BI Norwegian Business School
Recent publications
The turbulent business environment highlights the need for strategies for mitigating, responding to, and recovering from (that is, managing) supply chain disruptions. Resources are central in these strategies but remain unspecified in the literature. This paper shows how the resource interaction approach (RIA) can help understanding resources in this setting by acknowledging their interactive and networked nature. Based on a conceptual discussion that compares key assumptions within the supply chain risk management (SCRM) and supply chain risk resilience (SCRes) literatures with the RIA, we propose an alternative approach to strategies for managing supply chain disruptions. We challenge the SCRM and SCRes literatures by emphasizing interdependence (as opposed to independence) and pointing to relationships as key resources in strategies for managing supply chain disruptions. Collaboration relying on an interplay between temporary and permanent organizing is suggested as a starting point instead of being just one of several alternative strategies.
Visioning the future is an essential aspect of strategizing. However, how managers make sense of their networked business environment, future changes in it, and how this visioning informs their interaction and networking has hardly been explored. Drawing on organizational foresight and business network research, we enhance the visioning concept by conducting an abductive qualitative case study on its role in business network strategizing. By comparing forward-looking and backward-looking perspectives of managers in companies within a particular business network, the study reveals what managers can foresee, what limits their visioning, and to what extent visioning informs network strategizing. Our findings suggest that visioning helps managers to openly contemplate the future, to envisage structural changes, detect probable trends, and form strategic intentions, but individual cognitive frameworks and network constraints limit their visioning. The study contributes to the current sensemaking view of network strategizing by proposing a conceptual model where visioning forms an important step in between reflection and networking, and by showing how managers consciously prepare for the future.
Consumer food preferences are undergoing a rapid transformation, and there has been a heightening of interest in eating healthy, sustainable foods. Food entrepreneurs are cashing in on the trend and are diversifying their existing offerings to include healthier options using alternate ingredients such as millets. However, these entrepreneurs face several challenges, and the actual growth of the market is lower than expected. The present study examines the opportunities and challenges faced by millet entrepreneurs. A total of 25 millet entrepreneurs were interviewed using a semi-structured qualitative design. Key opportunities include increased awareness of millets, people going back to their traditions, and informative food labels were the key opportunities, while a lack of awareness, lack of familiarity, preparation difficulty, sensory attributes, lack of affordability, inferior image, customer distrust, and millets’ longer gestational cycle were major challenges.
There is widespread agreement in the literature that intangible assets, particularly those of a relational nature, are key determinants of firm performance. Scholars also acknowledge that stakeholder relationships and innovation are inextricably connected. Conceptual support for these linkages is found in established management theories and evidence from empirical research. However, this research has been handicapped by various data limitations. The purpose of this study is to introduce and evaluate a new dataset that overcomes many of those limitations, allowing for a more comprehensive examination of the complex interplay of relationship-based assets, innovation, and financial performance. Based on this review, we conclude that the Drucker system of measuring customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction/engagement, innovation, and corporate social performance exhibits sufficient content and other types of validity to be suitable for academic research involving this set of intangibles.
Balanced leadership theory conceptualizes that in projects leadership authority bounces back and forth between different roles in situational contingency, and is controlled by the project manager. One of these roles is the horizontal leader—a team member appointed by the project manager to lead the project through a particular issue or crisis. This article investigates the transition at the end of a horizontal leader's assignment and the morphostatic or morphogenetic consequences for future assignments, stemming from the “fit” between the horizontal leader's work with the expectations that led to his/her appointment. A realist social theory and transition theory perspective is taken with 30 interviews in eight case companies. A model for transition in balanced leadership is abductively developed. Variables identified are context, conditions, actors, mechanism, criteria, and outcomes. Results explain the nature and change of assignment conditions, as well as the (dis)continuation decisions on horizontal leader roles at the end of their assignment. A theory is developed that describes the transfer event, with its variables and their interaction. This provides for an extension of the theory of balanced leadership. Practitioners can apply the study's insights to steer the process of horizontal leader appointment and its (dis-)continuation to desired outcomes.
The recent debate on urban vibrancy and its associated spatial characteristics worldwide has increasingly attracted the attention of planners and decision-makers in Norway and the European Union seeking to develop compact cities. This study investigated the spatial pattern of urban vibrancy associated with urban form and the determinants in Oslo, Norway. A total of 552 km² of the Oslo central metropolitan area was classified into 12 neighborhood groups and a data-driven methodology was applied via SPSS, Python, and ArcGIS to analyze urban vibrancy, where each cell was denoted as a 1 km² area of 24 variables. As a result of clustering via principal component analysis, six principal components were extracted with 12 critical factors. Results indicated that the location and distribution of commercial buildings, public buildings, residential buildings, and companies and the total population are the most important drivers of neighborhood vibrancy in Oslo. Vibrant neighborhoods usually appear in high-density, central urban areas with a high concentration of commercial and public buildings with various functions along main streets. In contrast, less vibrant neighborhoods have fewer service facilities and are surrounded by single residential areas, large venues, green spaces, vacant land, or land for transportation in the low-density suburban and semi-urbanized areas. This research offers a quantitative basis for a wider range of neighborhood performance assessments, provides a discussion of compact city theory, and draws the attention of decision-makers on planning policy at the neighborhood level, which can also be adapted to other European cities.
The 'gig economy' presents a contested new work arrangement where freelancers find work on digital platforms. Subsequently, previous research has investigated how gig workers develop solidarity and take collective action against the exploitative practices of the platforms. However, this research is limited by mostly focusing on solidarity in contexts of local gig worker communities. We investigate whether free-lancers who work on a global platform, Upwork, which hires people for diverse and complex jobs, can build up solidarity in a global online community. Applying a mixed-methods research design, we analysed how gig workers responded to a policy change by Upwork that affected their working conditions negatively. In doing so, we outline how solidarity breaks down in an online community of gig workers, due to them realising different interests and identities. We contribute to recent discussions on solidarity in the gig economy, and online communities as tools for organising.
Do non-, first-line, middle and senior managers differ in their cognitive ability and emotional intelligence? In this study we interested in the demographic and ability differences of people at different management levels. Over 6000 adults completed a multidimensional intelligence test (IQ) with five subscales and a measure of Trait Emotional Intelligence (EQ) with 15 subscales. First, we examined sex, age, educational and management level correlates of both EQ and IQ. Whilst there were many significant results, effect sizes were small. The focus of the paper was the regression using management level as the criterion variable and demography, EQ and, IQ as the predictor variables at facet and domain levels. Age and sex, particularly the former, accounted for nearly 30% of the variance, but both EQ and IQ added incremental variance. Facet level variance showed that specifically IQ number speed, and EQ sociability and emotionality (negatively) related to managerial level. Implications for general management and limitations are acknowledged.
In five different online studies of community samples, participants (N > 2,200) estimated their IQ and EQ on a single scale and completed three different, short, untimed intelligence tests. In all studies, women estimated their IQ significantly lower than men (effect sizes from 0.22-0.47) and estimated their EQ higher (effect size 0.04-0.32). In only one study were there actual sex differences in IQ test scores. All correlations between the two estimates were significant and positive, and ranged from .37 < r < .47. The robustness of the IQ-EQ hubris-humility effect across measures and populations is discussed. Limitations are acknowledged, particularly in the use of tests.
Color is omnipresent, but organizational research features no systematic theory or established method for analyzing it. We develop a relational approach to color, conceptualizing it as a means of positioning relative to a reference group or style and validating it through a computational method for processing digital images. The research context is Norwegian black metal—a genre of extreme metal music that achieved notoriety in the early 1990s through band members’ criminal activity. Our analysis of 5,125 album covers between 1989 and 2019 confirms the alignment of aesthetic and music features and articulates the role of color in the construction of a relational identity based on forces of association and disassociation. Black metal bands associated with past color choices of non-black metal bands up to a point, after which they started to disassociate from them. The positioning is dynamic, pursuing adaptation to external events. Black metal bands reacted to their stigmatization in Norwegian society by increasing colorfulness and later returning to a darker aesthetic in defiance of the genre’s commercialization. Our analysis attests to color’s ability to organize producers’ exchange of information and attention, illustrating the interweaving of aesthetic features and relational processes in markets.
This paper develops a new Instrumental Variables estimator for spatial, dynamic panels with interactive effects under large N and T asymptotics. For this class of models, most approaches available in the literature are based on quasi-maximum likelihood estimation. The approach put forward here is appealing from both a theoretical and a practical point of view for a number of reasons. Firstly, it is linear in the parameters of interest and computationally inexpensive. Secondly, the IV estimator is free from asymptotic bias. Thirdly, the approach can accommodate endogenous regressors, so long as external instruments are available. The IV estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal as N, T → ∞, such that N/T → c, where 0 < c < ∞. We study the determinants of risk attitude of banking institutions. The results show that the capital regulation introduced by the Dodd-Frank Act has succeeded in influencing banks’ behaviour.
In this study we examined three correlates of personal wealth–financial capability, buying impulsiveness, and attitudes to money in a large UK adult sample (N = 90,184). We were interested in how these psychological variables related to personal wealth controlling for well-established demographic correlates: age, education, gender, and household income. We drew on three personal wealth variables based on savings and investments, property wealth and personal items. Using correlational and regression analysis we tested three specific hypotheses which each received support. Our variables accounted for around half the variance with respect to property value, and two thirds with respect to investments. The hierarchical regression onto the savings and investment factor showed two thirds of the variance was accounted for: the demographic variables accounted for 27% of the variance, money attitudes an additional 14%; financial capability an additional 24% and buying impulsivity no additional variance. Age, income, and planning ahead were the most powerful and consistent predictors of wealth variables, with associating money with security as an important predictor for savings and investments. Implications for helping improve financial literacy and capability are noted. Limitations are acknowledged.
Although expecting to undertake core tasks affirming their professional identity, employees often have to deal with tasks they perceive as unnecessary or unreasonable. The concept of illegitimate tasks captures this phenomenon and has attracted growing attention since its first appearance. Illegitimate tasks have been found to explain unique variance in well-being and strain. Given a burgeoning body of literature, a systematic narrative review of illegitimate tasks is warranted. This review summarizes research regarding illegitimate tasks’ antecedents (leadership, workplace characteristics, individual characteristics, and job characteristics) and outcomes (emotions, work attitudes and cognition, work behaviour, health and well-being, and interpersonal relationships). In addition, we review work done to date regarding the moderators and mediators of these relationships. Finally, we offer future directions for research.
This paper addresses the effects of a prohibition of providing non-audit services (NAS) to audit clients. By combining a strategic auditor–client game with a circular market-matching model that has an endogenous number of auditors, we take into account the interdependence between the auditors’ and clients’ incentives, the market structure, and the quality of audited reports. We show that the regulation’s effects depend on the preexisting audit market concentration and the types of blacklisted NAS. In sharp contrast to the effects that regulators desire, a prohibition of providing NAS to audit clients can further increase audit market concentration and decrease the quality of audited reports if the fees that auditors previously earned from providing the blacklisted NAS were relatively high, compared to the reduction in audit costs that result from spillovers. In contrast, a prohibition of the NAS that generate intense spillovers and low NAS fees can have the unexpected—but desired—effect of decreasing market concentration; however, reporting quality also decreases.
Little is known about the governance of inter-organizational networks for projects. This study empirically develops a theoretical framework for this, using 28 project networks as case studies, applying 124 interviews in ten countries. The abductively developed three-layered governance framework has the individual network for a project at its lowest layer, explained through Multi-level Governance Theory. This is steered by a middle layer for the governance of networks, addressing the steering of the different networks these organizations are part of. At the top is metagovernance, where the ground rules are set by governments or investors. For each layer, the governance dimensions, as well as the ena-blers and disablers between layers, are defined. The study's resulting theory provides an overall understanding of the governance of multiple networks for projects and provides practitioners with the parameters to optimize their networks for better project results. ARTICLE HISTORY
Research on online political participation highlights how online platforms may facilitate or encumber political participation. In this contribution, we add to existing research on digital inequalities in online political participation by focusing on privacy concerns as a critical construct. We follow a contextual understanding of online privacy and examine a variety of online political behaviours to differentiate the distinctive roles privacy concerns play in higher- and lower-threshold forms of participation. Based on a survey of German Internet users, we find that social media use exerts a strong positive effect on political participation, especially lower-threshold forms of participation. As privacy concerns are spread quite evenly throughout the population, they contribute little to the socioeconomic stratification of online political participation. Privacy concerns relate positively to higher-threshold forms of political participation. We discuss how higher- and lower-threshold participation constitute distinct contexts for users’ considerations of privacy risks.
Prior literature has emphasized that inconsistency of market signals leads to evaluation penalty. However, limited attention has been paid to the heterogeneity of audiences who deal with inconsistency. I argue that audiences differ in the extent to which they process different market signals, which may largely shape the effect of signal inconsistency. When audiences fail to process all signals, they may not perceive signal inconsistency, thereby weakening its effect on product evaluation. It is hence important to investigate audience heterogeneity in theorizing signal inconsistency. In this study, I focus on the distinction between two important audience groups: professional critics and end consumers. Specifically, I argue that signal inconsistency exerts a stronger effect on critics’ evaluations than on consumers’ evaluations, because critics are more likely than consumers to process various market signals. I argue further that critics can act as an important intermediary to bridge the effect of signal inconsistency on consumers, even though consumers may not process all signals themselves. I test these ideas in a sample of video games released between 2001 and 2016 and find general support.
Background: Unemployment rates for individuals in treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) are high, with Norwegian estimates in the range of 81%–89%. Although Individual Placement and Support (IPS) represents a promising method to improved vocational outcome, cross-disciplinary investigations are needed to document implementation benefits and address reimbursements needs. The aim of this study was to model the potential socioeconomic value of employment support integrated in SUD treatment. Methods: Based on scientific publications, an ongoing randomised controlled trial (RCT) on employment support integrated in SUD treatment, and publicly available economy data, we made qualified assumptions about costs and socioeconomic gain for the different interventions targeting employment for patients with SUD: (1) treatment as usual (TAU); (2) TAU and a self-help guide and a workshop; and (3) TAU and IPS. For each intervention, we simulated three different outcome scenarios based on 100 patients. Results: Assuming a 40% employment rate and full-time employment (100%) for 10 years following IPS, we found a 10-year socioeconomic effect of €18,732,146. The corresponding effect for the more conservative TAU + IPS simulation assuming 40% part-time positions (25%) for five years, was €2,519,906. Compared to the two alternative interventions, IPS was cost-effective and more beneficial after six months to two years. Discussion: This concept evaluation study suggests that integrating employment support in the health services is socioeconomically beneficial. Our finding is relevant for decision makers within politics and health. Once employment rates from our ongoing RCT is available, real-life data will be applied to adjust model assumptions and socioeconomic value assumptions.
Does increasing the sexual content of advertisements lead, though memory processes, to greater sales? By employing a between-participants design, we aimed to explore how sexual advertising affects explicit and implicit memory, and whether it impairs memory for information preceding the commercials (retroactive interference) or following the commercials (proactive interference). We randomly assigned 182 young participants in the UK to one of two groups who watched the same TV program containing an advertisement break during which either sexual or nonsexual advertisements were shown, while brands were held constant across conditions. Participants were then tested on their explicit and implicit memory for both the advertising content and program information. Results revealed that implicit memory was better for nonsexual than for sexual advertisements. Unexpectedly, there was no group difference in participants’ explicit memory for the advertisements. Further, sexual advertising resulted in retroactive interference with program information, whereas proactive memory for program information was not impaired. We acknowledge various study limitations and discuss proposals for future research.
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Christoph Lutz
  • Department of Communication and Culture
Espen Andersen
  • Institute of Strategy and Logistics
Nina Veflen
  • Department of Marketing
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  • Department of Communication, Culture, and Languages
Tommy Sveen
  • Department of Economics
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