces (a haptic seat, a personal device, and ambient lights) to maintain the drivers’ situation awareness during the autonomous driving phases. The third module ( Intervention ) is a machine learning model that chooses the most appropriate combination among haptic, auditory, and visual modalities to request the driver to take over control and thus optimize takeover quality. To evaluate the system and each module independently, a preliminary user study with 35 drivers was conducted in a fixed-base driving simulator. All participants drove in two different environments (rural and urban). In addition, the activation of the Supervision and Intervention modules were manipulated as two between-subject factors. Results show that conveying information on the driving environment status through multimodal interfaces increases drivers’ situation awareness (i.e., better identification of potential problems in the environment) and trust in the automated vehicle. However, the system does not show positive outcomes on takeover quality. Besides, the Driver State module provided consistent predictions with the experimental manipulation. The system proposed in this paper could lead to better acceptance and safety when L3-SAE vehicles will be released by increasing drivers’ trust during phases of automated driving.
In the present study, we analyze the relationship between domestic and international online publicity and individual outcomes of suspects in three recent politically salient cases in Russia. The analysis is based on the data from Telegram – one of the most politically relevant online platforms in contemporary Russia, – Google News and data about individual criminal cases. We find that international online publicity is associated with decreased likelihood of imprisonment for individual suspects, while the relationship between the latter and domestic publicity is less straightforward. Our findings contribute to the scholarship on the connection between (online) publicity and political repression relevant for Russia and, potentially, other autocracies.
Background/objective The holistic concept of physical literacy (PL) embraces different person-centered qualities (physical, cognitive, affective/psychological) necessary to lead physically active lifestyles. PL has recently gained increasing attention globally and Europe is no exception. However, scientific endeavors summarizing the current state of PL in Europe are lacking. Therefore, the goal of this study was to comprehensively assess and compare the implementation of PL in research, policy, and practice across the continent. Methods We assembled a panel of experts representing 25 European countries. Employing a complementary mixed-methods design, the experts first prepared reviews about the current state of PL in their countries (categories: research, practice/policy). The reviews underwent comparative document analysis, ensuring a transnational four-eyes principle. For re-validation purposes, the representatives completed a quantitative survey with questions reflecting the inductive themes from the document analysis. Results The document analysis resulted in ten disjunct themes (related to “concept”, “research”, “practice/policy”, “future/prospect”) and yielded a heterogenous PL situation in Europe. The implementation state was strongly linked to conceptual discussions (e.g., existence of competing approaches), linguistic issues (e.g., translations), and country-specific traditions. Despite growing scholarly attention, PL hesitantly permeates practice and policy in most countries. Nevertheless, the experts largely anticipate increasing popularity of PL for the future. Conclusion Despite the heterogeneous situation across Europe, the analysis has uncovered similarities among the countries, such as the presence of established yet not identical concepts. Research should intensify academic activities (conceptual-linguistic elaborations, empirical work) before PL may gain further access into practical and political spheres in the long term.
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