A nomenclatural revision of the names published under the genus Santolina (Anthemideae) from Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa is presented. The nomenclature of 34 names is discussed. Previous typifications are critically revised, and ten types are designated in this study: six of them fix the application of currently accepted names (Santolina ascensionis Sennen ex Maire, S. africana Jord. & Fourr., S. canescens Lag., S. elegans Boiss. ex DC., S. pectinata Lag., and S. viscosa Lag.), whereas the remaining four are synonyms.
Microplastic (MP) contamination is an acknowledged global problem that poses a severe risk to aquatic ecosystem biota. Nevertheless, little is known about their prevalence in animal construction. The main objective of our study was to reduce the gap information of seasonal abundance, distribution, composition, and risk assessment of MP contamination. The concentrations of MPs in sediment, Chironomus sp. larvae, and their tubes were found to be higher in site 2 (S2) than in site 1 (S1) during the four seasons of the year. However, MP concentrations ranged from 312 ± 64.7 to 470 ± 70 items/kg dry weight, 0.79 ± 0.16 to 1.1 ± 0.3 particles/individual, and 0.5 ± 0.04 to 0.9 ± 0.04 particles/tube in sediment, Chironomus, and chironomid tubes, respectively. Blue and red polyester fibers are the most dominant MPs which are distributed in sediment , Chironomus, and chironomid tubes. The length of the dominant fiber accumulates in Chironomus, and their tubes are highly varied compared to that of the substrate. Additionally, we found that the mean number of MPs/individual larvae in the fourth instar was significantly higher than that in the second instar. Risk indicators for the environment, polymer risk assessment, and pollution load were estimated, where they were higher in S2 than in S1 correlated to MPs abundance and polymer type. The seasonal fluctuation in MP concentration, characterization, and risk in the two sites could depend on the amount of sewage effluent discharged into the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which was reflected by Chironomus sp. larvae. Therefore, further research should be done to adopt the applicability of Chironomus as MP bioindicators in various freshwater environments throughout the world.
Deep learning has made significant advances in recent years, and as a result, it is now in a stage where it can achieve outstanding results in tasks requiring visual understanding of scenes. However, its performance tends to decline when dealing with low-quality images. The advent of super-resolution (SR) techniques has started to have an impact on the field of remote sensing by enabling the restoration of fine details and enhancing image quality, which could help to increase performance in other vision tasks. However, in previous works, contradictory results for scene visual understanding were achieved when SR techniques were applied. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the impact of SR on enhancing aerial scene classification. Through the analysis of different state-of-the-art SR algorithms, including traditional methods and deep learning-based approaches, we unveil the transformative potential of SR in overcoming the limitations of low-resolution (LR) aerial imagery. By enhancing spatial resolution, more fine details are captured, opening the door for an improvement in scene understanding. We also discuss the effect of different image scales on the quality of SR and its effect on aerial scene classification. Our experimental work demonstrates the significant impact of SR on enhancing aerial scene classification compared to LR images, opening new avenues for improved remote sensing applications.
Aim Anticipating the ultimate fraction of a landscape that might be susceptible to invasion is challenging as several species are able to expand the range of environmental conditions used over invasion. Despite its relevance, the more proximate processes underlying observed shifts are not sufficiently understood. Habitat selection theory predicts that as population density increases, individuals start using sub‐optimal resources to compensate for the limitation of the preferred ones. However, niche shifts might also occur as result of changes in habitat preferences over time. Here, we tested these alternative hypotheses by investigating nesting resource use and selection over a biological invasion and the relative effect of density‐dependence on such patterns. Location Barcelona, Spain. Methods We take advantage of a large dataset recording the occurrence of the invasive monk Parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus in Barcelona in the period 1975–2015. We apply generalized linear models to analyse changes in nesting habitat preferences and its interactive effect with conspecific presence. Results Temporal changes in nesting habitat use occurred. Palm species were the most commonly used nesting substrate since the beginning of the invasion but the diversity and frequency of use of other nesting substrates increased over time. Changes in nesting substrate use were consistent with a change in habitat selection, when accounting for habitat availability. Although a general role of conspecific aggregation on occupation patterns was found, it was mostly additive. That is, shifts in nesting substrate did not structure in relation to conspecific distribution. Conclusions Shifts in nesting resource selection can occur during the spread stage of biological invasions, probably related to innovation and learning, rather than to optimal habitat selection. These shifts present a significant challenge for forecasting efforts and management. However, changes do not happen rapidly over time, highlighting that there is a management opportunity window before significant shifts occur.
In the past years the study of continuous or discontinuous piecewise differential systems has attracted significant interest, due to their wide use to model many natural phenomena. Important questions such as finding an upper bound for the number of limit cycles of such systems and their possible configurations have been considered by many authors. These problems are known as the extension of the second part of the 16th Hilbert’s problem to the piecewise differential systems. In this paper, we solve an extension of the second part of the 16th Hilbert’s problem for two families of discontinuous piecewise differential systems separated by the straight line [Formula: see text]. The first family is formed by a linear center and a cubic Hamiltonian isochronous center, and the second family is formed by cubic Hamiltonian isochronous centers. As a result we prove that the first family can exhibit [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] limit cycle, for the second one there are either three limit cycles or no limit cycles. We also show that there are examples of all types of these systems with one or three limit cycles.
Background Sarilumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, is a first-line biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug for rheumatoid arthritis. The identification of genetic biomarkers as predictors of response to sarilumab could allow for a personalized treatment strategy to improve clinical outcomes. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 62 patients treated with sarilumab to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL6R gene could predict efficacy and toxicity responses. Six SNPs previously described in the IL6R gene (rs12083537, rs11265618, rs4329505, rs2228145, rs4537545, and rs4845625) were genotyped in DNA samples obtained from these patients. Using parametric tests, we evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and clinicopathological features. Treatment response was assessed six months after treatment initiation. Satisfactory response was based on EULAR criteria. Low disease activity was determined according to DAS28 and CDAI and quantitative improvements in DAS28 and CDAI scores. Results Three SNPs (rs4845625, rs4329505 and rs11265618) were significantly associated with response outcomes. All of the SNPs, except for rs12083537, had at least one significant association with dyslipidemia or hepatotoxicity. Conclusions These findings support the potential clinical value of SNPs, particularly rs4845625, as potentially useful biomarkers to predict response to sarilumab in patients with RA.
A bstract The bootstrap approach (demanding consistency conditions to scattering amplitudes) has shown to be quite powerful to tightly constrain gauge theories at large N c . We extend previous analysis to scattering amplitudes involving pions and external gauge bosons. These amplitudes allow us to access the chiral anomaly and connect low-energy physical quantities to UV properties of the theory. In particular, we are able to obtain an analytic bound on the chiral anomaly coefficient as a function of the pion dipole polarizabilities. This bound can be useful for holographic models whose dual UV completions are not known, and provide a consistency condition to lattice simulations.
Aim The aim of this systematic review was to assess the existing published data on tuberculous arthritis involving native joints in adults aged 18 years and older. The specific research questions focused on the diagnosis and management of the disease. Method This study was performed in accordance with the guidelines provided in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). A systematic literature search was undertaken of Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and the Cochrane library. Only studies published in English since 1970 were considered. Case series involving less than 10 patients, systematic and narrative reviews, and laboratory or animal studies were excluded. We also excluded reports of TB infections not involving a “native joint” and tuberculosis of the spine. The level of evidence and strength of recommendations was performed in accordance with the GRADE system. Results The systematic review of the literature yielded 2023 potential sources. Following deduplication, screening and full-text review, 20 data sources involving 573 patients from nine countries, were included. There was considerable variation amongst the studies in terms of the approach to diagnosis and management. The most common method used to confirm the diagnosis was microbiological culture of tissue obtained by biopsy, with positive findings in 93% of cases. Medical management involved a median 12 months of antitubercular treatment (IQR 8–16; range 4–18 months). Duration of pre-operative treatment ranged from two to 12 weeks in duration. Surgery was performed in approximately 87% of patients and varied from arthroscopic debridement to complete synovectomy combined with total joint arthroplasty. When arthroplasty and arthrodesis cases are excluded, 80% of patients received an open or arthroscopic debridement. The mean follow-up time of all studies was 26 months, with most studies demonstrating a minimum follow-up of at least six-months (range 3–112 months). Recurrence rates were reported in most studies, with an overall average recurrence rate of 7,4% (35 of 475). Conclusions The current literature on TB arthritis highlights the need for the establishment of standardised diagnostic criteria. Further research is needed to define the optimal approach to medical and surgical treatment. The role of early debridement in active tuberculous arthritis needs to be explored further. Specifically, comparative studies are required to address the questions around use of medical treatment alone versus in combination with surgical intervention.
The objective of this paper was to investigate how the predicted level of body energy mobilized and the stage of lactation affects performance and energy partitioning in lactating sows kept under commercial conditions. Seventy-seven lactating sows from three consecutive batches were weaned at 28 d and all measures were taken over the first 20 d. Total feed consumption was measured and sows’ live weight was registered when entering the lactation facilities and at 21 d of lactation. Blood samples were collected at farrowing and once a week thereafter. Net energy (NE) mobilization or loss was calculated by difference using the general NRC equation for ME partitioning. Compared to low mobilizers (low NE loss values), high mobilizing sows had lower feed intake and higher loss of live weight, body fat and body protein. High mobilizers also weaned more piglets and had heavier litters than low mobilizers. Energy mobilization (NE loss) was higher from day 1 to 10 of lactation compared to day 11 to 20, and the difference in mobilized energy between high and low mobilizing sows was also higher in the first than in the second half of lactation. Body weight and back fat thickness losses were significantly correlated with NE loss. A more accurate prediction of the changes in live weight or back fat thickness over lactation should help better predict total amount of energy mobilized, and more research is needed to assess the relative contribution of lean and fat to mobilized tissue.
Background Previous biomechanical studies of the meniscotibial ligament have determined that it contributes to meniscal stability. An injury to it can cause the meniscus to extrude, and reconstruction of that ligament significantly reduces extrusion. Purpose To assess the biomechanical effects of sectioning the lateral meniscotibial ligament (LMTL) and the meniscofibular ligament (MFL) with respect to the radial mobility of the lateral meniscus and to evaluate the biomechanical effects of the capsulodesis and centralization techniques. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods The lateral meniscus of 22 porcine knees was evaluated. They were mounted on a testing apparatus to apply muscle and ground-reaction forces. The meniscus was evaluated at 30° and 60° of knee flexion using 2 markers placed on the posterior cruciate ligament and the lateral meniscus after applying an axial compression of 200 N to the knee joint. Measurements were recorded under 5 conditions: intact lateral meniscus, injury of the LMTL, subsequent injury of the MFL, the use of the open capsulodesis technique, and the reconstruction of the LMTL and the MFL with the centralization technique. Results The distance between the 2 markers was significantly greater in the extrusion group (combined lesion of the LMTL and MFL) than in the intact or reconstruction groups (capsulodesis and centralization techniques; P < .001 in all cases). In the cases of load application, no significant differences were observed between the control group (intact meniscus) and the groups on which the reconstruction techniques were performed. There were also no differences when comparing the results obtained between both reconstruction techniques. In all settings, the distance between the 2 markers increased with the increase in the knee flexion angle. Conclusion In a porcine model, the LMTL and the MFL participated as restrictors of the radial mobility of the lateral meniscus during loading. Their injury caused a significant increase in lateral meniscal extrusion, and the centralization and the capsulodesis procedures were able to reduce extrusion. Clinical Relevance This study demonstrates the capacity of the LMTL and the MFL to restrict the radial mobility of the lateral meniscus during loading and how it is affected when they are injured.
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have a higher prevalence of obesity compared to the general population. Conventionally, this has been attributed to endocrine issues and lack of exercise. However, deficits in neural reward responses and dopaminergic disturbances in DS may be contributing factors. To investigate this, we focused on a mouse model (Ts65Dn) bearing some triplicated genes homologous to trisomy 21. Through detailed meal pattern analysis in male Ts65Dn mice, we observed an increased preference for energy-dense food, pointing towards a potential “hedonic” overeating behavior. Moreover, trisomic mice exhibited higher scores in compulsivity and inflexibility tests when limited access to energy-dense food and quinine hydrochloride adulteration were introduced, compared to euploid controls. Interestingly, when we activated prelimbic-to-nucleus accumbens projections in Ts65Dn male mice using a chemogenetic approach, impulsive and compulsive behaviors significantly decreased, shedding light on a promising intervention avenue. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism behind the vulnerability to overeating and offer potential new pathways for tackling obesity through innovative interventions.
Background The ongoing Pan-European Real Life (PEARL) phase 4 study is evaluating fremanezumab effectiveness and safety for the prevention of episodic and chronic migraine. This interim analysis reports primary, secondary and exploratory endpoints from when 500 participants completed at least six months of treatment. Methods Adults with episodic migraine or chronic migraine maintaining daily headache diaries were enrolled upon initiation of fremanezumab. Primary endpoint: proportion of participants with ≥50% reduction in monthly migraine days during the six-month period after fremanezumab initiation. Secondary endpoints: mean change from baseline across months 1–12 in monthly migraine days, acute migraine medication use, and headache-related disability. Exploratory endpoint: mean change in headache severity from baseline across months 1–12. Safety was assessed through adverse events reported. Results Overall, 897 participants were enrolled and 574 included in the effectiveness analyses (episodic migraine, 25.8%; chronic migraine, 74.2%). Of participants with data available, 175/313 (55.9%) achieved ≥50% monthly migraine days reduction during the six-month period post-initiation. Across months 1–12, there were sustained reductions in mean monthly migraine days, acute medication use, disability scores, and headache severity. Few adverse events were reported. Conclusion PEARL interim results support the effectiveness and safety of fremanezumab for migraine prevention in a real-world population across several European countries. Trial registration: encepp.eu: EUPAS35111
Background Whether the benefits of the robotic platform in bariatric surgery translate into superior surgical outcomes remains unclear. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the ‘best possible’ outcomes for robotic bariatric surgery and compare them with the established laparoscopic benchmarks. Methods Benchmark cut-offs were established for consecutive primary robotic bariatric surgery patients of 17 centres across four continents (13 expert centres and 4 learning phase centres) using the 75th percentile of the median outcome values until 90 days after surgery. The benchmark patients had no previous laparotomy, diabetes, sleep apnoea, cardiopathy, renal insufficiency, inflammatory bowel disease, immunosuppression, history of thromboembolic events, BMI greater than 50 kg/m2, or age greater than 65 years. Results A total of 9097 patients were included, who were mainly female (75.5%) and who had a mean(s.d.) age of 44.7(11.5) years and a mean(s.d.) baseline BMI of 44.6(7.7) kg/m2. In expert centres, 13.74% of the 3020 patients who underwent primary robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 5.9% of the 4078 patients who underwent primary robotic sleeve gastrectomy presented with greater than or equal to one complication within 90 postoperative days. No patient died and 1.1% of patients had adverse events related to the robotic platform. When compared with laparoscopic benchmarks, robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass had lower benchmark cut-offs for hospital stay, postoperative bleeding, and marginal ulceration, but the duration of the operation was 42 min longer. For most surgical outcomes, robotic sleeve gastrectomy outperformed laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with a comparable duration of the operation. In robotic learning phase centres, outcomes were within the established benchmarks only for low-risk robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Conclusion The newly established benchmarks suggest that robotic bariatric surgery may enhance surgical safety compared with laparoscopic bariatric surgery; however, the duration of the operation for robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is longer.
Coccolithophores are the most abundant calcifying organisms in modern oceans and are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems. Their ability to generate a cellular covering of calcium carbonate plates (coccoliths) plays a major role in marine biogeochemistry and the global carbon cycle. Coccolithophores also play an important role in sulfur cycling through the production of the climate‐active gas dimethyl sulfide. The primary model organism for coccolithophore research is Emiliania huxleyi , now named Gephyrocapsa huxleyi. G. huxleyi has a cosmopolitan distribution, occupying coastal and oceanic environments across the globe, and is the most abundant coccolithophore in modern oceans. Research in G. huxleyi has identified many aspects of coccolithophore biology, from cell biology to ecological interactions. In this perspective, we summarize the key advances made using G. huxleyi and examine the emerging tools for research in this model organism. We discuss the key steps that need to be taken by the research community to advance G. huxleyi as a model organism and the suitability of other species as models for specific aspects of coccolithophore biology.
Neurostimulation is a mainstream treatment option for major depression. Neuromodulation techniques apply repetitive magnetic or electrical stimulation to some neural target but significantly differ in their invasiveness, spatial selectivity, mechanism of action, and efficacy. Despite these differences, recent analyses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS)-treated individuals converged on a common neural network that might have a causal role in treatment response. We set out to investigate if the neuronal underpinnings of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are similarly associated with this causal depression network (CDN). Our aim here is to provide a comprehensive analysis in three cohorts of patients segregated by electrode placement (N = 246 with right unilateral, 79 with bitemporal, and 61 with mixed) who underwent ECT. We conducted a data-driven, unsupervised multivariate neuroimaging analysis Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the cortical and subcortical volume changes and electric field (EF) distribution to explore changes within the CDN associated with antidepressant outcomes. Despite the different treatment modalities (ECT vs TMS and DBS) and methodological approaches (structural vs functional networks), we found a highly similar pattern of change within the CDN in the three cohorts of patients (spatial similarity across 85 regions: r = 0.65, 0.58, 0.40, df = 83). Most importantly, the expression of this pattern correlated with clinical outcomes (t = −2.35, p = 0.019). This evidence further supports that treatment interventions converge on a CDN in depression. Optimizing modulation of this network could serve to improve the outcome of neurostimulation in depression.
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