Background: Acute ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and mortality globally, with increasing incidence in Africa, as the continent is already burdened with infectious diseases. Rapid diagnosis and efficient treatment are crucial, as even a slight delay to reperfuse the brain significantly affects the recovery outcome. Neuroimaging is vital for optimal care and thrombolytic or endovascular therapy in specialised stroke care units. This review aims to discuss the burden of acute ischemic stroke in Africa and how healthcare systems have tried to reduce the incidence and improve outcomes for the disease. Methodology: Data was collected from online databases and medical journal published on PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, ScienceDirect and Embase bibliographical data. All articles related to acute ischemic stroke in Africa were considered. Results: The medical care for acute ischemic stroke in Africa is far from optimal with little adherence to recommended protocols. There is a lack of public awareness of the disease, imaging infrastructure, personnel, stroke care units and recovery facilities, due to poor funding. Poor knowledge of stroke signs and symptoms results in delay in treatment and poor prognosis. Conclusion: We urge African leaders and private entities to invest in stroke care by building appropriate infrastructures, providing medical equipments, implementing guidelines, and sustainable follow-up systems. Telehealth is a suggested strategy to mitigate the scarcity of health personnel, and international and national efforts to increase treatment affordability should be doubled. Further extensive research on the impact of acute ischemic stroke on the African continent population is encouraged.
Connective tissue disorders, including Marfan syndrome (MS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), are characterized by genetic mutations affecting connective tissue structural integrity. These disorders significantly elevate the risk of aortic dissection, a life-threatening condition. This comprehensive review delves into the intricate interplay between connective tissue disorders and aortic dissection, shedding light on the clinical features, pathophysiology, genetic underpinnings, diagnostic approaches, clinical management, associated comorbidities, and prognosis, mainly focusing on MS and EDS, while also exploring rare connective tissue disorders and forms of cutis laxa contributing to aortic pathology. Abbreviations: ECM = extracellular matrix, EDS = Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, FBN1 = Fibrillin-1, MS = Marfan syndrome, PT = prothrombin time, TGFβ = transforming growth factor-beta.
Small enterprises are vital and they contribute to broader social economic objectives, including employment creation making this sector a significant priority area for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, their survival has generated concern, and academic attention nationwide. These businesses have faced dwindling performance and challenges attributed to the ambiguity of managerial capabilities and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. This study examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between managerial capabilities and the performance of small businesses in achieving SDGs in Nigeria. This paper conducted a survey research approach, using 460 owner-managers operating in Lagos State. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the questionnaire items varies from 0.79 to 0.95. The response rate to the questionnaire was 99%. The collected data was analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation and regression analysis. The analysis of the data revealed that entrepreneurial self-efficacy had a strong mediating effect on the relationship between managerial capabilities and small business performance (indirect effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the relationship between X and Y: effect = 0.3661, F(1, 455) = 56.2431, β = 0.2891, p < 0.05). This paper concluded that, entrepreneurial self-efficacy improved the relationship between managerial capabilities and small business performance, with theoretical and practical consequences for entrepreneurial theory and practice. The study recommended that small businesses should prevent managerial ineptitude to increase performance and in achieving sustainable development goals in Nigeria.
Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) is an uncommon tumor-like lesion that has been reported within the nose, paranasal sinuses, and less frequently in the nasopharynx. While it is believed to be benign, its clinical presentation, radiological characteristics, and microscopic features may closely mimic more aggressive tumors of the upper respiratory tract, potentially leading to needless life-altering treatment. Prior to now, there had been no reported cases of this lesion in West Africa. We present a 35-year-old male with persistent bilateral nasal obstruction, difficulty with swallowing, and bilateral reduction in hearing, whose CT findings were highly suggestive of a nasopharyngeal tumor, but upon biopsy and histology showed features most consistent with REAH. Surgery completely alleviated his symptoms with no clinical evidence of recurrence after a 1-year follow-up period.
In Nigeria, one of the sources of law is the customary law, and it is a known fact that the majority of the people in Nigeria carry out their daily activities in accordance with its stipulations. Most Nigerians still believe in the efficacy of the customary laws, particularly the customary law of inheritance-succession. In Nigeria, customary law of succession is patriarchal in nature; the communities are patriarchal and customary law reflects the customs of these communities. It is against this background that this article seeks to examine women’s status in succeeding into the property of either their fathers or husbands and what was done or is been done to put an end to these discriminatory cultural practices, especially the ones that disallow women their rights to inheritance. The way out of the identified problems inhibiting the status of women reminds us of Sections 39 (1) & (2) of the 1979 Constitution and now Sections 42 (1) & (2) of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Similarly, the efforts of the apex court of the land, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, in declaring discriminating indigenous laws against citizens, particularly women and girls, repugnant, inequity, and against natural justice and good conscience. The apex court further declared that men and women are born free, and nobody should promote discriminatory rules against any free-born woman, wife, or female child.
Historically, “marital rape” was impossible. However, marital rape on a married woman occurs when a husband has forceful sexual intercourse with his wife for any reason whatsoever without her consent. In all legal systems across the globe, the concept of marital rape was such that a husband had absolute powers to have sexual intercourse with the spouse even against her consent while he cannot wield such powers on any other woman. The main objective of this work is to examine the impediments to criminalization of marital rape, the effects on women’s career progression and the feigned recognition of marital rape under the Criminal Justice Administration in Nigeria. The doctrinal methodology was used in the study to explore the changes in the marriage institution, societal and religious awareness as well as legal evolution that have emerged over time to criminalize marital rape. The exemption to marital rape has been abolished in many jurisdictions while some legal systems like Nigeria have failed to move towards criminalization of marital rape, some others have remodelled the exemption to marital rape others have remained silent. It is recommended that marital rape should be openly criminalized under the Criminal Justice Administration in Nigeria so that women can advance better in their career and join the global community in ensuring marital Justice in all ramifications. The work concluded that with conscious efforts from the Nigerian lawmakers to amend the relevant laws albeit criminalizing marital rape, Nigeria will be of the countries to win the battle over this societal ill called marital rape
The attempt to follow the thin ideal portrayed on television has made many young women victims of anorexia. This study focused on the possible relationship between television viewing and eating disorders among female undergraduates of the universities of Lagos and Jos, ascertaining whether or not anorexia is present among them. The study employed the survey research design. Findings revealed that: portrayal of the thin ideal on television (TV) significantly affects respondents’ body satisfaction, as shown by the 0.979 value; the p-value of 0.000 is less than 0.05, indicating a significant relationship between television viewing and anorexia; and X2 (323.491) >c2 (9.488), showing a significant presence of anorexia among respondents. The study concluded that television can lead viewers into a state of anorexia. Viewers are, therefore, encouraged to be mindful of the TV content they watch, and the need to always separate reality from illusion.
In recent times, the new media has crystallized and advanced in a revolutionary way, birthing the phenomenon known as “social media”. According to Digital Reports (2019), internet users are growing by an average of more than one million new users every day. Data Reportal (2019) avers that there are currently 3.48 billion social media users in the world. Social media operates as vehicles that disseminate messages in sustaining the distribution of information to the public on social issues such as sexual abuse, assault or violence.
The gender gap in public relations firms has probably been brought about by under representation of qualified women in leadership positions. In the light of global agitation for gender equality, it becomes imperative to have equal representation of both men and women in leadership positions in Public Relations firms, towards the achievement of peace and development in the profession. In an effort to seek factors affecting leadership opportunities for women in Nigeria’s public relations firms, this study explored the reasons for the invincible obstacles women face specifically in the consultancy practice of public relations in Nigeria and suggested solutions that would enable women advance to top positions. The attributes and contributions women make that qualify them for top positions were examined.
This chapter reviewed various literatures to ascertain how information and communication technology (ICT), when put to effective use, can be a tool to empower women in nation-building. The objective is to use ICT as a tool to empower women as nation-builders. Feminism is now more concerned with how ICT will be used rather than what ICT is. Consequently, ICT use has a long history, from radio and television programmes to the use of CDROM and floppy discs in computers, down to the use of the Internet and mobile hand-held devices. ICT has played an important role in formal and non-formal settings and in secular and religious communities. The various ways ICTs can be applied in empowering women and their challenges have been highlighted here.
Gender diversity is one of the measures for determining if a corporate board is a fair representation of the company stakeholders’ constituents and has become an important issue in corporate governance. In modern time, it is a key factor for determining if a company is in compliance with global best practices in corporate governance. It is, however, important to note that Nigeria has no clear statutory provisions on gender diversity on corporate board; this therefore poses a huge challenge to good corporate governance practice. More so factors such as religion, culture and social stereotype have also contributed to the poor representation of women in leadership position, including post of director on corporate board. Some of the objectives of this chapter include: examining the need for gender diversity on corporate board, ascertaining the most crucial reasons for poor representation of women on corporate board in Nigeria, providing facts and figures on the up-to-date number of women on corporate board in Nigeria and making recommendations to facilitate board gender diversity in Nigeria. To achieve the foregoing, analyses of the composition of 168 companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange were conducted. A public survey was also piloted to determine the most decisive factor responsible for poor representation of women on Nigerian Corporate Board. The study is empirical; however, reference will be made to relevant literature on gender diversity on corporate board in other jurisdictions, to draw lessons for Nigeria.
The social system in place in many African societies is patriarchy, a system empowers the male sex at the detriment of the female sex, and in the process, puts in place structures and institutions to ensure the status quo remains. To this end, space becomes a contested gendered terrain, another social tool used to the advantage of a particular group over another. While gender is usually regarded as the social relationship between the sexes, it is fraught with a struggle over resources; it is a power struggle that propels patriarchy to devise means and strategies to keep a particular sex away from the resources (Tamale, 2004). One of these means is the entrenchment of the public/private dichotomy, reflecting the wheel of contrast patriarchy revolves on — good and bad; weak and strong; soft and hard; positive and negative; to mention a few. The public/private axis divides space along gender lines, and attaches particular qualities and variables to each. The private space is reserved for the woman — it is hidden; away from the public glare; disempowering; limited, and enrobed in a cloak of domesticity. The man dictates what goes on in there, however. The public space is the opposite — it is an open field of opportunities, possibilities, resources, empowerment, freedom, growth, privilege, and power. It is a space for the man, the progenitor of patriarchy, and it is he who limits the woman’s access into that space, through the institutions of education, religion, law, and culture. The man curtails the woman’s access into the public space out of fear that if allowed in there, she would take the staff of office from him. The myth of domesticity is, therefore, propagated to legalise women’s space as private. Interestingly, the man is also in control of the woman in the private space. This way, the woman’s personhood is made subservient to the man’s. The woman is thus domesticated, unable to access resources and opportunities that would expand her political, economic, social, and legal space. For the few who have managed to hold their own in the public space, they are constantly reminded that their space is restricted to the private, and they are regarded as the ‘other’, unwelcomed visitors in the terrain of the men.
Since feminist studies and gender studies rethink power relations within the patriarchal society, translation (as a process and as a final product) is an appropriate ground for analysis of power struggles. The work in the translation process and in the evaluation and reception of the target text, as well as the attempts to overthrow the balance of power that would be established, would be perpetuated or reinforced by this process. The feminist and gender studies in translation thus try to identify the patriarchal presence within the texts and their translation, try to rediscover, through translation, untranslated texts that had been omitted, censored or neglected by the dominant ideology and focus on translating the feminist texts by developing unconventional methods of translation.
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are synthetic chemicals widely used as e.g., flame retardants and plasticisers in various consumer products. Due to the toxicity of OPEs in aquatic ecosystems, exposure of fauna and flora to these compounds is of potential concern. In this study, the concentrations, profiles, sources, and ecological risk of eight OPEs were investigated in the sediments from the two major rivers in southwest Nigeria. Concentrations of ∑OPEs in surface sediments were in the range 13.1 – 2110 ng/g dry weight (dw) (median: 378 ng/g dw) in the Ogun River and 24.7—589 ng/g dw (median: 174 ng/g dw) in the Osun River. These concentrations are broadly within the range of those reported in surface sediment in previous studies conducted in other locations around the world. Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) was the dominant OPE in the sediment samples with a median concentration of 337 and 126 ng/g dw for the Ogun and Osun Rivers respectively, while tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) was not detected in any sample. Excluding TBOEP, the chlorinated organophosphate esters: tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) were the dominant OPEs in the Osun River, while the aryl-OPEs: triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), and tri-m-tolyl phosphate (TMTP) were dominant in the Ogun River. Under a median exposure scenario, moderate ecological risk was predicted from exposure to TCIPP in the Osun River. In contrast, under a high exposure scenario, concentrations of TDCIPP (risk quotient, RQ = 5.33—5.37) constituted a high ecological risk in both rivers, with moderate risks observed for TBOEP (RQ = 0.022—0.18) and TCIPP (RQ = 0.097 – 0.16). Therefore, the risk to aquatic organisms from concomitant exposure to mixtures of OPEs in freshwater ecosystems requires further investigation. Graphical Abstract
Rationale This case report elucidates the management of a hypertensive crisis in a patient with underlying kidney disease, shedding light on the intricate interplay between these conditions. This unique case contributes valuable insights to the scientific literature. Patient Concerns The patient exhibited severe headache, visual disturbances, and chest pain. Clinical evaluation revealed elevated blood pressure and impaired kidney function, emphasizing the importance of monitoring hypertension and renal health in such cases. Diagnoses and Interventions The primary diagnoses included malignant hypertension and underlying kidney disease. Immediate interventions comprised intravenous antihypertensive agents and rigorous hemodynamic monitoring, yielding favorable outcomes. Blood pressure gradually returned to acceptable levels, and renal function improved during treatment. Conclusions This case underscores the critical need for timely recognition and management of hypertensive crises in patients with preexisting kidney dysfunction. Simultaneously addressing both conditions is vital for successful outcomes. Healthcare practitioners must remain vigilant in assessing the intricate relationship between hypertension and kidney disease, employing tailored interventions for optimal results. Lesson Learned The primary lesson from this case is the necessity of a comprehensive approach to managing hypertensive crises in individuals with underlying kidney disease. Early intervention and a multidisciplinary strategy are essential to achieve positive clinical outcomes and prevent potential complications.
Objectives: Levels of Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) were determined in pre-hypertensives and hypertensives to possibly identify those at a greater risk of ischemic organ damage. Methodology: Eighty-four (84) participants were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups of 28 participants each based on their blood pressure namely normotensive, pre-hypertensive, and hypertensive. Demographic details of the participants were obtained using a questionnaire. The levels of IMA, serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), and Low-Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c)), fasting blood glucose, serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and albumin, the ratio of triglyceride to HDL-c (TG-HDL-c), and triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) were investigated. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson’s Chi-square test, partial correlations, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Levels of IMA were significantly elevated in the hypertensive group. After adjusting for age and BMI, IMA showed a significant positive correlation with systolic blood pressure, partial pressure, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-c, and TG-HDL-c but a negative correlation with HDL-c and potassium. IMA also demonstrated a discriminative ability for elevated blood pressure with an ROC area under the curve of 0.75. With a cut-off value of 0.36 ABSU, it had a sensitivity of 0.64, specificity of 0.86, and Youden J index of 0.49. Conclusion: Elevated IMA levels were correlated with biomarkers of dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, and insulin resistance. IMA levels could be used as a predictive marker of cardiovascular diseases related to ischemia and can help flag individuals at risk, thereby facilitating early treatment interventions.
Objective: The impact of the anti-depressant therapy on gonadal function has been recognized and discussed over the years. However, data to supplement our understanding of the impact of arjunolic acid (AA) therapies in protecting against FXT-induced gonadal dysfunction is lacking clear scientific evidence. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the possible effect of AA on fluoxetine-induced altered testicular function in rats. Methods: After 14 days acclimatization, Thirty-six (36) adult male rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=6). Rats in groups 1 received normal saline (10mL/kg); groups 2 & 3 were given AA (1.0mg/kg body weight) and AA (2.0mg/kg body weight), respectively; whereas, rats in group 4 were given FXT (10mg/kg/p.o/day), and groups 5 & 6 were given a combination of FXT (10mg/kg) + AA (1.0mg/kg body weight); and FXT (10mg/kg) + AA (2.0mg/kg body weight), respectively. Results: The results shows that FXT significantly altered testicular steroidogenic enzymes (3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD) and proton pump ATPase (Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase and H+ ATPase) activities, as well as testicular architecture when compared with controls. More so, FXT caused oxido-inflammation and apoptosis, as evidence by increases in MDA, MPO, TNF-α, IL-1ß, Caspase 3 and p53. However, AA at a different dose significantly ameliorated the destructive impacts of FXT on steroidogenic enzymes, proton pump ATPase as well as increased Bcl-2, SOD, CAT, GSH and improved testicular architecture in rats. Conclusions: AA reverses fluoxetine-induced alterations in testicular steroidogenic enzymes and membrane-bound ionic pump through suppression of oxido-inflammatory stress and apoptosis.
Background: While the rate of Cesarean Section (CS) has been increasing in developed countries, the same cannot be said about developing countries, especially Nigeria. Despite the various indications of CS that may arise, the CS rate in Nigeria has remained as low as 2.7% as against the 15% acceptable upper limit, according to the World Health Organization. The level of knowledge, perception, and attitude toward CS among pregnant women have been found to significantly influence the women's decision to utilize this life-saving means. Hence, the researchers conducted this study among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Babcock University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ogun State, to assess their level of knowledge, perception and attitude toward CS. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional design was utilized. A questionnaire designed by the researchers was used to collect data from 200 respondents, and the data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 25. Results were reported with frequencies , mean scores and percentages. Results: Findings of the study showed that 78.5% had a high level of knowledge of CS, 67.5% had a good perception of CS, and 93% had a positive attitude toward CS. Around average (52.5%) considered CS a safe procedure, and 78.5% would agree to have CS if medically indicated. The majority (76.5%) believed that opting for a CS could save the life of the mother or the child. Discussion: In conclusion, the findings of this study show that although majority of the respondents had good knowledge and perception of CS, and were willing to accept CS when medically indicated, around one-third had a poor perception of CS, and around two-tenths would not agree to have it if medically indicated. Hence, nurses and other stakeholders are thus encouraged to always include CS lessons in antenatal teachings to ensure that every woman is knowledgeable enough to accept CS, especially when medically indicated.
Background Child survival remains a major public health challenge in the sub‐Saharan region of Africa, especially Nigeria. The Boko Haram crisis, which has aggravated this, has led to the displacement of many people in the north‐eastern region, including children under five. This study investigated the determinants of child survival practice among caregivers in internally displaced persons' (IDP) camps in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), Nigeria. Methodology A cross‐sectional design was used to collect data on determinants of child survival practice from 312 caregivers in five purposively selected IDP camps in AMAC using the snowball sampling technique. Data were analysed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics at 5% level of significance. Results The mean age of respondents was 29.6 ± 6.72 years. There was a significant ( p < 0.05) relationship between the predisposing, reinforcing, enabling and environmental factors studied and child survival practice. Findings also indicated that all factors were significant ( p < 0.05) predictors of child survival practice with the reinforcing factor being the major predictor ( ß = 0.38; t = 6.08). Conclusion Attention needs to be paid to all factors, particularly the reinforcing factor of social support in order to promote optimal child survival practice among caregivers in AMAC IDP camps. Collaboration with social work professionals would be an added benefit to enhance social support.
This study examined the effects of Yoruba concepts on Indigenous social work practice. Concepts such as taboos, cultural traditions and beliefs were assessed to portray culturally relevant and informed practice requirements. The population consisted of social workers in medical social services units in teaching hospitals and federal ministries in Oyo and Ekiti State. The population sample of this study stood at 102 social workers in Oyo and Ekiti State. A simple random sampling technique was used to select two Yoruba-speaking states in Nigeria. A convenience sampling technique was used to determine each state’s clinical and social welfare institutions. Questionnaires were administered to social workers in the institutions under the conditions selected. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 23, a specially designed software. The study revealed a significant impact of specific Yoruba concepts, cultural practices and beliefs on intervention in social work settings. Appropriate recommendations were made.
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