Background Understanding the pathogenesis of animal trypanosomiasis can be improved by studying the genetics of bovine trypanosomes. Pathogenic animal trypanosomes are a major impediment to livestock production, with negative economic consequences spreading beyond Sub-Saharan Africa to subtropical regions of Northern Africa, Southeast Asia, and Central and South America. An atypical K1 strain of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) isolates from infected cattle in Nigeria was analyzed. The therapeutic effect of phenolic-rich compounds on the histopathology of wistar rats infected with the K1 strain was studied. Methods The K1 strain T. evansi was analyzed molecularly using PCR and sequence analysis of the Spacer-1 ribosomal RNA gene. To assess the evolutionary relationship, this was phylogenetically compared to other species studied in different parts of the world. Thirty adult male wistar rats were divided into six groups of five each. Animals in group A served as the standard control (not infected). Group B animals were infected but not treated. Group C animals were infected and given 3.5 mg/kg body weight of the standard drug diminazene aceturate. Animals in groups D, E, and F were infected and treated with phenolic-rich compounds isolated from Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea) at concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The phytochemicals were extracted using standard analytical procedures, and GCMS analysis revealed the presence of phenolic-rich compounds. The animals were given 0.2 mg/ml trypanosome intraperitoneally, diluted with normal saline. The vital organs of the animals were harvested and histologically examined. Results The nested PCR amplification of the trypanosome's ITS-1 region revealed a DNA amplicon of 627 base pairs. The rRNA nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank under the accession number MN462960. Basic Local Alignment search of the obtained ITS-1 rRNA sequences revealed that the K1 strain trypanosome and other strains from different regions have an evolutionary relationship. The phenolic-rich compounds had protective effects on the organs of infected animals, resulting in a decrease in parasitemia levels. They have anti-trypanosome activities at the minimum and maximum effective doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Conclusions The K1 strain T. evansi was isolated from naturally infected cattle in this study. The results indicate that phenolic-rich compounds have anti trypanosoma activities capable of healing organ damage caused by trypanosomiasis.
The World Health Organization has listed Snakebite Envenoming (SBE) as a priority neglected tropical disease, with a worldwide annual snakebite affecting 5.4 million people and injuring 2.7 million lives annually. In many parts of rural areas of Africa and Asia, medicinal plants have been used as alternatives to conventional antisnake venom (ASV) due in part to inaccessibility to hospitals. Systemic reviews (SR) of laboratory-based preclinical studies play an essential role in drug discovery. We conducted an SR to evaluate the relationship between interventional medicinal plants and their observed effects on venom-induced experiments. This SR was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The Modified collaborative approach to meta-analysis and review of animal data from experimental studies (CAMARADES) and SYRCLE's risk of bias tools were used to appraise the included studies. Data were searched online in Medline via PubMed, Embase via OVID, and Scopus. Studies reporting in vivo and in vitro pharmacological activities of African medicinal plants/extracts/constituents against venom-induced pathologies were identified and included for screening. Data from the included studies were extracted and synthesized. Ten studies reported statistically significant percentage protection (40-100%) of animals against venom-induced lethality compared with control groups that received no medicinal plant intervention. Sixteen studies reported significant effects (p ≤ 0.05) against venom-induced pathologies compared with the control group; these include hemolytic, histopathologic, necrotic, and anti-enzymatic effects. The plant family Fabaceae has the highest number of studies reporting its efficacy, followed by Annonaceae, Malvaceae, Combretaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Olacaceae. Some African medicinal plants are preclinically effective against venom-induced lethality, hematoxicity, and cytotoxicity. The evidence is extracted from three in vitro studies, nine in vivo studies, and five studies that combined both in vivo and in vitro models. The effective plants belong to the Fabaceae family, followed by Malvaceae, and Annonaceae.
As of 2018, cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (AHD) was not routinely implemented in Nigeria despite being recommended in the national HIV treatment guidelines. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia in adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Nigeria to advocate for the implementation of routine CrAg screening. A descriptive cross-sectional study and CrAg screening of consecutive adult PLHIV with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/ μ L was conducted from April 2018 to April 2019 at HIV clinics in eleven tertiary hospitals spread across Nigeria’s six geopolitical regions. Prevalence of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia was estimated by facility and geopolitical zone. Logistic regression was conducted to identify risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia. In total, 1,114 patients with AHD were screened. The overall prevalence of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia was 3.9% with wide variation across facilities (range: 0/75 [0%]– 15/122 [12.3%]) and geopolitical zones (range: 0/75 [0%]–19/279 [6.8%]). Prevalence of antigenemia was highest in the South-West (19/279 [6.8%]) and lowest in the North-East (0/75 [0%]). Prevalence was 5.2% (26/512) and 3.2% (18/561) in patients with CD4<100 and CD4 of 101–200, respectively. Of all patients with antigenemia, 50% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of having a positive CrAg test. In adjusted analysis, cryptococcal antigenemia was significantly less in patients on ART and patients who had completed any formal education. The survey showed a high overall burden of cryptococcal antigenemia in Nigeria, with variable prevalence across geopolitical regions. We provided valuable evidence for implementing routine CrAg screening of AHD patients in Nigeria which has commenced in selected centres.
Bulk metallic glass demonstrates superior mechanical properties and excellent bio-mechanical stability compared to routinely used biomaterials like titanium, cobalt-chromium, stainless steel, et cetera. However, the metallic glass surface do not easily adhere to the leaving tissues due to native bio-inert oxide layer, which have poor wear resistance and low hardness. In this current study an innovative method for surface coating of bulk metallic glass by mixing hydroxyapatite powder during electro-discharge machining has been employed. A biomimetic nano-porous bio-ceramic layer of oxides and car-bides was deposited on metallic glass surface. The modified surface integrity and composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction characterization techniques. The characterization results confirmed the formation of a natural bone-like nano-porous surface topography on the metallic glass surface using a novel hydroxyapatite-mixed electro-discharge coating process. In addition, a favourable surface chemistry in the form of bioceramic carbides (zirconium carbide, titanium carbide) and zirconium oxide layers, was achieved.
In this paper, we introduce a derivative‐free iterative method for finding the solutions of convex constrained nonlinear equations (CCNE) using the projection strategy. The new approach is free from gradient evaluations at each iteration. Also, the search direction generated by the proposed method satisfies the sufficient descent property, which is independent of the line search. Compared with traditional methods for solving CCNE that assumes Lipschitz continuity and monotonicity to establish the global convergence result, an advantage of our proposed method is that the global convergence result does not require the assumption of Lipschitz continuity. Moreover, the underlying operator is assumed to be pseudomonotone, which is a milder condition than monotonicity. As an applications, we solve the LASSO problem in compressed sensing. Numerical experiments illustrate the performances of our proposed algorithm and provide a comparison with related algorithms.
Key message We identified four hub genes for isoflavone biosynthesis based on BSA-seq and WGCNA methods and validated that GmIE3-1 positively contribute to isoflavone accumulation in soybean. Abstract Soybean isoflavones are secondary metabolites of great interest owing to their beneficial impact on human health. Herein, we profiled the seed isoflavone content by HPLC in 1551 soybean accessions grown in two locations for two years and constructed two extreme pools with high (4065.1 µg g⁻¹) and low (1427.23 µg g⁻¹) isoflavone contents to identify candidate genes involved in isoflavone biosynthesis pathways using bulk segregant analysis sequencing (BSA-seq) approach. The results showed that the average sequencing depths were 50.3× and 65.7× in high and low pools, respectively. A total of 23,626 polymorphic SNPs and 5299 InDels were detected between both pools and 1492 genes with different variations were identified. Based on differential genes in BSA-seq and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), four hub genes, Glyma.06G290400 (designated as GmIE3-1), Glyma.01G239200, Glyma.01G241500, Glyma.13G256100 were identified, encoding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, arm repeat protein interacting with ABF2, zinc metallopeptidase EGY3, and dynamin-related protein 3A, respectively. The allelic variation in GmIE3-1 showed a significant influence on isoflavone accumulation. The virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and RNAi hairy root transformation of GmIE3-1 revealed partial suppression of this gene could cause a significant decrease (P < 0.0001) of total isoflavone content, suggesting GmIE3-1 is a positive regulator for isoflavones. The present study demonstrated that the BSA-seq approach combined with WGCNA, VIGS and hairy root transformation can efficiently identify isoflavone candidate genes in soybean natural population.
Introduction: Whilst the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rollout is well underway, there is a concern in Africa where less than 2% of global vaccinations have occurred. In the absence of herd immunity, health promotion remains essential. YouTube has been widely utilised as a source of medical information in previous outbreaks and pandemics. There are limited data on COVID-19 information on YouTube videos, especially in languages widely spoken in Africa. This study investigated the quality and reliability of such videos. Methods: Medical information related to COVID-19 was analysed in 11 languages (English, isiZulu, isiXhosa, Afrikaans, Nigerian Pidgin, Hausa, Twi, Arabic, Amharic, French, and Swahili). Cohen's Kappa was used to measure inter-rater reliability. A total of 562 videos were analysed. Viewer interaction metrics and video characteristics, source, and content type were collected. Quality was evaluated using the Medical Information Content Index (MICI) scale and reliability was evaluated by the modified DISCERN tool. Results: Kappa coefficient of agreement for all languages was p < 0.01. Informative videos (471/562, 83.8%) accounted for the majority, whilst misleading videos (12/562, 2.13%) were minimal. Independent users (246/562, 43.8%) were the predominant source type. Transmission of information (477/562 videos, 84.9%) was most prevalent, whilst content covering screening or testing was reported in less than a third of all videos. The mean total MICI score was 5.75/5 (SD 4.25) and the mean total DISCERN score was 3.01/5 (SD 1.11). Conclusion: YouTube is an invaluable, easily accessible resource for information dissemination during health emergencies. Misleading videos are often a concern; however, our study found a negligible proportion. Whilst most videos were fairly reliable, the quality of videos was poor, especially noting a dearth of information covering screening or testing. Governments, academic institutions, and healthcare workers must harness the capability of digital platforms, such as YouTube to contain the spread of misinformation.
The use of non-renewable energy by firms in Nigeria seriously affects biodiversity and the general well-being of the populace. The consequences led the country to be among the top pollution producers globally. However, Nigeria was among the parties that unanimously agreed on the Glasgow Climate Change Conference 2021, under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate, to tackle greenhouse gas emissions resulting from non-renewable energy sources. The study is a pioneer in examining how board attributes influence quality and quantity disclosure of energy consumed by the listed non-financial firms for the period of 5 years (2016 – 2020). The study aims at providing empirical evidence on how institutional strength influences the relationship between board attributes and firms' energy in reducing emission discharges and achieving sustainable development goals on world climate policy. The study obtained data from a sample of 78 listed non-financial firms, content analysis technique was employed to compute energy disclosure indexes using Global Reporting Initiatives standards. The study runs a generalized method of movement (GMM) to regulate the impending endogeneity of the selected listed companies in Nigeria. The study also conducted several to robust the findings. The overall results found that board independence, meeting, gender and ownership were significantly related to energy disclosure. The study found an insignificant association between ownership and energy disclosure. Institutional strength has not influenced the relationship between independence, meetings, size and gender on energy disclosure. Institutional strength has positively influenced the relationship between ownership and energy disclosure. Thus, the United Nation should set up a strong committee to evaluate the effectiveness and weaknesses of Global Reporting Initiatives standards as the most widely used Environmental, Social and Governance globally. This will expose the peculiarities of most developing nations like Nigeria in adopting the standards and way forwards to attain Sustainable Development Goals 13.
The use of enormous amounts of material is required for production. Due to the current emphasis on the environment and sustainability of materials, waste products and by-products, including silica fume and fly ash (FA), are incorporated into concrete as a substitute partially for cement. Additionally, concrete fine aggregate has indeed been largely replaced by waste materials like crumb rubber (CR), thus it reduces the mechanical properties but improved some other properties of the concrete. To decrease the detrimental effects of the CR, concrete is therefore enhanced with nanomaterials such nano silica (NS). The concrete mechanical properties are essential for the designing and constRuction of concrete structures. Concrete with several variables can have its mechanical characteristics predicted by an artificial neural network (ANN) technique. Using ANN approaches, this paper predict the mechanical characteristics of concrete constructed with FA as a partial substitute for cement, CR as a partial replacement for fine aggregate, and NS as an addition. Using an artificial neural network (ANN) technique, the mechanical characteristics investigated comprise splitting tensile strength (Fs), compressive strength (Fc), modulus of elasticity (Ec) and flexural strength (Ff). The ANN model was used to train and test the dataset obtained from the experimental program. Fc, Fs, Ff and Ec were predicted from added admixtures such as CR, NS, FA and curing age (P). The modelling result indicated that ANN predicted the strength with high accuracy. The proportional deviation mean (MoD) values calculated for Fc, Fs, Ff and Ec values were −0.28%, 0.14%, 0.87% and 1.17%, respectively, which are closed to zero line. The resulting ANN model’s mean square error (MSE) values and coefficient of determination (R2) are 6.45 × 10−2 and 0.99496, respectively.
Background Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of global maternal deaths, accounting for 30–50% of maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Most PPH-related deaths are preventable with timely detection and initiation of care, which may be facilitated by using a clinical care bundle. We explore influences on current PPH detection and management and on the future implementation of a new PPH bundle (E-MOTIVE) in low-resource, high-burden settings. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework were conducted with 45 healthcare providers across nine hospitals in Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa, to identify barriers and enablers to current PPH detection and management and future implementation of a new PPH care bundle. Data were analysed using thematic and framework analysis. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used to identify potential interventions to address identified barriers and enablers. Results Influences on current PPH detection and management fell under 12 domains: Environmental Context and Resources (drug and staff shortages), Skills (limited in-service training), Knowledge (variable understanding of the recommended practice), Behaviour Regulation (limited quality improvement culture), Beliefs about Consequences (drawbacks from inaccurate detection), Emotion (stress from the unpredictability of PPH), Social Influence (teamwork), Memory, Attention and Decision-making (limited guideline use), Social/Professional Role and Identity (role clarity), Beliefs about Capabilities (confidence in managing PPH), Reinforcement (disciplinary procedures) and Goals (PPH as a priority). Influences on bundle uptake included: Beliefs about Consequences (perceived benefits of new blood loss measurement tool), Environmental Context and Resources (high cost of drugs and new tools), Memory, Attention and Decision-making (concerns about whether bundle fits current practice), Knowledge (not understanding ‘bundled’ approach), Social Influence (acceptance by women and staff) and Intention (limited acceptance of ‘bundled' approach over existing practice). These influences were consistent across countries. Proposed interventions included: Education, Training, Modelling (core and new skills), Enablement (monitoring uptake), Persuasion (leadership role) and Environmental Restructuring (PPH emergency trolley/kit). Conclusions A wide range of individual, socio-cultural and environmental barriers and enablers to improving PPH detection and management exist in these settings. We identified a range of interventions that could improve PPH care and the implementation of new care bundles in this context. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT04341662
The 20 min Whole Blood Clotting Test (20WBCT) was evaluated in 1541 snakebite patients at 3 hospitals in Nigeria. It was useful in detection, monitoring, guiding antivenom therapy and prognostication of coagulopathy, with initial sensitivity of 84.7% (95%CI:82.7-86.5%) and specificity of 64.3% (95%CI:50.4-76.7%) compared to clinical envenoming. It led to correct decisions regarding administration or withholding antivenom in 97.93% of patients. The proportion of carpet viper (Echis romani) envenomed patients who restored clotting rose steadily following effective antivenom therapy. Patients with positive 20WBCT had severer envenoming, required more blood transfusion, had longer hospital stay and derived higher antivenom protection against death from carpet viper.
Resistance spot welding (RSW) was employed to join AA5754 Al alloy and 420 martensitic stainless steel (MSS), 1.5mm-thick each. The microstructure and interface characteristics were characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The lap-shear performance and fracture mechanism were characterized. Fe2Al5 intermetallic compound (IMC) layer having tongue-like morphology was formed on the MSS side while FeAl3 with serrated-like morphology was formed on the Al side, with the Fe2Al5 being the predominant IMC. The IMC thickness exhibited Gaussian distribution, with the maximum thickness obtained at the center of the Al alloy nugget/MSS interface, and the thickness decreased with increasing distance away from the center. The average IMC thickness at the center and periphery was found to be 2.63 µm and 0.60 µm, respectively. The maximum average peak load and energy absorption of the joints were found to be 4.39 kN and 3.73 J, respectively. At all welding currents, the joints failed via interfacial failure. Characterization of the fracture surfaces indicated that the failure largely occurred through the Fe2Al5 IMC.
Determination of localized path loss values in an environment is vital to the design and upgrade of wireless communications networks. As path loss values depend on environments, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are trained with satellite images to map path loss values with environmental characteristics. Pretrained CNN models are often used, but they take time to get trained and require a large memory size. We developed a deep learning architecture composed of a low complexity CNN to extract features from satellite images and an XGBoost regressor that maps a combination of the extracted features with some numerical features to path loss values. The CNN used for feature extraction is composed of five convolutional layers, with individual number of filters and kernel sizes obtained using Bayesian hyper-parameter optimization. The developed CNN provided an accuracy comparable to the best of the pretrained models based on a significant difference test and better in terms of train time. The single model was developed with a dataset composed of measurements from multiple environments: rural, suburban, urban, and urban highrise, and of multiple frequencies and antenna heights. The model's prediction error in terms of RMSE was below known standard threshold values at all frequencies and environments.
In this paper, we present a fractional-order mathematical model in the Caputo sense to investigate the significance of vaccines in controlling COVID-19. The Banach contraction mapping principle is used to prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. Based on the magnitude of the basic reproduction number, we show that the model consists of two equilibrium solutions that are stable. The disease-free and endemic equilibrium points are locally stably when and espectively. We perform numerical simulations, with the significance of the vaccine clearly shown. The changes that occur due to the variation of the fractional orderare also shown. The model has been validated by fitting it to four months of real COVID-19 infection data in Thailand. Predictions for a longer period are provided by the model, which provides a good fit for the data.
The demand for alternative healthcare delivery services is accelerating at unsustainable levels. Health systems and healthcare practitioners must assess the social and economic consequences of the service they provide and determine innovative methods of delivering health care without compromising quality. The present study poses the following questions: (i) What complementary and alternative healthcare methods are available in the business of health care? (ii) How can patients be effectively served by healthcare practitioners to achieve sustainable innovation? This research was performed through a desk-based approach, and searches were performed through electronic tracking and snowballing of references of peer-reviewed journal articles published in English. From the review, it was discovered that practitioners need to establish strategies for sustainable alternative healthcare delivery due to global awareness and the importance of alternative healthcare delivery to the global healthcare system. Therefore, industry leaders should strive to make the healthcare delivery system more innovative and sustainable by promoting deliveries through policies that promote ethically manufactured and environmentally friendly products and services.
Medical entrepreneurship has seen development in recent years. This chapter explains what medical entrepreneurship is all about and how the concept evolved over the years. Some innovations of cures to certain ailments, such as cancer and other serious diseases, were researched to understand what business models fit into medical entrepreneurship. The methodology used in this research was a desk-based approach. The findings revealed some workable medical entrepreneurship business models. The concept of a business model for medical entrepreneurs was discussed in the chapter, which includes the Payers—next-generation managed care model, Providers—re-imagining care delivery beyond the hospital, Pharmacy value chain—emerging shifts in the delivery and management of health care and medical tourism, among others. Some basic elements needed to harness the effectiveness of model innovation were also found to include standardizability, separability, and patient-centeredness presented. Equally, approaches to and challenges of developing a business model were discussed in the chapter. It was concluded that medical entrepreneurship business models would further instigate innovation in the healthcare value chain.
Multiple interactions of geogenic and anthropogenic activities can trigger groundwater pollution in the tropical savanna watershed. These interactions and resultant contamination have been studied using applied geochemical modeling, conventional hydrochemical plots, and multivariate geochemometric methods, and the results are presented in this paper. The high alkalinity values recorded for the studied groundwater samples might emanate from the leaching of carbonate soil derived from limestone coupled with low rainfall and high temperature in the area. The principal component analysis (PCA) unveils three components with an eigenvalue > 1 and a total dataset variance of 67.37%; this implies that the temporary hardness of the groundwater and water–rock interaction with evaporite minerals (gypsum, halite, calcite, and trona) is the dominant factor affecting groundwater geochemistry. Likewise, the PCA revealed anthropogenic contamination by discharging SO42-,NO3-,Cl- and K+ from agricultural activities and probable sewage leakages. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) also revealed three clusters; cluster I reflects the dissolution of gypsum and halite with a high elevated load of NO3- released by anthropogenic activities. However, cluster II exhibited high KHCO32- and KCl- loading in the groundwater from weathering of bicarbonate and sylvite minerals. Sulfate (SO42-) dominated cluster III mineralogy resulting from weathering of anhydrite. The three clusters in the Maiganga watershed indicated anhydrite, gypsum, and halite undersaturation. These results suggest that combined anthropogenic and natural processes in the study area are linked with saturation indexes that regulate the modification of groundwater quality.
This investigation was carried out to evaluate the collaborative antimicrobial effects of the Alliaceae family's culinary spices, Allium cepa and Allium sativum. Eight test isolates were screened out from over forty organisms, sourced from environmental samples, using standard microbiological methods. The test isolates were subjected to antibacterial analyses using commercially available antibiotics and ethanoic crude extracts from Allium sativum and Allium cepa leaves, to ascertain their individual and synergistic effects. Biochemical tests revealed the test isolates as Staphylococcusaureus (15.8%); Escherichia coli (5.3%); Shigella sonnei (15.8%); Aeromonas species (10.5%); Clostridium species (15.8%); Corynebacterium xerosis (21.1%); Bacillus species (10.5%); and Streptococcus species (5.3%). All tested extracts showed varying sensitivities against the test organisms. In tests with individual extracts, red garlic extract (16 mm) demonstrated the largest zone of inhibition against Aeromonas species, whereas white onion extract (4 mm) revealed the lowest zone of inhibition against Bacillus species. Similarly, the highest inhibition zone (30 mm) was produced by the pooled extracts of both red onion and red garlic against Streptococcus species. Of all test isolates, Bacillus species showed overall susceptibility to the various combinations of extracts used. The study concluded that the synergistic effects of Allium cepa and Allium sativum have a greater antimicrobial effect than individual extracts, and this effect is not general to all organisms but specific ones. The crude extracts also proved more potent than conventional antibiotics. Further research work was recommended on the antimicrobial effects of other members of the Allium family.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a remarkable semiconductor catalyst that has attracted widespread attention as a visible light photo-responsive, metal-free, low-cost photocatalytic material. Pristine g-C3N4 suffers fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, low surface area, and insufficient visible light absorption, resulting in low photocatalytic efficiency. This review presents the recent progress, perspectives, and persistent challenges in the development of g-C3N4-based photocatalytic materials. Several approaches employed to improve the visible light absorption of the materials including metal and non-metal doping, co-doping, and heterojunction engineering have been extensively discussed. These approaches, in general, were found to decrease the material’s bandgap, increase the surface area, reduce charge carrier recombination, and promote visible light absorption, thereby enhancing the overall photocatalytic performance. The material has been widely used for different applications such as photocatalytic hydrogen production, water splitting, CO2 conversion, and water purification. The work has also identified various limitations and weaknesses associated with the material that hinders its maximum utilization under visible illumination and presented state-of-the-art solutions that have been reported recently. The summary presented in this review would add an invaluable contribution to photocatalysis research and facilitate the development of efficient visible light-responsive semiconducting materials.
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