Babcock University
  • Ibadan, Ogun State, Nigeria
Recent publications
Background: Acute ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and mortality globally, with increasing incidence in Africa, as the continent is already burdened with infectious diseases. Rapid diagnosis and efficient treatment are crucial, as even a slight delay to reperfuse the brain significantly affects the recovery outcome. Neuroimaging is vital for optimal care and thrombolytic or endovascular therapy in specialised stroke care units. This review aims to discuss the burden of acute ischemic stroke in Africa and how healthcare systems have tried to reduce the incidence and improve outcomes for the disease. Methodology: Data was collected from online databases and medical journal published on PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, ScienceDirect and Embase bibliographical data. All articles related to acute ischemic stroke in Africa were considered. Results: The medical care for acute ischemic stroke in Africa is far from optimal with little adherence to recommended protocols. There is a lack of public awareness of the disease, imaging infrastructure, personnel, stroke care units and recovery facilities, due to poor funding. Poor knowledge of stroke signs and symptoms results in delay in treatment and poor prognosis. Conclusion: We urge African leaders and private entities to invest in stroke care by building appropriate infrastructures, providing medical equipments, implementing guidelines, and sustainable follow-up systems. Telehealth is a suggested strategy to mitigate the scarcity of health personnel, and international and national efforts to increase treatment affordability should be doubled. Further extensive research on the impact of acute ischemic stroke on the African continent population is encouraged.
Abstract Background Testicular damage is an important etiological factor in male infertility. Despite reported decline in global incidence of infertility over the past years, pockets of cases are still ironically noticed to occur in developing countries due to limitation of accessibility to advanced management methods, hence their resort to alternative herbal therapy. Methods Testicular damage was induced using cotton seed. Cissus populnea was cut into chunks, air-dried, pulverized, powdered and suspended in water. Thirty-two (32) matured male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group 1–4) designated as control, 100 mg/kg C. populnea (CP), cotton seed meal (CSM) and CSM + CP groups, each consisting of 8 rats. Group 1 was fed with normal rat chow, Group 2 was fed with 100 mg/kg CP, and Group 3 was fed with CSM for 8 weeks. Rats in Group 4 were fed with CSM for 8 weeks and dosed with 100 mg/kg aqueous C. populnea suspension for another 8 weeks. At the expiration of test period, the rats were sacrificed, blood sample collected, and plasma obtained for luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, estrogen, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) measurements. Semen was collected for analysis and testes harvested for histological studies. Result There is a significant decrease (p
The synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films materials was carried out in three electrode configurations on electrically conductive fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The materials were synthesized due to their wide range of applications in photovoltaic devices. Despite the potentials of the materials in heterojunction-based devices, little efforts have been made to place the materials side by side to be able to suggest the most environmentally friendly with good potentials for solar cell applications. In this paper, we synthesized and characterized the materials using electrodeposition (ED) technique for materials’ synthesis, X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) for structural properties, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for morphological properties, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental composition and Ultraviolet Visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis) for optical properties. The XRD results show an increase in the crystallite sizes of the materials with increasing cathodic voltages from 10.30 to 15.20 nm; the SEM results show evenly distributed and adherent materials on the substrate; the EDX and XRF results show the qualitative and quantitative elements present; and the UV-vis results show a decrease in the energy band gap with increasing cathodic voltage of both CdS and ZnS thin films from 2.53 to 2.29 eV and 3.78–3.56 eV, respectively.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Christian denomination with roots in the Millerites’ experience in North America in the nineteenth century. From its inception until the 1960s, Seventh-day Adventism was concentrated in North America, with growing but scant membership in other parts of the world. Between the late 1960s and the beginning of the 1990s, however, there were dramatic and unprecedented changes in the trajectory of Seventh-day Adventism. Thousands of converts were coming from the Global South: Latin America, Africa, and Asia. This article briefly describes the movement of the statistical center of global Adventism from 1863 to the present.
Background. Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Sudden onset dyspnea and chest pain are characteristic. Prior to our index case, only two previous cases of bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism were reported in black Africans and the first to be associated with COVID-19 vaccination. These cases were seen and described in middle-aged men. Case Summary. A 59-year-old man presented with a 2 week history of sudden onset dyspnea and a week history of productive cough. No associated chest pain or hemoptysis. No preceding history suggestive of leg pain/swelling. The patient had the booster dose of moderna (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccine a month before the onset of symptoms. There was associated anorexia, generalized body pain, joint pain, and weakness. He had reduced oxygen saturation at presentation with tachycardia. CTPA showed nearly occlusive right and left pulmonary arteries. Conclusion. Bilateral acute pulmonary embolism is rare all over the world. Its association with COVID-19 vaccine administration is even rarer. However, the clinical presentations and investigation findings are similar to the descriptions available in the literature for unilateral APE.
This study empirically tests whether there is evidence of convergence in ecological footprint among 189 countries for the period 1990–2017. Using the novel log (t) regression model that accommodates likely transitional heterogeneity in the panel, the results provide evidence for the divergence of ecological footprint (EF) for the world sample. A similar empirical outcome was obtained for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Europe and Central Asia (ECA), East Asia and Pacific (EAP), Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Nevertheless, the study found three convergence clubs for the world sample, SSA, ECA, and LAC, while two clubs were found for EAC and MENA. Further empirical results from the ordered logit and probit model suggest initial EF and natural resource utilization are the most critical driver of club membership in SSA. Since we established three club formations, the study recommends different environmental protection policies should be adopted for the countries in these convergence clubs. It is also important for SSA governments to implement strong environmental regulations in respect of the exploitation of resources.
Despite the roles of intellectual capital (IC) as a competitive strategy for firm continued survival, its nexus with board gender diversity (BGD) has sparsely been investigated. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of BGD on intellectual capital efficiency (ICF) of the listed deposit money banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. Using a panel data set of 11 banks from 2011 to 2020, we found that BGD has no significant negative effect on ICF with and without the moderating effect of international authorisation. Our finding indicates the need for the management to increase women representation and its quality on the board of directors. The study emphasizes the relevance of BGD on intellectual capital performance with significant implication for academic and practioners. We contribute to literature by examining the effect of BGD on ICF of listed DMBs in Nigeria.
Background: We assessed the prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with metabolic syndrome in a rural community and an urban community in South-west Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study among healthy volunteers 18 years and above was conducted in urban (Ikeja) and rural (Ilara-Akaka) communities in Lagos and Ogun State, respectively, using a multi-stage sampling technique. Selfreported physical activity [measured in metabolic equivalent (MET)] was assessed using the World Health Organization Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using the definition recommended by the Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force. Regression analysis of factors associated with physical inactivity was done using IBM Statistics version 26. Results: A total of 437 participants were recruited with a median age of 45 years (IQR 38,56). The prevalence of physical inactivity was 24.9%. There was a significant negative correlation between metabolic syndrome components and total MET except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Being a female (AOR 1.9 95% CI 1.0 - 3.5, p=0.040), living in an urban community (AOR 1.81 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9, p=0.014), and having metabolic syndrome (AOR 3.98 95% CI 2.2 - 6.7, p <0.001) were associated with physical inactivity. Having raised fasting plasma glucose, elevated blood pressure, increased waist circumference, and reduced HDL cholesterol were associated with physical inactivity. Conclusion: There was an association between metabolic syndrome and its components with physical inactivity. In order to mitigate the effects of metabolic syndrome, public health actions that will promote physical activity, especially in urban communities, are urgently needed.
Background: Caesarean section (CS) is a potentially lifesaving obstetric procedure. However, there are concerns about the rising CS rate in many countries of the world including Nigeria. The Ten-Group Robson classification system is presently recommended as an effective monitoring tool for comparing CS rates and identifying target groups for intervention aimed at reducing the rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cesarean section rate and the groups with the highest risk of CS at the Obstetric unit of Babcock University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), using the Robson classification system. Methods:A cross-sectional study involving 447 women who had their deliveries at the obstetric unit of BUTH between August 2020 and February 2022. Relevant information was retrieved from the delivery records of the study participants. Data were analyzed using the IBM-SPSS Statistics for Windows version 23.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results: The overall caesarean section rate was 51.2%. Robson groups 2, 3, 5, and 10 had the largest contribution to CS rate accounting for 34.5%, 14.0%, 12.6%, and 10.0% of overall rate respectively. Maternal age greater than 30 years (AOR 2.1, CI 1.3-3.2; P=0.001) and non-cephalic presentation (AOR 19.7, CI 2.5-151.8; P= 0.004) increased the likelihood of caesarean delivery. However, gestational age between 37-40 weeks was associated with a 60% reduction in likelihood of caesarean births when compared with gestational age below 37 weeks (AOR 0.4, CI 0.2-0.8; P=0.008). Conclusions: The caesarean section rate in BUTH is high and Robson groups 2, 3, 5, and 10 are the major contributors to this high rate. Interventions targeted at these groups will assist in reducing caesarean section rates in BUTH. The Robson classification system is useful in providing a benchmark for future comparison of caesarean section rates within and across different obstetric units and regions in Nigeria.
Background: Cervical cancer is still a public health problem in many developing countries, like Nigeria. HIV infection makes HPV infections last longer, progress to squamous intraepithelial lesion of the cervix, and eventually lead to invasive cervical cancer. Objective. Find out how often squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) happen and what causes them in HIV-positive women in Sagamu, southwest Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done with 165 women with HIV and 165 women without HIV. Pap smears were done on all of the people in the study. The data was looked at with IBM-SPSS Windows v. 23. Results: Both groups were about the same age and had the same number of children (P=0.194 and P=0.388, respectively). The participants’ average age (SD) was 36.8 (5.6), and the median number of children they had was 3. HIV-positive women were much more likely to have an abnormal cytology smear (24.8%) than HIV-negative women (7.3%) (2 = 18.904, P 0.001). There wasn’t a link between having HIV and the severity of cervical lesions (2 = 3.66, P = 0.162). A CD4 cell count of less than 350 cells/mm3was found to be a strong predictor of an abnormal cervical cytological smear in HIV-positive women (AOR: 25.5; CI: 8.8-73.5; P 0.001). Conclusion. In Sagamu, Nigeria, the number of HIV-positive women with SIL of the cervix was much higher than the number of HIVnegative women with SIL of the cervix. HIV-positive women, especially those with a low number of CD4 cells, need cervical smear tests more often. This will make sure that pre-invasive lesions are found and treated as soon as possible.
Background: Risk perceptions of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are considered important as they impact community health behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine the perceived risk of infection and death due to COVID-19 and to assess the factors associated with such risk perceptions among community members in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa, Asia, and South America. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 LMICs in Africa, Asia, and South America from February to May 2021. A questionnaire was utilized to assess the perceived risk of infection and death from COVID-19 and its plausible determinants. A logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with such risk perceptions. Results: A total of 1,646 responses were included in the analysis of the perceived risk of becoming infected and dying from COVID-19. Our data suggested that 36.4% of participants had a high perceived risk of COVID-19 infection, while only 22.4% had a perceived risk of dying from COVID-19. Being a woman, working in healthcare-related sectors, contracting pulmonary disease, knowing people in the immediate social environment who are or have been infected with COVID-19, as well as seeing or reading about individuals infected with COVID-19 on social media or TV were all associated with a higher perceived risk of becoming infected with COVID-19. In addition, being a woman, elderly, having heart disease and pulmonary disease, knowing people in the immediate social environment who are or have been infected with COVID-19, and seeing or reading about individuals infected with COVID-19 on social media or TV had a higher perceived risk of dying from COVID-19. Conclusions: The perceived risk of infection and death due to COVID-19 are relatively low among respondents; this suggests the need to conduct health campaigns to disseminate knowledge and information on the ongoing pandemic.
Background: The burden of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa is enormous. A higher proportion of the population suffer the consequences of food insecurity, hunger and undernourishment than previously assumed. Food insecurity among adolescents has been documented to be associated with malnutrition, poor health outcomes, low educational attainment and other negative consequences. Aim: This study therefore assessed food insecurity and its associated factors among adolescents in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1300 in-school adolescents in Sagamu Township, Ogun State in southwestern Nigeria, selected via multi-stage sampling. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS 20.0. Relevant descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated, with p < 0.05. Result: The prevalence of food insecurity was 45%, of which 34.6% had mild food insecurity, 34.7% had moderate food insecurity, while others experienced the severe form of food insecurity. Gender, age; maternal occupation, maternal education, living arrangement, low sense of self-worth, alcohol intake and cigarette smoking were associated ( p < 0.05) with food insecurity. Predictors of food insecurity were: age; maternal education, living arrangement and some behavioral factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of food insecurity among adolescents in Sagamu was high. Multi-sectorial action is essential in tackling the challenges of food insecurity and its numerous consequences among adolescents, at all levels of governance.
Computational simulation of natural phenomenon is currently attracting increasing interest in applied mathematics and computational physics. Mathematical software for simulation is limited by the availability, speed, and parallelism of high-performance computing. To improve the performance and efficiency of some numerical techniques, a step-by-step approach to mathematical software coding is needed to build robust parameter-oriented problems. Therefore, this article aims to present and apply the Adomian decomposition algorithm coded by the MAPLE 18 software package for the solutions of nonlinear fractional-order differential equations in applied physics and engineering sciences. The present technique is used without linearization or slight disturbance of nonlinear terms, which confirms the strength, accuracy, and simplicity of the algorithm. The two test problems are considered for different initial conditions and the solutions obtained show that the Adomian decomposition algorithm is fast, easy, stable in good agreement with analytical techniques and that a good computational approach to fractional-order value problems arising in applied mathematics and engineering sciences.
The study investigated the effects of quercetin and putative mechanisms involved against endosulfan-testicular impairments in rats. Rats were allotted into five treatment groups (n = 5). Groups 1–2 had normal saline and maize oil (vehicle) (10 mL/kg), group 3 received quercetin (20 mg/kg), 4–5 had endosulfan (5 mg/kg, p.o) orally for 28 days. However, from days 14–28, group 4 received an additional dose of vehicle (10 mL/kg, p.o./day), while group 5 received quercetin (20 mg/kg, p.o./day). Thereafter, blood samples and testes were harvested for markers of cholinergic, hormonal and testicular oxido-nitrergic, inflammatory, apoptosis and proton pump ATPase activities. Also, testicular histopathological changes were also evaluated alongside with germ cell count, testicular injury and spermatogenesis score. Quercetin increased testicular/body weights and spermatogenesis, androgenic hormones (follicle stimulating hormones, FSH; luteinizing hormone, LH; testosterone), acetylcholinesterase levels and attenuated altered membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation, increased caspases-3 levels in rats exposed to endosulfan. Moreover, quercetin increased testicular B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated x-protein (Bax) and proton pump adenosine trisphosphate (ATPase) and sialic acid levels. Of note, quercetin reversed endosulfan-mediated increased malondialdehyde, nitrite, peroxynitrite formation, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and lowered antioxidant enzymes in the testes. The increased levels of testicular myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) by endosulfan were also reduced by quercetin administration. Additionally, quercetin attenuate endosulfan-induced testicular histopathological changes of rats. Our findings show that quercetin significantly inhibited endosulfan-induced testicular damage and altered spermatogenesis through inhibition of oxido-nitrergic pathway, inflammatory mediators, apoptosis, acetylcholinesterase activity and enhancement of testicular hormones and improvement in testicular ATPase activity.
Background: Alcoholic beverages come in various shades and flavours, often intensely advertised to the youthful population on various media channels within the state. Excessive intake is known to have deleterious effects on several dimensions of health. This study therefore assessed the prevalence and pattern of alcoholic beverage consumption among undergraduates in Remo division of Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 420 students attending three tertiary institutions in Remo area, Ogun State, selected via multi-stage sampling. Data were collected using a validated self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 20.0. Relevant descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated (p<0.05). Results: The mean age of respondents was 20.12±3.2 years, with 219 (54.3%) being female. Only 14 (3.5%) respondents believed alcoholic beverage consumption was good. One hundred and forty-two (35.2%) participants consumed alcoholic beverages. Of these, 58 (40.8%) engaged in binge drinking; 28 (19.7%) drank daily; 101 (70.9%) consumed wines and related drinks. One hundred and twenty (84.5%) of these respondents had difficulty controlling their intake; 25 (17.6%) got drunk; 16 (11.3%) got into fights; 35 (24.6%) skipped meals after drinking; 39 (27.5%) experienced some difficulty with memory; 52 (36.6%) had parents who consumed alcoholic beverages regularly. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with: age; parents' occupation; living arrangement and religion. Conclusion: Alcoholic beverage consumption was slightly high, with majority of these respondents drinking at a moderate level. Targeted behaviour change communication and counseling services will be most beneficial to address this emerging public health concern.
Background: Evidences to establish superiority between Total orchidectomy (TT orchi) and Sub-capsular orchidectomy (SC orchi) as surgical interventions for prostatic enlargement are scarce. Cytokeratins have high specificity profile as benign and tumor markers. Aim and Objectives: To compare the outcomes of TT orchi and SC orchion Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Material and Methods: Fifteen adults male Wistar rats (140-200 g) were grouped into three (A-C) n=5. Group A is the control while B and C received 10 mg/kg testosterone intramuscularly to induce BPH for 10 days. After that, Group A underwent sham surgery, B, TT orchi and C, SC orchi. Surgeries were performed under ketamine (5 mg/kg) and 2-0 chromic was used. Rats were observed for 14 days post-surgically after which they were sacrificed under anesthesia. Blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were done. Data were analyzed using Oneway ANOVAand Student Newman-Keuls. Results were presented as Mean ± SEM, p £0.05 was significant. Results: SOD and CAT were raised in both TTorchi and SC orchi. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) was reduced significantly in SC orchi compared to TT orchi. Cytokeratin7 reactivity was positive in TT orchi but negative in others. Conclusion: SC orchi may be considered over TT orchi as BPH surgical therapy.
Background. Hand sanitizers have been recognized as an effective means of reducing bacterial load and transmission. It is needful to periodically assess the bacteriological status of individual products due to batch variation. Aim. This study was designed to assess the bacteriological quality and efficacy of two hand sanitizers sold within the Ilishan-Remo community of Ogun State, Nigeria, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology. Samples of two brands of hand sanitizers were procured and assessed using standard bacteriological methods, including Sterility test, Surface viable count, Gram-stain, Motility test, Biochemical tests, Quantitative suspension test, and Agar diffusion test. Data were analyzed with paired-samples T-Test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences-Version 20.0 (SPSS-20.0) to assess for significant variation between the effectiveness of the two hand sanitizers. P-values <0.05 was considered significant. Results. The study's outcome showed the satisfactory bacteriological quality of both hand sanitizers tested. However, the mean bacterial load was not significantly reduced after sterilization using both hand sanitizers. The hand sanitizers' bactericidal activity was also considered unsatisfactory since the Log reduction was less than 5. Brand B hand sanitizer proved to be more potent than Brand A at the contact time. Each of the products displayed varying inhibitory activities against the bacterial isolates. Conclusion. The study highlighted the need to periodically assess the bacteriological quality and efficacy of hand sanitizers to guarantee the general safety of the end users and ensure proper infection control.
The totality of environmental exposures and lifestyle factors, commonly referred to as the exposome, are poorly understood. Measuring the myriad of chemicals that humans are exposed to is immensely challenging and identifying disrupted metabolic pathways is even more complex. Here, we present a novel technological approach for the comprehensive, rapid and integrated analysis of the endogenous human metabolome and the chemical exposome. By combining reverse-phase and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and fast polarity switching, molecules with highly diverse chemical structures can be analyzed in 15 minutes with a single analytical run as both column’s effluents are combined before analysis. Standard reference materials and authentic standards were evaluated to critically benchmark performance. Highly sensitive median limits of detection (LOD) with 0.04 µM for >140 quantitatively assessed endogenous metabolites and 0.08 ng/mL for the >100 model xenobiotics and human estrogens in solvent were obtained. In matrix, the median LOD values were higher with 0.7 ng/mL (urine) and 0.5 ng/mL (plasma) for exogenous chemicals. To prove the dual-column approach’s applicability, real-life urine samples from sub-Saharan Africa (high exposure scenario) and Europe (low exposure scenario) were assessed in a targeted and non-targeted manner. Our LC-HRMS approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitatively and simultaneously assessing the endogenous metabolome and the chemical exposome for the high-throughput measurement of environmental drivers of disease.
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2,793 members
Owolabi Joshua
  • Anatomy, Ben Carson Snr. School of Medicine
Chinedu Anokwuru
  • Department of Basic Sciences
Emmanuel Ajike
  • Business Administration and Marketing
Kolawole Ayodele
  • Department of Education
Kehinde Oluwaseun Oyekale
  • Agriculture and Industrial Technology
Ilisan Remo, Ilisan Remo, Ibadan, Ogun State, Nigeria
Head of institution
Professor Ademola Tayo