This study explores the socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on urban poor households in Bangkok city and evaluates government assistance effectiveness during and after COVID-19. It aims to examine changes in key socioeconomic indicators and provide useful information from this vulnerable group for appropriate policy assistances. Accordingly, the urban poor in central districts of Bangkok were chosen as the target group for this case study, using multi-stage sampling for 500 field survey interviews to be analysed by descriptive statistics and the ordered logit model. The study found that this vulnerable group had faced significant job and income losses and experienced rising rates of debt and poverty. In addition, they faced deterioration in physical and mental health with increasing stress and overall life problem during the lockdown period. Adverse effects remained high even after the lockdown was eased. The study found that the poorest group was the most affected in terms of income losses and income deficits relative to expenditure and encountering problems in receiving formal government assistance. The empirical test of overall life problem confirmed that women have higher possibility to experience life problem significantly during the lockdown period. Unemployment and income loss were significant factors leading to overall life problem as well. Finally, this study suggests that government assistance should go beyond standard welfare support and temporary cash transfers toward human development and take a longer-term approach including creating jobs and earning opportunities for the most vulnerable groups to be able to survive post-COVID-19. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
Background Diarrhea is a common problem in tube-fed patients. The relevant guidelines suggest using a peptide-based enteral formula in patients with diarrhea; however, sufficient evidence to support this recommendation is currently lacking. Aim This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a high-protein peptide-based formula on gastrointestinal intolerance, mainly focusing on diarrhea symptoms in patients who were intolerant to polymeric formula feeding. Methods This prospective, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study was conducted from March 2021 to March 2022 at two tertiary-care hospitals. Patients who presented with diarrhea during tube feeding with polymeric formula were assigned to receive a high-protein peptide-based formula for ≤7 days. Stool weight and frequency were monitored at baseline, on day 3, and on day 7 (or end of the study) as the primary outcomes. Results Twenty-eight tube-fed patients with diarrhea were recruited. After switching their feeding formula from polymeric to peptide based, significant improvements in stool frequency and stool weight were observed on day 3 and day 7 compared with the baseline (median [IQR] stool frequency: 5 (2), 2.5 (3.5), and 3 (3) times/day, respectively, p <0.001; median stool weight: 500 (370), 170 (285), and 275 (385) gram/day, respectively, p = 0.015). Stool consistency was assessed using the Bristol Stool Score and showed significant improvement with time. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion A high-protein peptide-based enteral formula was effective in reducing stool weight and frequency in patients who experienced diarrhea during tube feeding with a polymeric formula. Trial registration: TCTR20210302006
Marketing managers and researchers have had a long-standing interest in understanding the onset of new patterns of consumer behavior, but they have had few theoretical and methodological tools for studying the onset and stability of consumption patterns over the course of a person’s life. The recently-developed multi-theoretical life course paradigm (LCP) has been increasingly used widely across disciplines to study change and continuity in behavior; it can be employed to help understand the onset of new patterns of consumer behavior. This article presents the conceptual life course model as a research framework based on the LCP for studying the development of new shopping and consumption patterns and shows how this framework could provide new insights that help better understand existing views on the development and change of consumer habits. Based on the LCP’s multi-theoretical perspectives and previous research, the article develops hypotheses derived from the course model to help explain the onset and changes in consumption habits following the COVID-19 outbreak; and it uses an online sample of Thai consumers to test them. The results offer insights into change mechanisms that serve as bases for consumer behavior modification, and suggest implications for public policy, marketing practice, theory and further research.
Bioactive compounds found in plants also have pharmacological antiviral effects. Berberine (BBR), an alkaloid found naturally in plants, is one of the phytochemicals with a wide range of biological activities, including antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory. In this study, we firstly aimed to predict pIC50 values for selcted compounds and then extract the binding patterns of berberine and its derivatives in the Sars Cov-2 Master Protease structure via employing molecular docking approache. Our results showed that berberine and its derivatives have good binding affinities towared Sars Cov2 main protease protein. Based on docking results the pharamaccokinetic studies for berberine, berberrubine, demethylen-berberine, jatrorrhizin, and thalifendine, were conducted and showed a good pharamacokinetic properties as an oral drugs. For deep inspection, we utiilized molecular dynmaics simulation to examine the Sars Cov2 main protease-ligand stabilities. The molecular dynamics simulation and PCA investigations revealed that thalifendine have a strong willing to act as good bindinder to SARS-CoV-2 protease. Further, the network based pharamacology showed that these drugs mediate different pathways such as human T-cell leukemia virus 1 infection, viral carcinogenesis, human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection, kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and epstein-Barr virus infection.The findings of this study have an important recomendation for thalifendine for more in vivo and in vitro studies to work. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers in Thailand. We report the stage and survival of patients who were admitted under the public universal health fund (NHSO) covering 47 million people to determine if there were regional disparities in the treatment outcomes in the country. Method: We used the 2009-2013 Nationwide Hospital Admission Data, Thailand. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were identified by the ICD10 code C22.0. Procedures were identified by ICD9-CM codes, and deaths were confirmed from the NHSO database and the national citizen registry. Thailand is divided into 6 regions and Bangkok. Hospitals were identified according to their specific reimbursement codes. Survival time started from the day of first admission and was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The statistical method used to compare regions was Chi-squared tests (Pearson, likelihood ratio, linear-by linear association and Mantel-cox). Results: There were 36,956 HCC patients admitted during the study period. The overall median survival was 36 days. 1.63% of the patients had surgery, 0.96% had radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and 5.24% had trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE). 90.24% did not have any tumor-specific therapy. The proportion of patients admitted for tumor-specific therapy vs. no tumor-specific therapy was significantly different between regions in all treatment modalities (p<0.01). Each treatment modality showed a wide range of median survival values across the regions (p<0.01). The best survival was seen in Bangkok, the South and the North (for surgery, RFA and TACE) and was often more than twice as long as the regions with the lowest survival, Central, East and West. Conclusions: There was a large previously-unreported disparity in admissions and outcomes in Thailand for different treatment modalities for HCC. Bangkok and the South had the best treatment outcomes and often had median survivals more than twice as long as those in the West and East. Public policy to reduce this disparity will need to be implemented in the future.
Organic acid pretreatment has generated much interest as one of the high potential methods for promoting enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. Organic acids are preferred during pretreatment because they are less hazardous than conventional ones and produce less inhibitory fermentation by-products. In the present study, three organic acids (oxalic acid, citric acid, and acetic acid) and inorganic acid (hydrochloric acid) were studied to produce bioethanol and biogas from sugarcane bagasse. An optimization design (Box–Behnken Design (BBD)) among different optimization designs of response surface methodology (RSM) was considered to determine the pretreatment optimum conditions. On this basis, citric acid (CA)pretreatment resulted in maximum glucose yield (7.93 mg/mL) during saccharification. FTIR analysis of the pretreated samples showed that the structure of lignocellulose was changed in higher proportions for the sample pretreated with an organic acid. An increase in cellulose portion and maximum removal of hemicellulose with lower furan generations was observed in organic acid samples. In this study, the maximum solubilization of hemicellulose in hydrochloric acid was also observed due to the abundance of free H+ ions to catalyze the reaction. The ethanol and biogas yield increased by 1.96 and 1.85-fold for citric acid and oxalic acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse, respectively than untreated samples. The present study concluded that oxalic acid and citric acid pretreatment showed the potential to enhance the yield of bioethanol and biogas, respectively. An organic acid in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass can replace traditional methods of using inorganic acids in biorefineries.
Three-dimensional printing can produce scaffolds with shapes and dimensions tailored for practical clinical applications. Enhanced osteoconductivity of such scaffolds is generally desired. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an inorganic ceramic that can be used to coat such scaffolds and to accelerate healing during the bone restoration process. In this study, HA-coated aluminum/bioplastic scaffolds were fabricated, and their structural characteristics and osteoconductivity were evaluated. Aluminum/bioplastic scaffolds were fabricated by three-dimensional printing, and HA slurries with solids loadings of 10-20 vol% were used for coating. As solids loadings increased, the thickness of the coating layers slightly increased, whereas pore sizes decreased. The average compressive strength was comparable to that of cancellous bone. Potential osteoconductivity was tested by simulated body fluid immersion for 28 days, and the formation of the HA phase on the surface along with a weight increase indicates the potential bioactivity of the samples.
Due to the advances in digital technology, the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) concept has been transformed into the digital environmental, social, and corporate governance (DESG) model, which can be realized as a potentially vital strategic movement for sustainable business practices in the contemporary digital era. Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical research evidence on how firms’ DESG practices impact customers’ attitudes and brand equity. The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the effect of DESG initiatives on customers’ attitudes (CA) and brand equity (BE), and (2) to explore how those impacts vary based on the diversity of socio-economic attributes. An online survey was conducted, and the data were analyzed by a structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. Based on 212 samples of Thai citizens’ experiences with firms’ DESG initiatives, the results revealed that DESG has a significant positive direct effect on CA. The mediation analysis revealed that CA fully mediated the relationship between DESG and BE. The results of a second-order confirmatory factor analysis of the DESG construct found that the digital social dimension (b = 0.775) played the strongest role in explaining DESG, followed by the digital environmental (b = 0.768) and digital governance (b = 0.718) dimensions. The moderation analysis found that the impact of DESG on CA was stronger for younger groups than older populations. Additionally, the group with a higher formal education level seemed to exhibit higher levels of CA than those with a lower level. Our study is one of a few endeavors to clarify the effects of DESG from the customer’s side, and suggests several implications and recommendations.
This work demonstrated a ZnO-coated optical fiber sensor for the detection of a volatileorganic compound (VOC) biomarker for diabetes for detecting isopropanol (IPA) markers. A corelesssilica fiber (CSF) was connected to a single-mode fiber (SMF) at both ends to achieve a SMF–CSF–SMFstructure. CSF is the sensing region where multimode interference (MMI) generates higher lightinteraction at the interface between the fiber and sensing medium, leading to enhanced sensitivity.Optimization of the CSF length was conducted numerically to attain the highest possible couplingefficiency at the output. Surface functionalization was achieved via hydrothermal growth of ZnOnanorods directly onto the CSF at low temperatures. The optical fiber-based sensor was successfullyfabricated and tested with 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of IPA. The sensor response was recordedusing an optical spectrometer and analyzed for sensor sensitivity. The fabricated sensor shows thepotential to detect isopropanol with the sensitivity of 0.053 nm/%IPA vapor. Further improvement ofthe sensor sensitivity and selectivity is also proposed for future work.
Objective: To determine how the COVID-19 pandemic impacts patients with chronic disease medication adherence. Methods: Four electronic databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and CINAHL Plus Full Text, were searched for literature between 2019 and 2021. Abstracts and later full texts were independently screened by the authors of this review using inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine relevance to our study. Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools were used to assess the quality of included texts. Relevant information and data from the included texts were extracted into tables for data synthesis and analysis. Results: Ten studies met the study criteria, the most popular study design was cross-sectional design (n = 9, 90.0%), others were case series (n = 1, 10.0%). Barriers to medication adherence and facilitators of medication adherence were the major two themes that participants reported regarding the impact of COVID-19 on medication adherence. Moreover, these two main themes have been organized in sub-themes that are dealt with in-depth. Discussion: Our results could heighten healthcare providers, stakeholders, and policy leaders' awareness of providing appropriate support for chronic disease patients, especially regarding medication adherence. Future research incorporating programs that support patients' needs is recommended.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the root-bark extract of Clausena harmandiana (CH) and its active constituents (nordentatin and 7-methoxyheptaphylline) on pharmacological activities regarding selected targets associated with AD, namely, its antioxidant activity, inhibition of Aβ aggregation, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and neuroprotective effects. The effect of the CH extract on the cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine was also evaluated in mice. The effects of the CH extract and its active constituents on radical scavenging, Aβ aggregation, and AChE activity were investigated with a 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay, a thioflavin-T assay, and Ellman’s method. The neuroprotective effects of the extract against hydrogen-peroxide and Aβ toxicity were evaluated with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, the effects on cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine in mice were evaluated using Morris-water-maze and modified-Y-maze test models. The results of the present study demonstrate that the root-bark extract of CH shows multimodal actions relevant to the AD pathological cascade, including antioxidant effects, the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the inhibition of AChE function, and neuroprotection against oxidative stress and Aβ toxicity. The extracts could improve both the short- and long-term memory deficits induced by scopolamine in mice.
Indonesia is the largest oil palm producer. The area of oil palm plantations is approximately 3.4 million. However, this large potential is not part away from legal issues such as illegal oil palm plantations. It is also implied by overlapping regulations and permits. This study aims to examine the policy of illegal oil palm plantations reform and the rooted regulation problem in forest areas during Joko Widodo era. This research relies on a normative legal approach. Data was collected through the investigation of legal material regarding oil palm policies. The results of this study indicate that the overlapping regulation contributes negatively to the reformation attempt. Yet, there are no legal products and policies regarding the dispute settlement of illegal oil palm in forest areas. Repressive implementation of criminal law does not solve the problem at the grassroots. The establishment of Job Creation Law provides new hope for the settlement of oil palm plantations problem by mainstreaming the nonlitigation mechanism, namely administrative sanctions.
The impact of climate change has been evidenced in several tourist destinations, and triggered concerns on the destination development. Low-carbon tourism has become a national, if not, global agenda that can be used to mitigate the climate change impact caused by the tourist destinations. To respond to this timely agenda and the United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)’s callout, this study establishes and verifies important components and attributes of low-Carbon destinations, particularly on island destination, which are still unexamined in the literature. Taking on the perspective of tourists, this study is driven by Stimulus–Organism- Response (S-O-R) theory which is a consolidative theoretical framework that integrates environmental input (external), emotional status (internal) and behavioural responses to explain actual behaviours of low-Carbon tourists. Integrated Generalised Structured Component Analysis (IGSCA) and Multigroup Analysis were performed on 1,808 travellers who posed different degrees of psychological fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. During COVID-19, health and safety risks have become a critical concern, therefore, this study further explores the moderating effect of risk from the perspective of the low- and high-perceived risk travellers, before identifying the attitude-behaviour gaps of these two groups. The study provides theoretical insights into low-Carbon tourism experience at the island destinations and offers useful managerial implications on low-carbon destination development.
Colocasia esculenta var. Aquatilis Hassk, elephant ear (CF-EE) has been widely used as traditional food and medicine. It also shows other therapeutic properties, such as antimicrobial and anti-cancer activity. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of CF-EE extract on apoptosis induction associated with ER stress in cervical cancer HeLa cells. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Assessments of nuclear morphological changes, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were conducted by hoeshst33342, JC-1, and DCFH-DA fluorescence staining, respectively. Sub-G1 DNA content was analyzed by flow cytometry, and protein expression was determined by Western blotting. The results demonstrate that CF-EE extract suppressed HeLa cell growth and induced nuclear condensation and apoptotic bodies. There was also a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased apoptosis marker protein expression, including Bax, cleaved-caspase-7, and cleaved-PARP. In addition, the results show that CF-EE extract induced ROS, increased ER stress proteins (GRP78 and CHOP), enhanced p38 and c-Jun phosphorylation, and inhibited Akt expression in HeLa cells. In summary, CF-EE extract induced apoptotic cell death-associated ROS-induced ER stress and the MAPK/AKT signaling pathway. Therefore, CF-EE extract has anticancer therapeutic potential for cervical cancer treatment in the future.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.