Background and Objectives: The hemoadsorption device CytoSorb® (CytoSorbents Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA) has been shown to efficiently remove ticagrelor from whole blood in vitro. A promising clinical experience was made with the integration of the hemoadsorption cartridge on the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit during cardiac surgery to reduce adverse events. Materials and Methods: In this report, we describe a novel approach using a new apheresis platform, PUR-01 (Nikkisio Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), which was used as the extracorporeal circuit where CytoSorb® could be installed for the removal of ticagrelor during off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) procedures. Results: In a 74-year-old male (index case) with coronary artery disease and dual antiplatelet therapy, hemoadsorption was initiated with a skin incision for OPCAB surgery and was continued for 221 min to eliminate ticagrelor. The blood volume that had circulated through the CytoSorb® was 39.04 L in total. Thus far, this treatment strategy has been used in four cases with CHD and DAPT who needed OPCAB surgery. The intraoperative and postoperative courses were uneventful in all patients. No device-related adverse events occurred. Conclusions: The combination of the PUR-01 apheresis pump and hemoadsorption with the CytoSorb® column during OPCAB procedures appears to be safe and effective in eliminating antiplatelet drugs.
S2k-Leitlinie: Sekundärprophylaxe ischämischer Schlaganfall und transitorische ischämische Attacke (TIA) – Teil 1 und Teil 2S2k guideline: secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack—part 1 and part 2: Zusammenfassung der Leitlinie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für NeurologieA summary of the German Neurological Society guideline
IntroductionHigh tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a valid and joint preserving surgical technique to treat medial degenerative osteoarthritis (OA) in young and active patients. A recent study shows that patients’ expectations of osteotomy around the knee are high, but OA progression and potential conversion to a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were underestimated. The aim of this study was to investigate surgeons’ expectations of HTO and to compare the results to the patients’ expectations and actual outcomes reported in the literature.Methods461 surgeons were questioned online using the ‘Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Surgery Expectations Survey (HFSS-KSES)’ and a ten-item non-validated questionnaire to investigate the expectations of HTO. Two subgroups were formed to investigate differences regarding the surgeons’ experience. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics.ResultsSurgeons’ expectations of HTO were rated between very and little important with pain reduction being the most important item on the HFSS-KSES. Furthermore, ‘improving the ability to walk’, ‘to perform daily activities’, ‘having confidence in the knee’, and ‘avoiding future degeneration’ were rated of high importance. An important difference regarding the experience was the lower expectations on delay/prevention of TKA of less-experienced surgeons.Conclusion Surgeons’ expectations of HTO are high but nevertheless different to the patients’ expectations reported in the literature. Also, expectations for the delay/prevention of TKA differed regarding the experience of surgeons. While pain reduction represents one of the most important items for surgeons and patients, the expected outcome regarding the delay/prevention of a TKA and returning to sports differs to the patients’ expectations and to the actual outcome reported in the literature. This should be considered when performing the preoperative informed consent.
Positionspapier Schlaganfallnachsorge der Deutschen Schlaganfall-Gesellschaft – Teil 1: Nachsorge nach einem Schlaganfall: Status quo der Versorgungsrealität und Versorgungsdefizite in DeutschlandPosition paper on stroke aftercare of the German Stroke Society—Part 1: long-term care after stroke: status quo of the reality and deficits of care in Germany
Zusammenfassung Die Akutversorgung des Schlaganfalls in Deutschland hat ein sehr hohes Niveau, dargestellt durch die Stroke-Units. Die Erkrankung Schlaganfall hat eine Akutphase, gefolgt von einer chronischen Phase mit einem hohen und qualifizierten multi- und interprofessionellen Versorgungsbedarf. Die Deutsche Schlaganfall-Gesellschaft (DSG) hat 2020 eine Nachsorgekommission gegründet, mit dem Ziel der Darstellung der aktuellen Versorgungssituation und zur Erarbeitung von Vorschlägen für eine Verbesserung der Versorgung nach der Akutphase. In dieser Arbeit wird der Status quo ermittelt und Defizite benannt. Analysiert wurden Beiträge unterschiedlicher Beteiligter im deutschen Gesundheitswesen, dargestellt werden unterschiedliche Projekte einer Nachsorge. In Deutschland existiert kein anerkanntes strukturiertes Nachsorgekonzept für Patienten nach einem Schlaganfall. Die bestehende hausarztbasierte Versorgung ohne eine zukünftig stärkere und abgestimmte Integration der Neurologen erschwert eine leitlinien- und qualitätsgesteuerte Nachsorge. Aufgabenverteilungen sowie notwendige Ausbildungsstandards für ihre leitliniengerechte Erfüllung durch die Fachgruppen liegen nicht vor. Zu selten werden neben den medizinischen Domänen die physischen, sozialen und emotionalen Domänen durch ein multiprofessionelles Versorgungsteam beachtet. Zu diskutieren ist eine Weiterentwicklung eines regionalen Care-Management-Konzeptes. Evaluiert werden müssen die Ergebnisse und die Kosten eines Nachsorgekonzeptes vor einer breiten Anwendung.
Zusammenfassung Die Schlaganfallnachsorge ist im Gegensatz zur akuten und rehabilitativen Versorgung des Schlaganfalls wenig standardisiert. Der fragmentierte ambulante Sektor erlaubt hierbei ein hohes Maß an Flexibilität, leidet aber folglich an variabler Qualität der Nachsorge. Die Kommission Nachsorge der Deutschen Schlaganfall-Gesellschaft formuliert in diesem Positionspapier ein inhaltliches Konzept, um eine strukturierte Nachsorge mit multiprofessionellem Ansatz zu entwickeln. Diese soll im Sinne einer „Comprehensive-care“-Versorgung und patientenzentriert erfolgen. Dazu schlagen wir ein diagnostisches Stufenkonzept mit Screening und ggf. weitergehender Untersuchung vor, das in Absprache mit den Betroffenen zu einem standardisierten Therapieplan führt, der im Langzeitverlauf entsprechend angepasst werden muss. Inhaltlich sind sowohl internistische Domänen (Management von Risikofaktoren) als auch genuin neurologische Domänen (Spastik, kognitive Defizite etc.) zu berücksichtigen. Besondere Herausforderungen an dieses Konzept sind die sektorenübergreifende (inter- und intrasektorale) Kommunikation zwischen den Akteuren im Gesundheitswesen untereinander sowie mit den Patienten und Angehörigen, die Notwendigkeit zur Schaffung eines Vergütungsmodells für eine solche Nachsorge und letztlich die Etablierung eines entsprechenden Qualitätsmanagements. Digitale Lösungen erachten wir als hilfreiche Werkzeuge für Aspekte der Diagnose, Therapie und Kommunikation in der Schlaganfallnachsorge.
Zusamenfassung Im logopädischen Alltag werden regelmäßig Dysphonien beurteilt. Neben der perzeptiven RBH-Skala (Rauigkeit R, Behauchtheit B und die Heiserkeit H) finden wir auch computergestützte, akustische Messmittel, wie die Vospector-Analyse von lingWaves (Irregularität, Rauschen und Gesamtgrad). Zur Untersuchung der Korrelation von Text und Vokal, der Reliabilität der RBH-Skala, der Vospector-Analyse und auch deren Korrelation wurde die Stimmqualität (Text und Vokal) von 6 Fallbeispielen durch 54 Logopäd*innen bewertet. Die Retest-Reliabilität der RBH-Skala, die Korrelation von Text und Vokal sowie von RBH und Vospector wurden ausgewertet. Die Retest-Reliabilität der RBH-Skala war in großen Teilen inkongruent. Die Ergebnisse deuten zudem auf geringe Zusammenhänge der perzeptiven Beurteilung eines Textes und eines Vokals hin. Hierbei wurden bedeutsame Unterschiede zwischen den Fallbeispielen beobachtet, was mitunter in der Diskussion aufgegriffen wird.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with a high mental burden. Well-known comorbidities include depression, anxiety, as well as alcohol and tobacco addiction, however, there is barely any evidence on other addictions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the six most common addictions among psoriasis patients in Germany and to determine associated clinical factors. Dermatologists working in four dermatological clinics and 32 practices across Germany recruited patients between September 2018 and November 2019. This cross-sectional study contained questionnaires on six addictions, depression, anxiety, and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). In addition, scores for the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) were obtained by physicians. Overall, 502 patients (43.4% women; mean age: 49.7 ± 14.6 years) were included. Positive addictions were found in 30.3% for daily smoking, 8.6% for alcohol, 1.2% for gambling, 3.8% for internet use, 3.6% for food, and 6.0% for drugs. Younger age was associated with a higher probability of addiction except for alcohol dependency. The PASI was only significantly associated with smoking. Addictions seem to be common among psoriasis patients. Further research should include comprehensive data and control groups, furthermore, standardised screenings and early referrals could represent first steps to improve people-centred healthcare for patients with psoriasis.
Objective. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the painDETECT questionnaire into the Persian language and assess the clinometric properties of the translated version (P-PDQ). Methods. This is a single-center prospective observational study. After forward and backward translations, consensus was achieved by the expert panel on the pre-final version. Semantic equivalence of this version was assessed and necessary modifications were made accordingly to achieve the final version (P-PDQ). One hundred and fifty chronic pain patients were sub-classified into neuropathic pain (NeP (n= 82)) or non-NeP (n= 68) groups by two pain specialists. P-PDQ was then administered to 50 patients twice with an interval of 5-7 days to assess relative reliability. Chronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the P-PDQ, respectively. Criterion validity was assessed as the correlation of the P-PDQ and the validated Persian version of the self-report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (P-sLANSS). Results. Chronbach’s α and ICC of the P-PDQ were 0.76 and 0.97, respectively. The P-PDQ scores were significantly correlated with those of P-sLANSS (ρ = 0.87, P < 0.01). The mean overall score of P-PDQ was significantly higher in the NeP group (P <0.01) which reflects discriminant validity. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicting values and Youden index were 74.70%, 98.51%, 78.04%, 98.48%, and 0.73, respectively at the cutoff value ≤17. Conclusion. The P-PDQ is a reliable and valid tool to distinguish neuropathic component in chronic pain cases.
Background and objectives: Neuropathic pain is common in the general population worldwide and Brazil. The painDETECT questionnaire is a notable instrument for screening on neuropathic pain. A Brazilian version of the painDETECT is necessary to broaden the possibilities of identification of neuropathic pain in the Brazilian population for the proper diagnosis and treatment. The current study aimed to perform the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the painDETECT into the Portuguese language of Brazil. Methods: A cross-cultural adaptation study was conducted in 11 stages according to standard procedures. Descriptive statistics were performed. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach's Alpha test (α). Results: Four translators, 10 experts and 30 patients participated in the study. The expert committee adapted five out of nine items (item 2, 3, 6, 8 and 10) to the Brazilian context. The pretesting phase showed good internal consistency (α = 0.74) for the nine items, including the pain pattern and the body chart domains. The Cronbach's α of the instrument with seven descriptor items of pain was 0.83. Conclusions: The painDETECT was cross-culturally adapted into a Brazilian context and can be used to identify neuropathic components in pain of Brazilian patients. Clinical implications: PainDETECT is available for Brazilians to identify neuropathic components in pain.
Was ist neu? Indikation zur Revaskularisation asymptomatischer Karotisstenosen Mit einer optimalen medikamentösen Therapie kann eine vergleichbare Risikoreduktion wie mit einer Revaskularisation erreicht werden. Daher empfiehlt die aktualisierte S3-Leitlinie, die Indikation zur Revaskularisation einer asymptomatischen hochgradigen Karotisstenose unter sorgfältiger Risiko-Nutzen-Abwägung individualisiert zu treffen. Voraussetzung ist, dass kein erhöhtes Operationsrisiko besteht und ein oder mehrere klinische oder bildgebende Befunde vorliegen, die mit einem erhöhten Schlaganfallrisiko assoziiert sind. Die periprozedurale Schlaganfallrate/Letalität soll maximal 2 % betragen. Optimierte konservative Therapie (BMT) Die Einnahme von ASS (100 mg/Tag) führt bei Patienten mit asymptomatischer Karotisstenose zu einer signifikanten Reduktion der 5-Jahres-Mortalität auch nach Adjustierung für andere Risikofaktoren. Ein LDL-Zielwert < 70 mg/dl führt im Vergleich zu einem Zielwert von 90–110 mg/dl zu einer signifikant größeren Reduktion der Intima-Media-Dicke.
Background: The pharmacological treatment options of Parkinson's disease (PD) have considerably evolved during the last decades. However, therapeutic regimes are complicated due to individual differences in disease progression as well as the occurrence of complex nonmotor impairments such as mood and anxiety disorders. Antidepressants in particular are commonly prescribed for the treatment of depressive symptoms and anxiety in PD. Case Presentation. In this case report, we describe a case of a 62-year-old female patient with PD and history of depressive symptoms for which she had been treated with moclobemide concurrent with anti-Parkinson medications pramipexole, rasagiline, and L-DOPA+benserazide retard. An increase in the dosage of moclobemide 12 months prior to admission progressively led to serotonergic overstimulation and psychovegetative exacerbations mimicking the clinical picture of an anxiety spectrum disorder. After moclobemide and rasagiline were discontinued based on the hypothesis of serotonergic overstimulation, the patient's psychovegetative symptoms subsided. Conclusions: The specific pharmacological regime in this case probably caused drug-drug interactions resulting in a plethora of psychovegetative symptoms. Likely due to the delayed onset of adverse effects, physicians had difficulties in determining the pharmacologically induced serotonin toxicity. This case report emphasizes the complexity of pharmacological treatments and the importance of drug-drug interaction awareness in the treatment of PD patients with complicating nonmotor dysfunctions such as depression.
The pathophysiology of pain in neuropathy is complex and may be linked to sensory phenotypes. Quantitative sensory testing, a standardized method to evaluate sensory profiles in response to defined stimuli, assesses functional integrity of small and large nerve fiber afferents and central somatosensory pathways. It has revealed detailed insights into mechanisms of neuropathy, yet, it remains unclear if pain directly affects sensory profiles. The main objective of this study was to investigate sensory profiles in patients with various neuropathic conditions, including polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, and lesions to the central nervous system, in relation to self-reported presence or absence of pain and pain sensitivity using the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire.A total of 443 patients (332 painful and 111 painless) and 112 healthy participants were investigated. Overall, loss of sensation was equally prevalent in patients with and without spontaneous pain. Pain thresholds were equally lowered in both patient groups, demonstrating that hyperalgesia and allodynia is just as present in patients not reporting any pain. Remarkably, this was similar for dynamic mechanical allodynia. Hypoalgesia was more pronounced in painful polyneuropathy whereas hyperalgesia was more frequent in painful mononeuropathy (compared to painless conditions). Self-reported pain sensitivity was significantly higher in painful than in painless neuropathic conditions.Our results reveal the presence of hyperalgesia and allodynia in patients with central and peripheral lesions of the somatosensory system not reporting spontaneous pain. This shows that symptoms and signs of hypersensitivity may not necessarily coincide, and that painful and painless neuropathic conditions may mechanistically blend into one another.
Apart from the known efficacy of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (BoNT/A) in hyperactive striated and smooth muscles, different pain states have become potential targets of toxin effects. This present study determined the comparative toxin effectiveness in pain reduction among those patients injected with BoNT/A in muscle-based and in non-muscle-based conditions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of BoNT/A on selected pain conditions were included. The conditions were spasticity and dystonia for muscle-based pain. For non-muscle-based pain, conditions included were painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), trigeminal neuralgia (TN), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and spinal cord injury (SCI). In view of possibly differing pathophysiology, myofascial pain, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), other joint or tendon pains, cervicogenic and lumbar pains, migraine and visceral pain syndromes were excluded. Standardized mean difference was used as the effect measure and computed with STATA. 25 RCTs were analyzed. Pooled estimates showed significantly lower pain score in the Treatment group (z = 5.23, p < 0.01, 95% CI = – 0.75, – 0.34). Subgroup analyses showed that BoNT/A significantly reduced both muscle-based (z = 3.78, p < 0.01, 95% CI = – 0.72, – 0.23) and non-muscle-based (z = 3.37, p = 0.001, 95% CI = – 1.00, – 0.27) pain. Meta-regression using four covariates namely dosage, route, frequency and duration was done which revealed that dosage significantly affects standardized mean differences, while the other three covariates were insignificant. The joint F-test was found to be insignificant (p value = 0.1182). The application of the model with these covariates does not significantly explain the derived heterogeneity of standardized mean differences. In conclusion, BoNT/A can be effectively used in muscle-based and non-muscle-based pain disorders. We detected no difference between the presence and magnitude of pain relief favoring muscle-based compared to non-muscle-based pain. Thus, we cannot say whether or not there might be independent mechanisms of toxin-induced pain relief for pain generated from either muscle or nerve hyperactivity.
Background The aim of the study was to investigate the impact and relevance of neuropathic pain in inflammatory rheumatic disorders (IRD) and osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives Pain is one of the main symptoms in patients with IRD and OA. To enhance a mechanistic based treatment of pain the differentiation between nociceptive and neuropathic pain via screening tools (e.g. painDETECT questionaire) might possibly be helpful. The goal of the study was to investigate (1) if neuropathic pain is a significant burden for patients with IRD and (2) if pain patterns differs from degenerative joint diseases such as OA in over 9.000 patients in each group. Methods painDETECT is a questionnaire that has been evaluated and used in numerous clinical trials to detect neuropathic pain in various diseases. The collected data is centrally managed and evaluated. In total (end of 2019) 395.984 patients have been documented. Out of the painDETECT database 9256 patients with IRD and 9436 patients with OA were extracted, analyzed and compared on their neuropathic pain pattern (screening was performed using the painDETECT-questionaire., PDQ). Secondary parameters were: intensity of pain, functional status, depression, chronicity and sleep disorder. Patients had been recruited from general practitioners (GPs), Rheumatologists, Orthopedics and Neurologists from 862 office-based physicians into the painDETECT-database. This project is an open label registry study in Germany. Results The median PDQ-score of patients with inflammatory rheumatic disorders adds up to 14,2 (1-38) and of OA patients to 13,8. 28.7% of inflammatory rheumatic disorders and 27.2% of OA-patients showed signs for neuropathic pain by positive PDQ. The difference was according to this high patient numbers statistically significant (P=0.0015). VAS-Score, Depressions-Score, Chronicity -Score and Functional -Score showed no clinically relevant differences between these two groups. Conclusion Nearly one third of patients with IRD as well as patients with OA showed neuropathic pain components by using PDQ. Despite increasingly better disease control through more effective therapies, pain still remains a major burden for many patients and has a profound impact on their quality of life. The present data indicate a surprisingly high symptoms of neuropathic pain even in IRD patients and should be considered in the management of our patients. A new documentation system for Rheumatologists (RheumaAssist) could help to address these questions. Percentage of PDQ-categories (negative/unclear/positive) for patients with inflammatory rheumatic disorders (IRD) or Arthrosis (OA) Acknowledgments This investigation was supported within a grant of Pfizer Deutschland GmbH. Disclosure of Interests: Philipp Sewerin Grant/research support from: AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG Bristol-Myers Squibb Celgene GmbH Lilly Deutschland GmbH Novartis Pharma GmbH Pfizer Deutschland GmbH Rheumazentrum Rhein-Ruhr, Consultant of: AMGEN GmbH AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG Biogen GmbHBristol-Myers Squibb Celgene GmbH Chugai Pharma arketing Ltd. / Chugai Europe GmbHHexal Pharma Janssen-CilagGmbH Johnson & Johnson Deutschland GmbHLilly Deutschland GmbH / Lilly Europe / Lilly Global Novartis Pharma GmbH Pfizer Deutschland GmbH Roche Pharma Rheumazentrum Rhein-Ruhr Sanofi-Genzyme Deutschland GmbH Swedish Orphan Biovitrum GmbH UCB Pharma GmbH, Speakers bureau: AMGEN GmbH AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG Biogen GmbHBristol-Myers Squibb Celgene GmbH Chugai Pharma arketing Ltd. / Chugai Europe GmbHHexal Pharma Janssen-CilagGmbH Johnson & Johnson Deutschland GmbHLilly Deutschland GmbH / Lilly Europe / Lilly Global Novartis Pharma GmbH Pfizer Deutschland GmbH Roche Pharma Rheumazentrum Rhein-Ruhr Sanofi-Genzyme Deutschland GmbH Swedish Orphan Biovitrum GmbH UCB Pharma GmbH, Rainer Freynhagen Consultant of: AOP Orphan Pharma, Grünenthal, Lilly, Merck, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Pfizer, Scilex Pharmaceutics , Speakers bureau: AOP Orphan Pharma, Grünenthal, Lilly, Merck, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Pfizer, Scilex Pharmaceutics , Thomas Tölle Consultant of: AOP Orphan, Almiral Hermal, Bionest Partners, Benkitt Renkiser, Grünenthal, Hexal, Indivior, Kaia Health, Lilly, Medscape Mundipharma, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Recordati Pharma, Sanofi-Aventis, and TAD Pharma, Speakers bureau: AOP Orphan, Almiral Hermal, Bionest Partners, Benkitt Renkiser, Grünenthal, Hexal, Indivior, Kaia Health, Lilly, Medscape Mundipharma, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Recordati Pharma, Sanofi-Aventis, and TAD Pharma, Michael Hammer Consultant of: Abbvie, Pfizer, Medac and Janssen, Speakers bureau: Abbvie, Pfizer, Medac and Janssen, Christoph Baerwald Consultant of: CGB received speaker or consulting fees from AbbVie, Paid instructor for: CGB received speaker or consulting fees from AbbVie, Speakers bureau: CGB received speaker or consulting fees from AbbVie, Jochen Walter Consultant of: Pfizer, Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Frauenhofer Institut, Gilead, Janssen-Cilag, Medac, Novartis, Pfizer, Ralf Schröder Shareholder of: Pfizer Pharma GmbH, Employee of: Pfizer Pharma GmbH, Matthias Schneider Grant/research support from: GSK, UCB, Abbvie, Consultant of: Abbvie, Alexion, Astra Zeneca, BMS, Boehringer Ingelheim, Gilead, Lilly, Sanofi, UCB, Speakers bureau: Abbvie, Astra Zeneca, BMS, Chugai, GSK, Lilly, Pfizer, Sanofi, Ralf Baron Consultant of: RB received speaker or consulting fees from AbbVie, Paid instructor for: RB received speaker or consulting fees from AbbVie, Speakers bureau: RB received speaker or consulting fees from AbbVie
Introduction Previous studies showed insufficient control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and high stroke recurrence rates among ischemic stroke patients in Germany. Currently, no structured secondary prevention program exists in clinical routine. We present the trial design and pilot phase results of a complex intervention to improve stroke care after hospital discharge in Germany. Patients and methods SANO is a cluster-randomized trial with 30 participating regions across Germany aiming to enrol 2,790 patients (drks.de, DRKS00015322). Study intervention combines both structural and patient-centred elements. Study development was based on the Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions. In 15 intervention regions, a cross-sectoral multidisciplinary network is established to enhance CVRF control as well as detection and treatment of post-stroke complications. Recommendations on CVRF are based on high-quality secondary prevention guidelines. Study physicians use motivational interviewing and agree with patients on therapeutic targets. While hospitalised, patients also receive dietary counselling and a health-passport to track their progress. During regular visits, CVRF management and potential complications are monitored. The intervention is compared to 15 regions providing usual care. The primary endpoint is the combination of recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction and death assessed 12 months after enrolment and adjudicated in a blinded manner. Results Eighteen patients were enrolled in a pilot phase that demonstrated feasibility of patient recruitment and study procedures. Conclusion SANO is investigating a program to reduce outcome events after ischemic stroke by implementing a complex intervention. If successful, the program may be implemented in routine care on national level in Germany.
Background and aims: Healthy women have generally been found to have increased experimental pain perception and chronic pain has a higher prevalence in female as compared to male patients. However, no study has investigated whether pain intensity and pain perception thresholds are distinct or similar between sexes within various chronic pain entities. We investigated whether average pain intensities and pain thresholds assessed using quantitative sensory testing (QST) differed between women and men suffering from three distinct chronic pain conditions: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS type I), peripheral nerve injury (PNI) or polyneuropathy (PNP), as compared to paired healthy volunteers. Methods: QST data of 1252 patients (669 female, 583 male) with PNI (n=342), PNP (n=571) or CRPS (n=339), and average pain intensity reports from previously published studies were included. Absolute and z-values (adjusted for age and body region) of cold, heat, pressure (PPT) and pinprick pain thresholds were compared in generalized linear models with aetiology, duration of underlying pain disease and average pain intensity as fixed effects. Results: Average pain intensity during the past four weeks did not differ between women and men, in both mean and range. In women absolute pain thresholds for cold, heat and pinprick were lower than in males across all diagnoses (p<.05). However, after z-transformation these differences disappeared except for PPT in CRPS (p=.001). Discussion: Pain thresholds in patients show only minor sex differences. However, these differences mimic those observed in healthy subjects and do not seem to be linked to specific pathophysiological processes. Significance: Female healthy participants and female patients with neuropathic pain conditions or CRPS I report lower pain thresholds compared to males, but pain intensity is similar and there is no sex difference in the extent to which the thresholds are altered in neuropathic pain or CRPS. Thus, the sex differences observed in various chronic pain conditions mimic those obtained in healthy participants, indicating that these differences are not linked to specific pathophysiological processes and are of minor clinical relevance.
Aims Averaged measurements, but not the progression based on multiple assessments of carotid intima-media thickness, (cIMT) are predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in individuals. Whether this is true for conventional risk factors is unclear. Methods and results An individual participant meta-analysis was used to associate the annualised progression of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with future cardiovascular disease risk in 13 prospective cohort studies of the PROG-IMT collaboration ( n = 34,072). Follow-up data included information on a combined cardiovascular disease endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke, or vascular death. In secondary analyses, annualised progression was replaced with average. Log hazard ratios per standard deviation difference were pooled across studies by a random effects meta-analysis. In primary analysis, the annualised progression of total cholesterol was marginally related to a higher cardiovascular disease risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 1.07). The annualised progression of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was not associated with future cardiovascular disease risk. In secondary analysis, average systolic blood pressure (HR 1.20 95% CI 1.11 to 1.29) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16) were related to a greater, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97) was related to a lower risk of future cardiovascular disease events. Conclusion Averaged measurements of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol displayed significant linear relationships with the risk of future cardiovascular disease events. However, there was no clear association between the annualised progression of these conventional risk factors in individuals with the risk of future clinical endpoints.
Skeletal ossification occurs either directly within mesenchymal tissues or indirectly through a template of hyaline cartilage. Between the epiphyses and diaphyses of long bones, hyaline cartilaginous growth plates remain and constitute the progenitor cell reservoir from which the tissue develops toward the diaphysis and determines longitudinal bone size. Growth plates exhibit a characteristic architecture with columnar cell organization and different zonal morphology. The cells increase their volume toward the diaphysis, and eventually the longitudinally arranged septa of extracellular matrix mineralize. Finally, the mineralized cartilage matrix is replaced by lamellar bone. The extracellular matrix is rich in glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and collagen II; at the edges of the growth plates, collagen I, III, and collagen X, especially at the mineralization front, are also present. The geometry of the growth plates is regulated by the local mechanical environment. In general, all plates orient themselves perpendicular to the resulting compressive force vector; grooves, ridges, and lateral angulations are adaptations to withstand shear forces acting on the growth plates. The final shape of the fully grown bone is determined not only by the epiphyseal growth plates but also by their apophyseal counterpart. Both structures respond in a comparable fashion to the local mechanical environment.
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