Introduction Previous trials of dietary interventions to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have yielded only limited success. Low-carbohydrate diets have shown promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but there is no evidence to support their use in pregnancy. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of a moderately reduced-carbohydrate dietary intervention delivered from mid-pregnancy alongside routine antenatal care. Methods and analysis This is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) with embedded qualitative study. Sixty women who are pregnant <20 weeks’ gestation, with body mass index ≥30 kg/m ² at their antenatal booking appointment, will be randomised 2:1 intervention or control (usual care) and followed up until delivery. The intervention is a moderately reduced-carbohydrate diet (~130–150 g total carbohydrate/day), designed to be delivered alongside routine antenatal appointments. Primary outcomes are measures of adoption of the diet and retention of participants. Secondary outcomes include incidence of GDM, change in markers of glycaemic control, gestational weight gain, total carbohydrate and energy intake. Process outcomes will examine resources and management issues. Exploratory outcomes include further dietary changes, quality of life, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and qualitative measures. Ethics and dissemination This trial was reviewed and approved by the South-Central Oxford B Research Ethics Committee NHS National Research Ethics Committee and the Health Research Authority (Reference: 20/SC/0442). The study results will inform whether to progress to a full-scale RCT to test the clinical effectiveness of the RECORD programme to prevent GDM in women at high risk. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences. Trial registration number ISRCTN16235884 .
Objectives: Mental imagery is important in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders and well-being but has been neglected in people with intellectual disabilities. A detailed idiographic analysis of the lived experience of mental imagery in this population is presented. Design: This qualitative study uses interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). It involved inclusive research methods with people with intellectual disabilities and other stakeholders (including family members, advocates, support workers and intellectual disability service managers). Methods: Ten individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities. Participants were opportunistically sampled through organisations providing community services to people with intellectual disabilities in the UK. Two men and eight women (mean age 43 years) participated. Interviews were audio-recorded and analysed using IPA. Results: People with intellectual disabilities are able to experience a range of rich and detailed mental images across all sensory modalities. Participants reported changes in affect based on mental imagery, and an ability to experience both spontaneous and deliberate mental images. The emotional saliency of the object of mental imagery appeared to influence participants' ability to engage with imagery. A number of adaptations make mental imagery more accessible and easier to report. The ability of people with intellectual disabilities to experience vivid mental imagery has important clinical implications for the use of a range of mental imagery interventions with this population. Conclusions: The need to consider mental imagery interventions for this population, and how these can be adapted to ensure accessibility is a priority for people with intellectual disabilities and psychological disorders.
Online therapy is becoming increasingly popular as well as necessary. There is little research regarding the experience of psychologists delivering online therapy to individuals with an intellectual disability. The study used online semistructured interviews and interpretive phenological analysis to explore the experiences of five psychologists delivering online therapy to individuals with an intellectual disability. Four superordinate themes were generated from the data: Environment: “You can't control the environment”; Person centred: “I do not think it's one size fits all”; Rapport: “slightly trickier to build”; and Clinician ability and experience: “it was a bit of a learning process”. Psychologists spoke of prior negative beliefs and a range of challenges to video therapy. Their discomfort with using this technology was noted; however, a motivation to continue offering therapy to clients overweighed this. All participants concluded with benefits to using video therapy, notably increased accessibility. A hybrid model including face‐to‐face and online therapy appears preferable for future ways of working. Training is recommended for professionals and individuals supporting clients, and an assessment tool for the suitability of online therapy. Further research exploring online therapy experiences of people with intellectual disabilities is required. • During COVID‐19, face‐to‐face therapy was not allowed in England. Psychologists were asked to give therapy on video calls. We wanted to find out what this is like for psychologists working with people who have learning disabilities. • We asked five psychologists about their experience in providing video therapy. • Psychologists described some things they found hard: It was hard to control the environment online. It was hard to make changes to therapy for people with learning disabilities. It was sometimes hard to communicate. It was hard to build relationships online. Psychologists did not have experience doing video therapy. They were not confident. • Some ideas that could help: Training for psychologists and carers or families, an assessment tool to check if someone can do video therapy, and giving information about video therapy to people with learning disabilities All psychologists said there were good things about online therapy. They would like to keep using it. During COVID‐19, face‐to‐face therapy was not allowed in England. Psychologists were asked to give therapy on video calls. We wanted to find out what this is like for psychologists working with people who have learning disabilities. We asked five psychologists about their experience in providing video therapy. Psychologists described some things they found hard: It was hard to control the environment online. It was hard to make changes to therapy for people with learning disabilities. It was sometimes hard to communicate. It was hard to build relationships online. Psychologists did not have experience doing video therapy. They were not confident. Some ideas that could help: Training for psychologists and carers or families, an assessment tool to check if someone can do video therapy, and giving information about video therapy to people with learning disabilities All psychologists said there were good things about online therapy. They would like to keep using it.
Mental health ‘recovery narratives’ are increasingly used within teaching, learning and practice environments. The mainstreaming of their use has been critiqued by scholars and activists as a co-option of lived experience for organisational purposes. But how people report their experiences of telling their stories has not been investigated at scale. We present accounts from 71 people with lived experience of multiple inequalities of telling their stories in formal and informal settings. A reflexive thematic analysis was conducted within a critical constructivist approach. Our overarching finding was that questions of power were central to all accounts. Four themes were identified: (1) Challenging the status quo; (2) Risky consequences; (3) Producing ‘acceptable’ stories; (4) Untellable stories. We discuss how the concept of narrative power foregrounds inequalities in settings within which recovery stories are invited and co-constructed, and conclude that power imbalances complicate the seemingly benign act of telling stories of lived experience.
Background Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Effective use of personal protective equipment (PPE) reduces this risk. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of self-reported access to appropriate PPE (aPPE) for HCWs in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We conducted cross sectional analyses using data from a nationwide questionnaire-based cohort study administered between December 2020-February 2021. The outcome was a binary measure of self-reported aPPE (access all of the time vs access most of the time or less frequently) at two timepoints: the first national lockdown in the UK in March 2020 (primary analysis) and at the time of questionnaire response (secondary analysis). Results Ten thousand five hundred eight HCWs were included in the primary analysis, and 12,252 in the secondary analysis. 35.2% of HCWs reported aPPE at all times in the primary analysis; 83.9% reported aPPE at all times in the secondary analysis. In the primary analysis, after adjustment (for age, sex, ethnicity, migration status, occupation, aerosol generating procedure exposure, work sector and region, working hours, night shift frequency and trust in employing organisation), older HCWs and those working in Intensive Care Units were more likely to report aPPE at all times. Asian HCWs (aOR:0.77, 95%CI 0.67–0.89 [vs White]), those in allied health professional and dental roles (vs those in medical roles), and those who saw a higher number of COVID-19 patients compared to those who saw none (≥ 21 patients/week 0.74, 0.61–0.90) were less likely to report aPPE at all times. Those who trusted their employing organisation to deal with concerns about unsafe clinical practice, compared to those who did not, were twice as likely to report aPPE at all times. Significant predictors were largely unchanged in the secondary analysis. Conclusions Only a third of HCWs in the UK reported aPPE at all times during the first lockdown and that aPPE had improved later in the pandemic. We also identified key determinants of aPPE during the first UK lockdown, which have mostly persisted since lockdown was eased. These findings have important implications for the safe delivery of healthcare during the pandemic.
Mental health task shifting is a potential way to address the burgeoning treatment gap for mental illness. Easily available and accessible digital technology can be utilised to continuously engage grassroot level health workers (for example, Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs). However, the impact of such a strategy is not yet systematically evaluated. In this randomised controlled trial, longitudinal hybrid training of ASHAs [1 day in-person classroom training and seven online sessions (ECHO model), aimed to screen and refer to commonly prevalent mental health issues in communities] was compared with traditional one-day in-person classroom training. ASHAs (n = 75) from six Primary Health Centres in Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India were randomized into study (SG-ASHAs) and control (CG-ASHAs) groups. After excluding drop-outs, 26 ASHAs in each group were included in the final analysis of the scores on their Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) in mental health. Two house-to-house surveys were conducted by both groups to identify and refer possible cases. The number of screen positives (potential persons with mental illnesses) and the KAP scores formed the outcome measures. Online sessions for SG-ASHAs were completed over 18 months, the COVID-19 pandemic being the main disruptor. SG-ASHAs identified significantly higher number of persons with potential alcohol use disorders [n = 873 (83%); p ≤ 0.001] and common mental disorders [n = 96(4%); p = 0.018], while CG-ASHAs identified significantly higher number of those with potential severe mental disorders [n = 61(61.61%); p ≤ 0.001]. As regards KAP, after controlling for baseline scores, the time effect in RMANOVA favoured SG-ASHAs. Mean total KAP score increased from 16.76 to18.57 (p < 0·01) in SG-ASHAs and from 18.65 to 18.84 (p = 0.76) in CG-ASHAs. However, the Time-group interaction effect did not favour either (F = 0.105; p = 0.748). Compared to traditional training, mentoring ASHAs for extended periods is more impactful. Easily accessible digital technology makes the latter feasible. Scaling up such initiatives carry the potential to considerably improve treatment access for those in need.
To examine the differences in hospital emergency psychiatric presentations for self-harm of children and adolescents during the covid-19 lockdown in March and April 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. Retrospective cohort study. We used electronic patient records from 23 hospital emergency departments in ten countries grouped into 14 areas. We examined data on 2073 acute hospital presentations by 1795 unique children and adolescents through age 18. We examined the total number of emergency psychiatric hospital presentations and the proportion of children and adolescents presenting with severe self-harm as our two main outcome measures. In addition, we examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and clinical management variables for those presenting with self-harm. To compare the number of hospital presentations between 2020 and 2019 a negative binomial model was used. For other variables, individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses were carried out. Emergency psychiatric hospital presentations decreased from 1239 in 2019 to 834 in 2020, incident rate ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.62–0.73; p < 0.001. The proportion of children and adolescents presenting with self-harm increased from 50% in 2019 to 57% in 2020, odds ratio 1.33, 1.07–1.64; p = 0.009 but there was no difference in the proportion presenting with severe self-harm. Within the subpopulation presenting with self-harm the proportion of children and adolescents presenting with emotional disorders increased from 58 to 66%, odds ratio 1.58, 1.06–2.36; p = 0.025. The proportion of children and adolescents admitted to an observation ward also decreased from 13 to 9% in 2020, odds ratio 0.52, 0.28–0.96; p = 0.036. Service planners should consider that, during a lockdown, there are likely to be fewer emergency psychiatric presentations. Many children and adolescents with psychiatric emergencies might not receive any service. A focus on developing intensive community care services with outreach capabilities should be prioritised.
Despite autism being highly heritable, this study is the first to investigate the experiences of parents of autistic children who have significant autistic traits themselves. Eight parents of autistic children with significant autistic traits themselves were interviewed regarding their parenting experiences. In line with what has previously been reported by parents of autistic children, participants described difficulties with parental mental health and navigating professional services. Novel participant experiences included the interaction between parental and child autistic traits helping and hindering their parenting; parents learning to manage their own autistic traits, and parents finding the home to be an accepting place of autism. The need for adequately funded, tailored and accessible services for these families is emphasised.
Mental imagery is recognised for its role in both psychological distress and wellbeing, with mental imagery techniques increasingly being incorporated into psychological interventions. In this systematic review and narrative synthesis (PROSPERO 2021: CRD42021240930), we identify and evaluate the evidence base for the phenomenon and phenomenology of mental imagery in people with intellectual disabilities, to ascertain the applicability of such interventions for this population. Electronic searches of nine databases and grey literature identified relevant publications. Two reviewers independently assessed titles and abstracts of retrieved records (n = 8609) and full-text articles (n = 101) against eligibility criteria. Data were extracted and quality appraised. Forty-onepapers met our eligibility criteria. The quality and designs were variable. Mental imagery was facilitated through ensuring participants understood tasks, providing opportunity to rehearse tasks (including using concrete prompts) and using scaffolding to help participants elaborate their responses. People with intellectual disabilities can engage with mental imagery, with appropriate adaptations, although the associated phenomenology has not been thoroughly investigated. Mental imagery interventions may be useful for people with intellectual disabilities with appropriate modifications.
Background Healthcare workers (HCWs), particularly those from ethnic minority groups, have been shown to be at disproportionately higher risk of infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to the general population. However, there is insufficient evidence on how demographic and occupational factors influence infection risk among ethnic minority HCWs. Methods and findings We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from the baseline questionnaire of the United Kingdom Research study into Ethnicity and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outcomes in Healthcare workers (UK-REACH) cohort study, administered between December 2020 and March 2021. We used logistic regression to examine associations of demographic, household, and occupational risk factors with SARS-CoV-2 infection (defined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), serology, or suspected COVID-19) in a diverse group of HCWs. The primary exposure of interest was self-reported ethnicity. Among 10,772 HCWs who worked during the first UK national lockdown in March 2020, the median age was 45 (interquartile range [IQR] 35 to 54), 75.1% were female and 29.6% were from ethnic minority groups. A total of 2,496 (23.2%) reported previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The fully adjusted model contained the following dependent variables: demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, migration status, deprivation, religiosity), household factors (living with key workers, shared spaces in accommodation, number of people in household), health factors (presence/absence of diabetes or immunosuppression, smoking history, shielding status, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status), the extent of social mixing outside of the household, and occupational factors (job role, the area in which a participant worked, use of public transport to work, exposure to confirmed suspected COVID-19 patients, personal protective equipment [PPE] access, aerosol generating procedure exposure, night shift pattern, and the UK region of workplace). After adjustment, demographic and household factors associated with increased odds of infection included younger age, living with other key workers, and higher religiosity. Important occupational risk factors associated with increased odds of infection included attending to a higher number of COVID-19 positive patients (aOR 2.59, 95% CI 2.11 to 3.18 for ≥21 patients per week versus none), working in a nursing or midwifery role (1.30, 1.11 to 1.53, compared to doctors), reporting a lack of access to PPE (1.29, 1.17 to 1.43), and working in an ambulance (2.00, 1.56 to 2.58) or hospital inpatient setting (1.55, 1.38 to 1.75). Those who worked in intensive care units were less likely to have been infected (0.76, 0.64 to 0.92) than those who did not. Black HCWs were more likely to have been infected than their White colleagues, an effect which attenuated after adjustment for other known risk factors. This study is limited by self-selection bias and the cross sectional nature of the study means we cannot infer the direction of causality. Conclusions We identified key sociodemographic and occupational risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among UK HCWs, and have determined factors that might contribute to a disproportionate odds of infection in HCWs from Black ethnic groups. These findings demonstrate the importance of social and occupational factors in driving ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes, and should inform policies, including targeted vaccination strategies and risk assessments aimed at protecting HCWs in future waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trial registration The study was prospectively registered at ISRCTN (reference number: ISRCTN11811602 ).
Introduction: Emotional disorders (such as anxiety and depression) are associated with considerable distress and impairment in day-to-day function for affected children and young people and for their families. Effective evidence-based interventions are available but require appropriate identification of difficulties to enable timely access to services. Standardised diagnostic assessment (SDA) tools may aid in the detection of emotional disorders, but there is limited evidence on the utility of SDA tools in routine care and equipoise among professionals about their clinical value. Methods and analysis: A multicentre, two-arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial, with embedded qualitative and health economic components. Participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to either the Development and Well-Being Assessment SDA tool as an adjunct to usual clinical care, or usual care only. A total of 1210 participants (children and young people referred to outpatient, specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services with emotional difficulties and their parent/carers) will be recruited from at least 6 sites in England. The primary outcome is a clinician-made diagnosis about the presence of an emotional disorder within 12 months of randomisation. Secondary outcomes include referral acceptance, diagnosis and treatment of emotional disorders, symptoms of emotional difficulties and comorbid disorders and associated functional impairment. Ethics and dissemination: The study received favourable opinion from the South Birmingham Research Ethics Committee (Ref. 19/WM/0133). Results of this trial will be reported to the funder and published in full in the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Journal series and also submitted for publication in a peer reviewed journal. Trial registration number: ISRCTN15748675; Pre-results.
Background People with dementia (PWD) are vulnerable to abrupt changes to daily routines. The lockdown enforced on the 23rd of March 2020 in the UK to contain the expansion of the COVID-19 pandemic limited opportunities for PWD to access healthcare services and socialise. The SOLITUDE study explored the potential long-term effects of lockdown on PWD’s symptoms and carers’ burden. Methods Forty-five carers and 36 PWD completed a telephone-based assessment at recruitment (T0) and after 3 (T1) and 6 months (T2). PWD completed measures validated for telephonic evaluations of cognition and depression. Carers completed questionnaires on their burden and on PWD’s health and answered a customised interview on symptom changes observed in the initial months of lockdown. Longitudinal changes were investigated for all outcome variables with repeated-measures models. Additional post hoc multiple regression analyses were carried out to investigate whether several objective factors (i.e., demographics and time under social restrictions) and carer-reported symptom changes observed following lockdown before T0 were associated with all outcomes at T0. Results No significant changes were observed in any outcomes over the 6 months of observations. However, post hoc analyses showed that the length of social isolation before T0 was negatively correlated with episodic and semantic memory performance at T0. Carers reporting worsening of neuropsychiatric symptoms and faster disease progression in PWD also reported higher burden. Moreover, carer-reported worsening of cognitive symptoms was associated with poorer semantic memory at T0. Conclusion PWD’s symptoms and carers’ burden remained stable over 6 months of observation. However, the amount of time spent under social restrictions before T0 appears to have had a significant detrimental impact on cognitive performance of patients. In fact, carer-reported cognitive decline during social isolation was consistent with the finding of poorer semantic memory, a domain sensitive to progression in Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, the initial stricter period of social isolation had greater detrimental impact on patients and their carers, followed then by a plateau. Future interventions may be designed to maintain an optimal level of social and cognitive engagement for PWD in challenging times, to prevent abrupt worsening of symptoms and associated detrimental consequences on patients’ carers.
Introduction: The media coverage of high-profile sporting events can bring increased pressure to athletes’ psychological wellbeing. There may be speculation regarding athletes’ mental state before, during and after competition potentially impacting on both the athlete’s wellbeing and public perception of the individual if a negative tone is attached to an article. As mental health understanding and literacy develop, media reporting of elite athlete mental health may contribute to shaping of opinions and help seeking behaviour. Thus, we have aimed to understand and analyse the tone and content of media reporting on a high-profile sporting event using qualitative methods to explore key aspects of the articles sampled. Methods: We selected two UK broadsheet newspapers available online (The Guardian and The Telegraph) and identified all text articles including the terms “Mental Health” and “Olympics” or “Paralympics” published between 23 rd July 2019 and 30 th November 2021. We selected articles relevant to the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games and including mental health as a subject. Relevant articles were read in full, and we conducted a thematic analysis to explore how mental health was portrayed. Results: 581 results were generated from our initial search. Following screening and removal of irrelevant articles, we had 95 articles for analysis. We identified four themes relating to portrayal of mental health: Pressure, impact of COVID, Lack of specific diagnostic terms, and athletes as humans. Conclusion: Media portrayal of mental health at the Tokyo Games was generally positive and portrayed athletes as relatable, inspiring, and “human” rather than superhuman. Reporting particularly focused on athlete-specific factors in mental health conditions and the pressures of high-level competition.
Objective Social distancing to limit COVID-19 transmission has led to extensive lifestyle changes, including for people with dementia (PWD). The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the impact of lockdown on the mental health of PWD and their carers. Methods Forty-five carers of PWD completed a telephone interview during the baseline assessment of the SOLITUDE study to gather information on life conditions and changes in symptoms of PWD during lockdown. Associations between changes in symptoms of PWD and carers’ concerns and mental health were investigated. Results About 44% of carers experienced anxiety and irritability and reported changes in behavioural and cognitive symptoms in PWD. These changes were associated with worse carers’ mental health and concerns about faster disease progression (χ ² = 13.542, p < 0.001). Conclusion COVID-19-related social isolation has had a negative impact on patients’ and carers’ mental health. Potential long-term neurocognitive consequences require further investigation.
Background Psychoeducation delivered face-to-face is effective in alleviating mental health morbidities in family carers of individuals with psychosis. However, research in such interventions delivered online is scarce. We evaluated the effectiveness of a digital multicomponent intervention—COPe-support—in improving carers' mental wellbeing and caregiving-related outcomes. Methods In this two-arm, individually randomised, superiority trial, people aged 18 years or older who provided at least weekly support in any format for a relative or close friend affected by psychosis across England were randomly assigned (1:1) to either COPe-support or a passive online information resource using an independent online system. Participants were recruited through 30 mental health UK National Health Service trusts. The study team were masked to allocation and assessment of outcomes as all data collection took place online. Participants had access to either condition for 40 weeks and were advised to spend at least half an hour per week over the initial 20 weeks to go through materials at their own pace and to allow time to integrate knowledge and skills learned into practice. It was not feasible to mask participants or the online facilitator to intervention allocation. COPe-support provided psychoeducation on psychosis-related caregiving strategies and forums with professionals and other carers, and the control intervention comprised a passive online information resource. The primary outcome at 20 weeks was mental wellbeing measured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS; minimally clinically important difference [MCID] 3). This trial is registered with ISRCTN, 89563420. Findings Between March 1, 2018, and Feb 14, 2020, 407 participants were randomly assigned, with 204 allocated to COPe-support and 203 allocated to control. The participants (mean age 53·1 years, SD 13·2) were mostly female (330 [81%] of 407 participants) and White (359 [88%] of 407 participants). 346 (85%) of 407 participants provided primary endpoint data, 174 (85%) of 204 participants in the COPe-support group and 172 (85%) of 203 participants in the control group. The mean WEMWBS score at 20 weeks was 44·5 (SD 8·31) for the COPe-support group and 43·3 (9·19) for the control group. We found no evidence of a difference in wellbeing between the two groups (adjusted mean difference 0·37, 95% CI –1·14 to 1·88; p=0·63). In the COPe-support group, 106 (52%) of 204 participants met the complier definition of a minimum of two logins in separate weeks. The complier average causal effect analysis increased the difference in WEMWBS scores (adjusted difference 0·83, 95% CI –1·45 to 3·11; p=0·47), but this was lower than the MCID. There were no adverse events. Interpretation Our findings did not support the use of COPe-support over a passive online information resource. However, further research to optimise digital interventions adjunctive to face-to-face support for carers remains important. Funding National Institute for Health Research.
Objectives: Research has suggested people who hear voices may be at risk of epistemic injustice. This is a form of discrimination whereby someone is unfairly judged to be an unreliable knower (testimonial injustice) or is unable to contribute to, and therefore access, concepts that make sense of their experience within mainstream society (hermeneutical injustice). Voice-hearing occurs both in people who are mental health service users and in the general population (clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers, respectively). The degree of distress and impairment associated with voices has been shown to relate to how individuals make sense of their experiences and how others respond to their identity as a voice-hearer. The aim of this study was to explore people's experiences of epistemic injustice in relation to voice-hearing and to understand how these may differ between clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers. Design: A qualitative design was used. Method: Eight clinical and nine non-clinical voice-hearers partook in semi-structured interviews, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Three pairs of themes related to (i) identity, (ii) relationships and (iii) power and position were constructed across the clinical and non-clinical groups, and two shared themes within both groups were created relating to testimonial and hermeneutical injustice. Conclusion: Both clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers described experiencing epistemic injustice in wider society. The presence of a 'safe haven' (e.g. spiritualist churches) for non-clinical voice-hearers ameliorated the impact of this to some degree, by allowing people to make connections with others with similar experiences within a non-judgemental and accepting community.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can have distressing neuropsychiatric symptoms. It can have an etiological role in clinical presentations like depression, anxiety, psychosis, dementia, and delirium, requiring screening of at-risk populations. Few mechanisms that underlie the neuropsychiatric manifestations of B12 deficiency include alteration in one-carbon metabolism, genetic vulnerability, and alteration in folate metabolism. Maintaining a high serum B12 level in elderly can be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD). In an established AD, its deficiency is associated with higher cognitive decline and risk for delirium. The other mental changes associated with B12 deficiency include apathy, agitation, impaired concentration, insomnia, persecutory delusions, auditory and visual hallucinations, and disorganized thought-process. Besides serum vitamin B12, plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine helps in diagnosis. The chapter focuses on early recognition and effective treatment of these neuropsychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency.
Skin compromise at the end of life (SCALE) is not a new concept. The development of SCALE at the end of life is often deemed unavoidable and a result of multiorgan failure resulting in tissue hypoperfusion, which leads to depletion of oxygen and nutrients for the skin. Pressure ulcers, formed due to pressure, shearing or continuous friction, are also common at the end of life. The goal of care for patients with pressure ulcers at the end of life is usually wound management and good quality of life, rather than wound healing. Nurses must assess all pressure ulcers or SCALE at the end of life holistically and consider treatment and management based on the patient's condition.
Background: Several countries now have mandatory SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for healthcare workers (HCWs) or the general population. HCWs' views on this are largely unknown. Using data from the nationwide UK-REACH study we aimed to understand UK HCW's views on improving SARS-CoV-2 vaccination coverage, including mandatory vaccination. Methods: Between 21st April and 26th June 2021, we administered an online questionnaire via email to 17 891 UK HCWs recruited as part of a longitudinal cohort from across the UK who had previously responded to a baseline questionnaire (primarily recruited through email) as part of the United Kingdom Research study into Ethnicity And COVID-19 outcomes in Healthcare workers (UK-REACH) nationwide prospective cohort study. We categorised responses to a free-text question "What should society do if people do not get vaccinated against COVID-19?" using qualitative content analysis. We collapsed categories into a binary variable: favours mandatory vaccination or not, using logistic regression to calculate its demographic predictors, and its occupational, health, and attitudinal predictors adjusted for demographics. Findings: Of 5633 questionnaire respondents, 3235 answered the free text question. Median age of free text responders was 47 years (IQR 36-56) and 2705 (74.3%) were female. 18% (n = 578) favoured mandatory vaccination (201 [6%] participants for HCWs and others working with vulnerable populations; 377 [12%] for the general population), but the most frequent suggestion was education (32%, n = 1047). Older HCWs (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.44-2.34 [≥55 years vs 16 years to <40 years]), HCWs vaccinated against influenza (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.11-2.01 [2 vaccines vs none]), and with more positive vaccination attitudes generally (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.06-1.15) were more likely to favour mandatory vaccination, whereas female HCWs (OR= 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.96, vs male HCWs) and Black HCWs (OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.85, vs white HCWs) were less likely to. Interpretation: Only one in six of the HCWs in this large, diverse, UK-wide sample favoured mandatory vaccination. Building trust, educating, and supporting HCWs who are hesitant about vaccination may be more acceptable, effective, and equitable. Funding: MRC-UK Research and Innovation grant (MR/V027549/1) and the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) via the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Core funding was also provided by NIHR Biomedical Research Centres.
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