Babson College
  • Wellesley, United States
Recent publications
This research examines how consumers evaluate the fairness of price increases during collective stress situations. Across three collective stress situations (COVID-19, Black Lives Matter protests, and economic downturn), the authors confirm that a collective stress situation evokes feeling of nostalgia as a coping mechanism. When the collective stress situation is more severe, it heightens feelings of nostalgia, which then enhances consumer empathy, such that people tend to infer benevolent motives for a price increase. That is, consumers perceive the price increase as more fair. This research also reveals how a consumer’s political identity can moderate the impact of the perceived severity of the collective stress situation on nostalgia and thus price fairness. As a collective stress situation becomes more severe, conservatives (vs. liberals) experience greater nostalgia, leading to higher perceived fairness of price increases.
Role theory generally predicts that when the demands and norms of two roles are highly contrasted, individuals will construct a strong boundary to separate the roles. However, such predictions are grounded primarily in the Global North, emphasizing role pairings such as ‘work-family’ and hybrid ‘work-work.’ Comparatively, the Global South is characterized by a relative lack of public services that creates a highly contrasted, highly salient, and yet understudied role pairing – ‘work-community.’ Additionally, the socioeconomic features of the Global South (e.g., dense and overlapping community networks, financial poverty) call into question whether existing predictions surrounding boundary strength are likely to hold. We conducted a qualitative study of 73 Tanzanian participants who had both a self-employed work role and a family planning counsellor community role. We found that highly contrasted roles can be simultaneously perceived as both incompatible and compatible. Specifically, the boundaries we observed were neither uniformly strong nor weak, but rather of asymmetric strength: strong when a social interaction was anchored in the community role, but weak when anchored in the work role. The specific role contrasts we identify, and the importance of role anchoring we observe, have important implications for role theory and literature on boundary setting more broadly.
The conceptual framework proposed herein reveals how firms might establish a human experience focus, using both systematized and non-systematized knowledge to identify points of pain and gain. Such efforts align with the critical need for firms to develop their approaches to the customer experience, by moving beyond addressing how customers respond to their offerings and toward thinking about the human experience of how firms respond to customers’ ambitions, beliefs, values, and feelings to interact in the manner customers prefer. To create a human experience, firms must manage it in relation to touchpoints, personalization, operations, and company culture, using systematized knowledge to monitor the experience, identify problems, and make improvements, together with non-systematized knowledge to innovate in relation to the experience.
Retailers increasingly use digital displays and projections to enhance traditional endcaps. With two field experiments, the authors investigate how the vividness of an endcap projection affects shoppers. The results indicate an inverted U-shaped relationship between the vividness of an endcap projection and sales, such that endcaps with moderately vivid projections (cf. traditional endcaps and highly vivid projection endcaps) result in higher sales. Attention and mental involvement serially mediate these effects on sales. By adding audio and scent to the moderately vivid endcap projection, the authors also find that the addition of audio increases sales, whereas the addition of a scent does not. This article concludes with a discussion of managerial implications related to the uses of endcaps.
Objective: To compare temporal changes of ablation zones and lymph nodes following lung microwave ablation (MWA) and cryoablation. Methods: This retrospective cohort study compared lung ablation zones and thoracic lymph nodes following MWA and cryoablation performed 2006-2020. In the ablation zone cohort, ablation zone volumes were measured on serial CT for 12 months. In the lymph node cohort, the sum of bidimensional products of lymph node diameters was measured before (baseline) and up to 6 months following ablation. Cumulative incidence curves estimated the time to 75% ablation zone reduction and linear mixed-effects regression models compared the temporal distribution of ablation zones and lymph node sizes between modalities. Results: Ablation zones of 59 tumors treated in 45 sessions (16 MWA, 29 cryoablation) in 36 patients were evaluated. Differences in the time to 75% volume reduction between modalities were not detected. Following MWA, half of the ablation zones required an estimated time of 340 days to achieve a 75% volume reduction compared to 214 days following cryoablation (p = .30). Thoracic lymph node sizes after 33 sessions (13 MWA, 20 cryoablation) differed between modalities (baseline-32 days, p = .01; 32-123 days, p = .001). Following MWA, lymph nodes increased on average by 38 mm2 (95%CI, 5.0-70.7; p = .02) from baseline to 32 days, followed by an estimated decrease of 50 mm2 (32-123 days; p = .001). Following cryoablation, changes in lymph nodes were not detected (baseline-32 days, p = .33). Conclusion: The rate of ablation zone volume reduction did not differ between MWA and cryoablation. Thoracic lymph nodes enlarged transiently after MWA but not after cryoablation. Key points: • Contrary to current belief, the rate of lung ablation zone volume reduction did not differ between microwave and cryoablation. • Transient enlargement of thoracic lymph nodes after microwave ablation was not associated with regional tumor spread and decreased within six months following ablation. • No significant thoracic lymph node enlargement was observed following cryoablation.
Entrepreneurship and innovation are social and relational processes that occur in diverse contexts involving multiple stakeholders. Recently, research in entrepreneurship has begun to explore entrepreneurial processes through the lens of gender. However, unlike its entrepreneurship counterpart, innovation research has paid limited attention to gender dynamics. Indeed, the majority of studies on innovation focus on products, processes or organizations, with the individual often not ‘seen’. This special issue recognizes the intertwined nature of gender, innovation, and entrepreneurship, and in doing so, presents five articles that develop new theory and provide new empirical evidence on the topic of innovation in women's entrepreneurship. Collectively, they offer new perspectives and open new avenues for future work. In structuring this editorial, we present an overview of the state of the field, provide a multilevel future research agenda, and introduce the articles that comprise this special issue. Despite the importance of entrepreneurship and innovation for economies and societies world‐wide, innovation and gender are rarely explored together. Indeed, limited attention has been placed on the gendered nature of the relations among innovators, entrepreneurs, and processes. This special issue includes five articles which address this gap from multiple perspectives. The editorial describes the state of the field prior to the special issue, introduces the special issue articles, and identifies a multilevel perspective suggesting avenues for further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Entrepreneurs rely, to a degree, on intuition while they also rely on rationality. Both are associated with formation of expectations for new venture creation as well as perseverance of efforts in managing the new venture and its creation. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data from three distinct countries over a ten-year period are used in logistic regression analysis to find, not unexpectedly, that intuition and rationality vary in impact across countries and over time. While the findings confirm past findings, they also provide intriguing new insights into the dance between intuition and rationality in entrepreneurial processes.
We address the puzzle of why in times of plenty, entrepreneurial firms do not uniformly invest their slack resources in R&D to sustain growth and competitiveness over time. We argue that understanding the slack-R&D investment relationship is incomplete without accounting for different types of slack, their trajectories (accu-mulation trendlines and change over time), and the institutional instability of firms' operating contexts. Depending on internal and external uncertainties, slack can buffer defensively against these threats or be deployed proactively to support R&D. We test our hypotheses in the world's largest emerging market by using a sample of 106 Chinese entrepreneurial firms operating from 2010 to 2015. By developing new theoretical perspectives regarding the dynamic nature of slack trajectories and institutional contexts in which slack-based investments are made, our results help reconcile mixed findings reported in prior research and illustrate the challenges firms confront when they commit slack to long-term, risky R&D investments.
Understanding the national innovation capability involves the consideration of a variety of evolving institutional structures within the national innovation system (NIS). The variety of and interactions among institutional structures requires a systemic and dynamic approach to the NIS. In this respect, a configurational approach generates specific configurational conditions of the institutional structures, and offers a comprehensive and integrated approach to deal with the inherently complex and evolving nature of the NIS. In this research, using the Global Innovation Index (GII) data, we employ a fuzzy model with the Observer Kalman filter identification (OKID) method to develop configurational combinations. Our analysis provides a characterization of the impact of specific institutional structures on national innovation capability, while accounting for time and the innovation level of the countries. By explaining which specific institutional structures impact national innovation capability, this study contributes to the design of the innovation systems with a systemic approach and our understanding of which institutional structures to support innovation.
Climate change is an existential threat to the vast global permafrost domain. The diverse human cultures, ecological communities, and biogeochemical cycles of this tenth of the planet depend on the persistence of frozen conditions. The complexity, immensity, and remoteness of permafrost ecosystems make it difficult to grasp how quickly things are changing and what can be done about it. Here, we summarize terrestrial and marine changes in the permafrost domain with an eye toward global policy. While many questions remain, we know that continued fossil fuel burning is incompatible with the continued existence of the permafrost domain as we know it. If we fail to protect permafrost ecosystems, the consequences for human rights, biosphere integrity, and global climate will be severe. The policy implications are clear: the faster we reduce human emissions and draw down atmospheric CO2, the more of the permafrost domain we can save. Emissions reduction targets must be strengthened and accompanied by support for local peoples to protect intact ecological communities and natural carbon sinks within the permafrost domain. Some proposed geoengineering interventions such as solar shading, surface albedo modification, and vegetation manipulations are unproven and may exacerbate environmental injustice without providing lasting protection. Conversely, astounding advances in renewable energy have reopened viable pathways to halve human greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and effectively stop them well before 2050. We call on leaders, corporations, researchers, and citizens everywhere to acknowledge the global importance of the permafrost domain and work towards climate restoration and empowerment of Indigenous and immigrant communities in these regions.
Decreased sea ice concentration due to climate change has dramatically increased shipping traffic on the Northern Sea Route (NSR). In recent years, NSR has become a shipping route of economic importance, with traffic equivalent to 1-2 days of traffic through the Suez Canal. Yet either sea ice or recent sanctions on Russia could close or shorten its use. Here we use results of 16 climate realizations and shipping routes to estimate the value of an NSR transit, and thus the cost when it is closed due to sea ice or sanctions on Russia. Either way, the closure of the NSR is expensive, with the costs borne by the global community through higher shipping costs, higher emissions, and loss of time. Using conservative estimates, costs throughout the system could be as high as $3.3 billion, with possible overall losses as high as $10 billion. Collectively, we show how the intersection of climate change and geopolitics causes heretofore unregistered effects. Ultimately, sanctions are as expensive as sea ice. These estimates can be used by future researchers to assess possible future cost savings as climate change continues to affect global transportation.
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Vikki L Rodgers
  • Division of Mathematics and Science
Michael A. Goldstein
  • Division of Finance
Ganesan Shankaranarayanan
  • Division of Technology, Operations and Information Management
Bala R. Iyer
  • Technology Operations and Information Management
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Dr. Kerry Murphy Healey
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