The Emergency Department (ED) plays the role of providing efficient and quality healthcare services to patients. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there were observed changes in the ED’s utilisation and management reflecting the underlying challenges faced by most tertiary hospitals in the Philippines. This study aims to describe the changes in the utilisation and management of ED in a major COVID-19 hospital in the Philippines, its implications for inpatient admissions, and effect on ED staff. Patient data from 2019 (pre-pandemic) and 2020 (pandemic) were compared. In addition, this study administered a COVID-19-specific psychometric tool to assess the pandemic’s effect on ED staff. Comparing the pre-pandemic and pandemic census, this study found a 59.0% and 67.6% decrease in ED consultations and hospital admissions, respectively. ED consultations significantly shifted to older patients, with longer length of stay, increased out-of-pocket payment, and mostly presenting with respiratory-related chief complaints. There is a decrease in general hospital unit utilisation, and the addition of a COVID-19 ward and an ICU. Despite the changes, 63.6% of the ED staff exhibited good emotional adjustment to the stress brought by the pandemic. This study reported the situation of Philippine ED amid the pandemic and indicated the important management changes in ED.
This article describes the teaching practices of two K–12 English language teachers in the Philippines at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data used in the study came from the interview of the two teachers, and a content analysis of some modules that they used. The study utilised Canagarajah’s critical pedagogy framework to describe the extent to which the teachers’ reported teaching practices, and the modules they used localised the teaching of English. Results revealed that teachers localised mostly in the level of content and strategies, but considered the language of the texts they used in the classroom to make sure that the meaning and form of the texts were accessible to their students. Moreover, localising was done only as ‘praxis’, and not as a ‘mode of inquiry’, so students were not made aware of their social positioning. Implications for curriculum design and teacher development programmes are discussed.
The NASA Cloud, Aerosol, and Monsoon Processes Philippines Experiment (CAMP ² Ex) employed the NASA P-3, Stratton Park Engineering Company (SPEC) Learjet 35, and a host of satellites and surface sensors to characterize the coupling of aerosol processes, cloud physics, and atmospheric radiation within the Maritime Continent’s complex southwest monsoonal environment. Conducted in the late summer of 2019 from Luzon Philippines in conjunction with the Office of Naval Research Propagation of Intraseasonal Tropical OscillatioNs (PISTON) experiment with its R/V Sally Ride stationed in the North Western Tropical Pacific, CAMP ² Ex documented diverse biomass burning, industrial and natural aerosol populations and their interactions with small to congestus convection. The 2019 season exhibited El Nino and associated drought, high biomass burning emissions, and an early monsoon transition allowing for observation of pristine to massively polluted environments as they advected through intricate diurnal mesoscale and radiative environments into the monsoonal trough. CAMP ² Ex’s preliminary results indicate 1) increasing aerosol loadings tend to invigorate congestus convection in height and increase liquid water paths; 2) lidar, polarimetry, and geostationary Advanced Himawari Imager remote sensing sensors have skill in quantifying diverse aerosol and cloud properties and their interaction; and 3) high resolution remote sensing technologies are able to greatly improve our ability to evaluate the radiation budget in complex cloud systems. Through the development of innovative informatics technologies, CAMP ² Ex provides a benchmark dataset of an environment of extremes for the study of aerosol, cloud and radiation processes as well as a crucible for the design of future observing systems.
This Element offers a critical review of forensic linguistic studies in the Philippines. The studies within, collected over a period of eight to nine years, reveal relevant themes from texts in courtroom proceedings, legal writings, and police investigations. The studies also delve into issues of language choice and language policy. The Element begins with a description of language policy in the Philippines, focusing specifically on language in the legal domain. The main body of the Element is the critical review of Philippine forensic linguistics studies. This critical review takes a sociolinguistic stance, in that issues of language and law are discussed from the lens of social meanings and social practice. From this critical review of forensic linguistics studies, the authors hope to chart future directions for forensic linguistic studies and research in the Philippines.
Using Moody’s framework for understanding the authority and authenticity of performative English in popular culture, this article describes and analyzes the features and uses of the English deployed in the YouTube vlogs of the top three Filipino content creators in 2021. The article also looks into how the performance of English in the vlogs contributed to the identities which were also performed by the vloggers. From the analysis, it is evident that the vloggers use both exonormative and endonormative varieties of English. These varieties are also deployed translingually with their linguistic features blending and interacting with the features of Tagalog-based Filipino, the country’s national language and other semiotic elements like non-verbal cues and sounds used as special effects. Their flexible use of English also contributes to their identity performance as vloggers and this may provide them greater opportunities to negotiate further their self-expression and representation in their vlogs.
Use-wear, microwear, or traceological analysis is a method for the identification of prehistoric tool use and associated activities. While this method can be applied to any lithic and some non-lithic materials, use-wear analysis plays, in particular, an important role in understanding amorphous flake tools from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) during the Late Pleistocene. The absence of formal tool types, including those that are considered as ‘projectiles’ or ‘hafted’ implements, may have hindered our views regarding the actual role these tools played in the development of cognition, behavioural capacity, and complex technologies in the region. Use-wear analysis of unretouched flakes, however, indicate that these were used in a variety of activities, beyond simple actions such as cutting or scraping. In this paper, we provide an overview of the beginnings and development of use-wear analysis in ISEA. Then, we discuss its role in addressing issues such as the bamboo hypothesis, the interpretation of the apparent absence of ‘complex’ lithic technologies from a functional point of view, and in the context of the chronological development of lithic technology. Technological and traceological studies in the region often highlight the presumed presence of a bamboo technology in the past. However, there seem to be limited recurring microscopic wear traces that would allow to verify the hypothetical presence of a ‘vegetal technology’ that would make up for the seemingly simple lithic technology in ISEA. An evaluation of the current state of the art and future directions of use-wear analysis attempts to provide context for the current understanding of prehistoric technology in ISEA. In general, this paper critically examines the development of use-wear analysis as a specialisation in archaeology that was established and developed in the region out of necessity.
Plastic pollution is a global environmental crisis that poses a huge threat to the health of people and marine ecosystems worldwide. A significant source of plastic pollution is menstrual hygiene management, and an approach that can help address this crisis is the usage of washable and reusable menstrual cups. Using an extended theory of planned behavior model that includes self-identity and perceived quality, the study predicted intentions to use menstrual cups in the Philippines. Structural equation modeling results showed that perceived quality predicted attitudes towards menstrual cup usage. Moreover, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and self-identity predicted intentions to use menstrual cups. There were also some differences in the factors and predictors of intentions between non-users and regular users of menstrual cups. Among regular users, perceived behavioral control did not predict intentions. These findings provide empirical support for the extended model, and provides insights for governments, non-government organizations, and corporations in promoting the usage of menstrual cups to address the global plastic pollution crisis.
The COVID‐19 pandemic has resulted in another global health crisis with millions of individuals with Long Covid experiencing disability, worse health‐related quality of life, and productivity and income losses. Despite its impact on population health outcomes, health systems, and the economy, there remains a need for a global consensus on its standard definition, diagnostic approaches, and treatment plans to manage symptoms. In many low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs), there are limited published estimates on Long Covid, limited studies on its diagnostics and therapeutics, and limited media and news coverage. We advocate for a global action plan and necessary investments on Long Covid research and treatment, meaningful involvement of patients and cooperation between high‐income countries and LMICs, stronger and more effective public health communication surrounding the risks of Long Covid, and support toward financial risk protection as advocated by Universal Health Care.
Aims: The nutrition and dietetics service in Philippine public hospitals was implemented by the Department of Health in 2016 to standardise the daily allowance and nutritional content of inpatient meals. Five years later, it is timely for the Department of Health to assess the quality of inpatient meals and mandated nutrition processes in areas such as staffing, food service, and outcomes monitoring. Methods: A mixed-method sequential explanatory design was employed using (1) quantitative assessment through a facility survey (n = 193 hospitals) and (2) qualitative exploration of quantitative results through 6 focus group discussions (n = 36 hospitals). Results: Philippine public hospitals were unequipped with the inputs necessary to implement processes that produce high-quality meals for patients. The hospitals were unable to comply with the required minimum meal allowance (51%), nutritional content of meals (40%), and food service standards. Moreover, they had insufficient human resources and inefficient food procurement practices. Conclusions: The quality of nutrition care and inpatient meals in Philippine public hospitals, who serve mostly people on low incomes, is a neglected problem in the Philippines. Moving forward, a systems approach involving the Department of Health, its regional offices, and hospital management is necessary to equip Philippine public hospitals with the inputs and structures necessary to provide high-quality nutrition care and inpatient meals that will facilitate patient recovery and overall patient health.
The adoption of energy-efficient appliances has been studied in many developed countries in recent years. However, it is unclear how these findings translate to developing countries. We conduct a discrete choice experiment with a broad sample of potential air conditioner (AC) purchasers in Metropolitan Manila, where the percentage of AC owners has increased concomitant with the economic growth in the Philippines. We find that consumers have the strongest preferences for ACs made by domestic manufacturers with smart functions that enable consumers to save electricity more easily. In addition, we examine the information on eco labels that encourage consumers to choose an energy-efficient AC, including the default option of an energy efficiency ratio, estimated cost per hour or an energy star rating. The estimation results indicate that the probability of an energy-efficient AC being chosen could be increased by approximately 15 percentage points if the eco label uses an energy star rating rather than an energy efficiency ratio. These results have important implications for climate and energy policies for developing countries.
One of the most common warnings in dietary guidelines worldwide is to avoid saturated fat. However, there is no clear definition of what a saturated fat is. There are four definitions that have been used to describe saturated fat: amount of saturated fatty acids in grams per 100 grams, % fatty acid profile, iodine value, and solid fat. The current description of “saturated fat” does not distinguish between fats and oils, which are mainly triglycerides of fatty acids, and whole food items, which contain proteins and minerals and much lower amounts of triglycerides. Secondly, the current classification of saturated fat ignores the difference in the cholesterol content of vegetable oils and animal fats. The first definition of saturated fat was based on iodine values which does not give fatty acid composition. This classification is still used today by various dietary guidelines. The use of solid fat as a defining property of saturated fat is based on the melting of a fat at room temperature. This is not scientifically precise. This paper discusses the confusion due to the multiple definitions of saturated fat. The following are proposed to overcome this situation: first, fats and oils and animal-derived whole food items should be considered in separate categories based on their lipid content; second, the saturated fatty acid composition measured in grams per 100 grams (g/100 g) should be used as the basis for classifying fats and oils as saturated fat; and third, a new category of meso-fat is proposed.
Answering the call in this special issue to spatialise degrowth studies beyond the Global North, this paper examines practices of ‘park-making’ in Chennai and Metro Manila as a potential degrowth pathway. Parks in the coastal mega cities of Metro Manila and Chennai can be seen as relics of a colonial era, and spaces coherent with capitalist, growth-oriented and consumerist logics. At the same time, however, they become spaces that prefigure alternative ways of organising social life in the city based upon values of conviviality, care and sharing. Using qualitative methods of analysis, this paper examines what practices people engage with to satisfy their everyday needs in parks, but also the dynamics of exclusion and contestation that play out in these spaces. In doing so, we evaluate when and under what conditions park-making supports practices of de-growth and commoning beyond consumerist culture. Both commoning and uncommoning practices are detailed, revealing the role of provisioning systems that lead to the satisfaction of needs for some at the expense of others. Further, writing from cities that are highly unequal, and where the basic needs of many are yet to be met, we assert that understanding how degrowth manifests in these contexts can only be revealed through a situated urban political ecology approach. Spatialising degrowth in cities of the Global South should start with a focus on everyday practices, study power relationally and explore the scope for a radical incrementalism.
The Philippine educational system and its core curriculum is oriented toward the formation of the modern, autonomous, rational subject, particularly one that will fit into the contemporary global market and production system. Through this system, Filipinos are deepening the colonization of their rationalities and subjectivities by imposing a system that shapes a subject who exists to serve the global market by being a fit worker, consumer, entrepreneur, and producer of knowledge. However useful this educational system may be, it does not consider the ‘Filipino’ subjectivity’s need for formation as a loob who is a kapwa. The Filipino subjectivity which is grounded on the experience of a loob filled with liwanag opening to the world, needs an education in its own capacity for knowing and realizing its well-being. The conception of the subject in relation to the world calls for a different kind of education, particularly in the development of indigenous skills in humanistic research. This paper will argue that as a Filipino student is subjected to the imposition of the dominant Western educational system, they should also equally be given an education in their own rationality rooted in their own native subjectivity. A people must have the opportunity to be trained in their own rationality rooted in their own subjectivity in order to evaluate its value for human flourishing.
Maritime migration and island adaptation by anatomically modern humans (AMH) are among the most significant current issues in Southeast Asian archaeology and directly related to their behavioural and technological advancement. In the center of this research hotspot are the Wallacean islands, situated between the Pleistocene landmasses of Sunda and Sahul. Two major migration routes have been suggested for the initial maritime migration from Sunda via Wallacea into Sahul, a northern route into the region of New Guinea and a southern route leading into northern Australia. Here, we report the outcomes of new archaeological research in Central Sulawesi, the most likely entry location for the northern route. Based on our latest findings and new C14 dates from Goa Topogaro 2, we discuss the evidence and timeline for the migration of early modern humans into the Wallacean islands and their adaptation to insular environments during the Late Pleistocene.
Issue addressed: Philippine contact centres are rife with factors that contribute to work-related stress; health promotion strategies are needed to mitigate the impacts. With a transactional framework with the environment, this study examined the relationship of stress with resilience and the presence of urban green spaces (UGS) in the environment, whilst accounting for individual characteristics (i.e., age, household income, exercise frequency). Methods: Participants include employees (Stage 1 N = 186; Stage 2 N = 89) from six contact centres in the capital region of the Philippines. A two-stage online survey included standardised instruments to measure stress (10-item Perceived Stress Scale) and resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), customised questions to gather demographic information and probe on participants' insights. Google Earth Pro was used for satellite mapping of UGS, followed by on-site ocular inspection. Results: Participants' average stress level was categorised as high; primary stressors included client demands and workload. The objectively measured percentages of UGS in the study sites' vicinity were categorised as low. Participants found UGS visible after careful observation, and majority were aware of UGS in their workplace vicinity. Resilience, household income, and awareness of UGS in the vicinity significantly predicted stress levels. Conclusion: Contact centre workers experienced high stress levels and their workplaces had little accessible UGS. Resilience, household income, and awareness of UGS are significant contributors to stress levels. So what: Health promotion in Philippine contact centres could consider strategies that include building resilience, enhancing income security, and promoting the awareness of UGS within the workplace vicinity.
It has always been a major issue for a hospital to acquire real-time information about a patient in emergency situations. Because of this, this research presents a novel high-compression-ratio and real-time-process image compression very-large-scale integration (VLSI) design for image sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT). The design consists of a YEF transform, color sampling, block truncation coding (BTC), threshold optimization, sub-sampling, prediction, quantization, and Golomb–Rice coding. By using machine learning, different BTC parameters are trained to achieve the optimal solution given the parameters. Two optimal reconstruction values and bitmaps for each 4 × 4 block are achieved. An image is divided into 4 × 4 blocks by BTC for numerical conversion and removing inter-pixel redundancy. The sub-sampling, prediction, and quantization steps are performed to reduce redundant information. Finally, the value with a high probability will be coded using Golomb–Rice coding. The proposed algorithm has a higher compression ratio than traditional BTC-based image compression algorithms. Moreover, this research also proposes a real-time image compression chip design based on low-complexity and pipelined architecture by using TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The operating frequency of the chip can achieve 100 MHz. The core area and the number of logic gates are 598,880 μm2 and 56.3 K, respectively. In addition, this design achieves 50 frames per second, which is suitable for real-time CMOS image sensor compression.
Azolla is a potential fish feed ingredient due to its high nutritional value, abundant production, and low price. This study is aimed at evaluating the use of fresh green azolla (FGA) as a replacement ratio of the daily feed intake on the growth, digestive enzymes, hematobiochemical indices, antioxidant response, intestinal histology, body composition, and flesh quality of monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (with an average initial weight of 108:0 ± 5:0 g). Five experimental groups were used and differed in commercial feed replacement rates of 0% (T 0), 10% (T 1), 20% (T 2), 30% (T 3), and 40% (T 4) with FGA for 70 days. Results showed that 20% replacement with azolla gave the highest values of growth performance and hematological parameters and the best feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and fish whole body protein content. The highest levels of intestinal chymotrypsin, trypsin, lipase, and amylase were noted in 20% replacement with azolla. Fish fed diets with FGA levels of 10% and 40% showed the highest values for the thickness of the mucosa and submucosa layers among all treatments, respectively, while the length and width of the villi decreased significantly. No significant (P > 0:05) differences in the activities of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and creatinine were detected among treatments. The hepatic total antioxidant capacity and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase significantly (P < 0:05) increased while the activity of malonaldehyde decreased with increasing the replacement levels of FGA up to 20%. With increasing levels of dietary replacement with FGA, muscular pH, stored loss (%), and frozen leakage rate (%) were significantly decreased. Finally, it was concluded that the dietary replacement of 20% FGA or less may be considered a promising feeding protocol for monosex Nile tilapia, which may lead to high fish growth, quality, profitability, and sustainability for the tilapia production sector.
In this study, we examine the predictions of a storm and stress characterization of adolescence concerning typicality and trajectories of internalizing, externalizing, and wellbeing from late childhood through late adolescence. Using data from the Parenting Across Cultures study, levels and trajectories of these characteristics were analyzed for 1,211 adolescents from 11 cultural groups across eight countries. Data were longitudinal, collected at seven timepoints from 8 to 17 years of age. Results provide more support for a storm and stress characterization with respect to the developmental trajectories of behavior and characteristics from childhood to adolescence or across the adolescent years than with respect to typicality of behavior. Overall, adolescents’ behavior was more positive than negative in all cultural groups across childhood and adolescence. There was cultural variability in both prevalence and trajectories of behavior. The data provide support for arguments that a more positive and nuanced characterization of adolescence is appropriate and important.
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Katipunan Avenue, 1108, Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines
Head of institution
Fr Roberto C Yap SJ