Ataturk University
  • Erzurum, Turkey
Recent publications
This study aims to investigate the effect of sodium replacement on the quality characteristics of pastırma. For this purpose, pastırma production with four different salt mixtures (I. 100 % NaCl; II. 50 % NaCl + 50 % KCl; III. 40 % NaCl + 40 % KCl + 20 % CaCl2; IV. 30 % NaCl + 40 % KCl + 20 % CaCl2 + 10 % MgCl2) were carried out using traditional method. The use of different salt mixtures for pastırma had no statistically significant effect on the microbial counts and residual nitrite of the final product. The a* and b* values were affected by this treatment. The salt mixture containing CaCl2 or CaCl2 + MgCl2 significantly decreased the pH values and sensory scores. The eighteen volatile compounds were affected by the salt mixtures. Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, and Mg²⁺ had a certain increase depending on their ratio in the salt mixtures. The highest Cathepsin activity in all pastırma samples was observed in Cathepsin B + L. The salt mixture with NaCl + KCl + CaCl2 + MgCl2 increased acid lipase activity. However, this mixture had no significant effect on neutral lipase activity.
Ataturk University has renewed the university website within the scope of studies conducted to become a new generation university. In this context, the Usability Testing (UT) with Morae V.3.3.0 program was applied for the first time to the user group consisting of undergraduate students in order to determine the usability level of the Ataturk University New Website (AUNWS). According to UT results, the usability problems, usage needs, expectations from the website, and satisfaction levels of the undergraduate students were determined. As a result of the study, the problems that need to be solved primarily in the AUNWS are the complex design of the home page and the insufficiency of the search button. Moreover, the AUNWS and Ataturk University Old Website (AUOWS) was compared in terms of usability levels in the study, and the participants found the new website more usable. The tests conducted under COVID-19 pandemic conditions have caused the distance education students to concentrate on the tests more willingly and more carefully during the pandemic process. The test results were positively affected since students do all their processes through the university website due to distance education.KeywordsUsability testingUniversity websiteMoraeStatistical analysisUndergraduate studentsPandemic
Abstract This study was aimed at determining the effects of corn and wheat glutens on the histopathological and immunohistochemical structure of the ovarian tissue, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, and lipid profile in rats. Twenty-day-old 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups, and were raised until 185 days of age. Three study groups, named as Wheat, Corn and Soybean Groups, were established and fed on wheat gluten, corn gluten and soybean meal, respectively, as a protein source. At the end of the trial, ovarian tissue specimens and serum samples were taken from the animals, and analyzed. Compared to Soybean Group, in Wheat Group, of the ovarian histopathological parameters investigated, values pertaining to the primordial, primary, secondary, and Graafian follicles and corpora lutea (CL) were numerically smaller, and for the immunohistochemical parameters investigated, in the transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), gliadin, IgA, IgM, CD4 and CD8 were immunopositivity higher (P>0.05). It was determined that, in Wheat Group, ovarian tissue LH levels had significantly decreased, whilst serum FSH levels had significantly increased (P
Soil contamination with toxic heavy metals [such as lead (Pb)] is becoming a serious global problem due to the rapid development of the social economy. However, accumulation of Pb in plant parts is very toxic for plant growth and decreases crop yield and productivity. In the present study, we have investigated the different concentrations of Pb in the soil i.e., [0 (no Pb), 50, and 100 mg kg–1] to study plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange characteristics, oxidative stress indicators and the response of various antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic), nutritional status of the plant, organic acid exudation pattern and also Pb accumulation in the roots and shoots of the plants of two varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) i.e., Roma and Cchuas, grown under different levels of synergic acid [no spray (NS), water spray (WS), 0.3-0.5°μM]. Results from the present study showed that the increasing levels of Pb in the soil decreased non-significantly (P < 0.05) shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, soluble sugar, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar contents, calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), iron (Fe2+), and phosphorus (P) contents in the roots and shoots of the plants. However, Pb toxicity also induced oxidative stress in the roots and shoots of the plants by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and electrolyte leakage (EL) which also induced increased the compounds of various enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and also organic acids exudation pattern in the roots such as fumaric acid, acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid contents and increased the concentration of Pb in different parts of the plants. Results also show that the Cchuas showed better growth and development compared to Roma, under the same levels of Pb in the soil. The alleviation of Pb toxicity was induced by the application of synergic acid, and results showed that the application of synergic acid increased plant growth and biomass and also increased the gas exchange characteristics and antioxidant capacity in the roots and shoots of the plants. Research findings, therefore, suggested that synergic acid application can ameliorate Pb toxicity in S. lycopersicum varieties and result in improved plant growth and composition under metal stress as depicted by balanced exudation of organic acids.
Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare and chronic benign inflammatory disease of the breast. Difficulties exist in the management of GLM for many front-line surgeons and medical specialists who care for patients with inflammatory disorders of the breast. This consensus is summarized to establish evidence-based recommendations for the management of GLM. Literature was reviewed using PubMed from January 1, 1971 to July 31, 2020. Sixty-six international experienced multidisciplinary experts from 11 countries or regions were invited to review the evidence. Levels of evidence were determined using the American College of Physicians grading system, and recommendations were discussed until consensus. Experts discussed and concluded 30 recommendations on historical definitions, etiology and predisposing factors, diagnosis criteria, treatment, clinical stages, relapse and recurrence of GLM. GLM was recommended as a widely accepted definition. In addition, this consensus introduced a new clinical stages and management algorithm for GLM to provide individual treatment strategies. In conclusion, diagnosis of GLM depends on a combination of history, clinical manifestations, imaging examinations, laboratory examinations and pathology. The approach to treatment of GLM should be applied according to the different clinical stage of GLM. This evidence-based consensus would be valuable to assist front-line surgeons and medical specialists in the optimal management of GLM.
Background Craniofacial monostotic fibrous dysplasia is a rare and usually incidental bone pathology. CT comes to the fore in the diagnosis of monostotic fibrous dysplasia and MRI is used to show its relationship to the neighboring structures. Cavernous sinus inflammation may occur due to infectious and inflammatory causes. Inflammation of unknown cause is called Tolosa–Hunt syndrome. Case presentation In this case report, we presented cavernous sinus inflammation accompanying fibrous dysplasia in a 35-year-old female patient, which was seen for the first time in the literature. Conclusions The contrast-enhanced MR images are very important for the diagnosis and follow-up of the patient, in the rare presence of association we have shown in this case.
Background MMP-9 plays a prominent role in inflammation and MMP-14 take part in angiogenesis. The objective of this study is to compare MMP-9 and MMP-14 levels between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Methods The patients who scheduled for pars plana vitrectomy were included in our study. Patients are divided into 2 groups: the diabetic group and non-diabetic group. Age, gender, intraocular pressure(IOP), visual acuity (VA) were reported. Color fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography, optic coherence tomography (OCT) were performed before and after the operation. MMP-9 and MMP-14 levels in vitreous samples were analyzed with a reader device by ELISA method. Mann–Whitney U test and logistic regressions were used in statistical analysis, p < 0.05 accepted as statistically significant. Results 70 eyes of 70 patients who received pars plana vitrectomy were enrolled in the study and divided into 2 groups: 34 patients in the diabetic group, 36 patients in the non-diabetic group. The average age of diabetic patients was 60.14 ± 10.20, and non-diabetic patients was 64.22 ± 11.16, respectively. The average MMP-9 (0.67 ± 0.66 ng/ml) and MMP-14 (0.16 ± 0.45 ng/ml) values in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the average MMP-9 (0.21 ± 0.05 ng/ml) and MMP-14 (and 0.07 ± 0.02 ng/ml) values in the non-diabetic group (P < 0.01). Also, it was observed that MMP-9 and MMP-14 levels increases as the diabetic disease duration increases. The risk of diabetes incidence increased with high levels of MMP-9 and MMP-14. Conclusion Due to the higher levels of MMP-9 and MMP-14 in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, these proteins may probably be among the therapeutic targets in the prevention and treatment of retinopathy.
Purpose: To perform a bibliometric analysis of the top 100 (T100) most-cited articles on the treatment of osteoporosis published between 1980 and 2021 to reveal major developments and trends in the field and to contribute to the methodologies and hypotheses of future studies. Methods: On 15.12.2021, a search was conducted on the Web of Science database using the keyword "osteoporosis treatment" to screen articles published between 1980 and 2021. The title of the article, year of publication, total number and names of the authors, total number of citations and citation index, name and Q index of the journals, H-index, impact factor, country of authors, types of articles, and sources of funding were recorded. Results: The most-cited article was "Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, And Therapy." The article with the highest citation index was "Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis.. The majority of the articles were randomized controlled clinical trials. The journal with the highest number of articles included in the T100 was The New England Journal of Medicine, with 19 articles. The USA had the highest number of articles. There was a strong correlation between the number of citations and citation index of articles (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study, which examined the T100 most-cited articles on the treatment of osteoporosis, found that the articles primarily focused on the prevention, diagnosis, and follow-up of osteoporosis; search for antiresorptive and anabolic pharmacological agents; investigation of the efficacy and reliability of these agents on specific subpopulations; and surgical treatment options.
Background A randomized controlled study was conducted on the effects of laughter yoga in reducing the perceived stress and burnout levels in nurses during the pandemic and in increasing their life satisfaction. Materials and methods The study was conducted with 101 (51 in the experimental group, and 50 in the control group) nurses providing care for patients with COVID-19. A total of eight sessions of laughter yoga were applied to the nurses in the experimental group for four weeks, twice a week. The Introductory Information Form, Perceived Stress Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Life Satisfaction Scale were used during data collection. Results The difference between the pre- and posttest Perceived Stress Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Life Satisfaction Scale score averages of the nurses in the experimental group were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), whereas the difference between the pre- and posttest score averages of the nurses in the control group was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Laughter yoga is an effective method to reduce perceived stress and burnout while also increasing life satisfaction. id NCT05317091.
Background Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality that can reduce quality of life due to long-term complications during and after treatment discontinuation. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate patients for these complications before discontinuing treatment and determine the necessity of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) imaging. Methods This retrospective study included 116 patients over the age of 18 who received anticoagulant treatment for at least 3 months and presented for treatment discontinuation to the Atatürk University Research Hospital Chest Diseases Outpatient Clinic between January 2015 and September 2019. Results CTPA performed at treatment discontinuation showed complete thrombus resolution with treatment in 73 patients (62.9%). High pulmonary artery obstruction index (PAOI) at diagnosis was statistically associated with findings of residual or chronic thrombus on CTPA at treatment discontinuation (p = 0.001). In the differentiation of patients with residual/chronic thrombus and those with thrombus resolution, D-dimer at a cut-off value of 474 µg/L had 60% sensitivity and 70% specificity. At a cut-off value of 35.5 mmHg, mean pulmonary artery pressure on echocardiography had sensitivity and specificity of 72% and 77%, respectively. At a cut-off of 23.75, PAOI had sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 69%, respectively. Conclusion In addition to physical examination findings, D-dimer and echocardiography were guiding parameters in the evaluation of treatment discontinuation and thrombus resolution in patients presenting to the outpatient clinic for discontinuation of treatment for acute PTE. PAOI at diagnosis may be another important guiding parameter in addition to these examinations.
In this study, plant ethanolic extract OCEE (Origanum Compactum Ethanolic Extract), a promising natural product with a cheap cost, was used as a green and sustainable mild steel corrosion inhibitor in a 1 M HCl solution. Chemical, electrochemical, surface analysis, and quantum chemical calculations were used to examine the inhibitory efficacy of OCEE on mild steel(MS) corrosion. Overall, the findings show that OCEE has excellent corrosion inhibitory characteristics, with a 90 % inhibitory efficacy at a dosage of 400 mg/L. The plots of Potentiodynamic Polarization (PDP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrate that the OCEE is a mixed type corrosion inhibitor and that the corrosion process is regulated by charge transfer, respectively. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm adequately characterized the adsorption of OCEE. OCEE has considerably higher activation thermodynamic characteristics than the blank. SEM/EDX surface examination shows that the OCEE may connect to the metal surface by producing a barrier layer, and XPS research confirms bonds between functional groups and the MS substrate. The electronic characteristics of the main OCEE compound were studied using the DFT technique (density functional theory), and the sites sensitive to electron sharing were discovered using the Fukui indices. Furthermore, MD (molecular dynamics) modelling was utilized to predict the spontaneous adsorption of this significant chemical on a mild steel surface.
Purpose This study aimed to investigate the thoughts of preschool children and their mothers about COVID-19. Design and methods This qualitative study was descriptive phenomenology design. Data were collected and analyzed through individual interviews from 26 people (13 mothers and 13 children) using a Personal Information Form and an Interview Form.After the thematic analysis, four main themes were created for the children and their mothers. Results The main themes created for mothers and children were: “Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic process, Protection, Family relations, Perspective of healthcare staff”. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the physical, psycho-social, and economic health, spirituality and family relationships of mothers. It became evident that children knew the terms related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Children dreamt of activities they missed and stated that at the end of the COVID-19 pandemic, they would go to the park, the pool, shopping centers, to school, and on vacation. Most of the mothers and children followed the rules of protection. In addition, mothers and children stated that their perspectives on healthcarestaff changed positively after the pandemic started. Conclusions Considering that COVID-19 affects individuals bio-psycho-socially, it is crucial for health professionals to know the thoughts of individuals, families and children about COVID-19 to increase their awareness of potential problems.
Undoped and Ag doped ZnO thin films were grown on glass substrate at 500 °C by ultrasonic spray method (USP). In order to observe the effect of Ag doping on ZnO thin films, doping rates of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% were carried out. Some measurements were taken to investigate the effects of Ag dopant for example Uv–Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements for optical, scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements for morphological, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) measurements for structural, sensor measurements for H2 sensor properties. Uv–Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the band gap of ZnO decreased from 3.21 eV to 2.79 eV and PL intensity of ZnO from 3.21 eV to 2.79 eV with increasing amount of Ag dopant. SEM measurements show that surface morphology changed and shrinkage was observed on the surface with Ag dopant. XRD results show that the presence of Ag peaks was found in the crystal structure of Ag doped ZnO thin films and EDAX measurements have supported this AG presence in the ZnO structure. Hydrogen sensor measurements show that the sensor response decreased from 92.7% to 45.6% with the increase of Ag dopant.
Chromium (Cr) is a toxic heavy metal that contaminates soil and water resources after its discharge from different industries. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of single and/or combined application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (250 μM) and sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) (1 mM) on growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant machinery (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants), ion uptake, organic acid exudation, and Cr uptake of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) exposed to severe Cr stress [Cr: 0 (no Cr), 150, and 300 μM]. Our results depicted that Cr addition to the soil significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plant growth and biomass, gas exchange attributes, and mineral uptake by S. oleracea when compared to the plants grown without the addition of Cr. However, Cr toxicity boosted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the indication of oxidative stress in S. oleracea, and was also manifested by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and electrolyte leakage to the membrane-bound organelles. The results showed that the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin, initially increased with an increase in the Cr concentration in the soil. The results also revealed that the levels of soluble sugar, reducing sugar, and non-reducing sugar were decreased in plants grown under elevating Cr levels, but the accumulation of the metal in the roots and shoots of S. oleracea, was found to be increased, and the values of bioaccumulation factor were <1 in all the Cr treatments. The negative impacts of Cr injury were reduced by the application of SNP and NaHS (individually or combined), which increased plant growth and biomass, improved photosynthetic apparatus, antioxidant enzymes, and mineral uptake, as well as diminished the exudation of organic acids and oxidative stress indicators in roots of S. oleracea by decreasing Cr toxicity. Here, we conclude that the application of SNP and NaHS under the exposure to Cr stress significantly improved plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics; regulated antioxidant defense system and essential nutrient uptake; and balanced organic acid exudation pattern in S. oleracea.
Introduction Steroid therapy is known to be effective against granulomatous mastitis. We aimed to compare the efficacy of local versus systemic steroid administration in patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Materials and methods This prospective cohort study included 58 patients who had either local (n = 42) or systemic (n = 16) treatment due to granulomatous mastitis between 2015 and 2019. Recurrence rates were determined as per ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging examinations and the rate of side effects was evaluated as per patient complaints and physical examinations at the end of a 2-year follow-up period. Results Median doses of 140 mg and 3810 mg were administered to the local and systemic group, respectively. Six (14.3%) patients in the local treatment group and 13 (81.3%) in the systemic treatment group had steroid-related side effects. The local treatment group had significantly fewer side effects than the systemic treatment group (P < 0.001). The recurrence rates were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions Local steroid injection was as effective as systemic steroid therapy. Compared to systemic therapy, local steroid administration can be considered as a new therapeutic protocol with a lower dose and side effect rate.
Objective We aimed to assess the validity and reliability of a Turkish adaptation of the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale (GSES). Methods We randomly divided the data into two: one set (n = 374) was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the other (n = 373) for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The psychometric properties were assessed using the item response theory approach. Reliability analyses were assessed. Convergent validity of the GSES with the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep Scale-16 (DBAS-16), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were explored. For the predictive validity, we used an independent-samples t-test for comparing the total score of the GSES between poor sleepers and good sleepers following the PSQI, and between clinical insomnia and non-clinical insomnia groups according to the ISI. The cut-off score of the GSES was examined. Results A single factor structure explaining 49.2% of the total variance was detected using the EFA. The CFA also found single-factor good fit indices. Cronbach's alpha and omega values were 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. There were statistically significant correlations between the GSES and DBAS-16, ISI, PSQI, and DASS-21 in convergent validity. In the Graded Response Model, the GSES was more efficient and provided reasonable information at the −0.75 to 2.25 theta level. The GSES cut-off score was 6 points for clinical insomnia and 3 points for poor sleepers. Conclusions The GSES is valid and reliable for measuring sleep effort among Turkish university students.
In this study, copper (Cu) and silver (Ag)–doped TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated by in situ anodization method to improve their photocatalytic performance. The resulting nanotubes (NTs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and Mott-Schottky analysis. The SEM study shows the formation of NT structure and reveals that the doping does not affect the surface morphology. The XPS analysis proves that a mixture of Ag0/Ag+ and Cu+/Cu2+ exists simultaneously on the surface of the Ag- and Cu-doped TiO2 NTs, respectively. XRD and Raman spectroscopy analyses show that the doping shifted the anatase and rutile phase transformation and stabilized the anatase phase. The Mott-Schottky measurements demonstrate that the potential of the flat band shifted to negative values by doping. The prepared NTs were evaluated in methylene blue (MB) photodegradation under UV. The results reveal that the doped TiO2 NTs were more efficient than pure TiO2 NTs in the degradation of MB. The Cu-doped TiO2 NTs exhibited excellent degradation efficiency of about 92.61% with a kinetic rat 0.0089 min−1. Furthermore, the reusability studies showed that the photocatalysts are globally stable and efficient for the degradation of MB.
The existing methods for reclamation of saline-sodic soils are expensive, time-consuming, and require skilled engineering approaches. Therefore, new and fast techniques should be developed for the reclamation of these soils. This study was undertaken to evaluate if harvesting excessive salts via the soil with ammonium hexacyanoferrate (II) (AH) and ammonium perchlorate (AP) [0, 10, 20 and 40 mmol kg⁻¹] is possible through dendritic crystal growth above the soil surface. Application of crystallization inhibitors increased the concentration of salts on the outer surface and thereby increased pHe at the top of the soil. Whereas the pHe of 0–5 cm layers were obtained as 7.30, 7.36 and 7.84, it increased to 9.94, 9.84 and 8.45 in 15–20 cm layers with 10, 20 and 40 mmol kg⁻¹ AH application doses, respectively. Except for 5–10 cm of control and 10 mmol kg⁻¹ AP application, the lowest pHe values were obtained from the 0–5 cm and gradually increased from bottom to top. For all AH and AP application doses, the highest electrical conductivity (ECe) values were obtained from the 15–20 cm and significantly increased from bottom to top. Application of AH and AP have transformed exchangeable Na⁺ to water-soluble Na⁺ and this situation has caused an increase in the concentration of water-soluble Na⁺ throughout the soil column. AH and AP applications have decreased exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) in all of the layers. Whereas the ESP of control was 70.07% in 0–5 cm layer, it decreased to 62.44, 55.63 and 53.76% with 10, 20 and 40 mmol kg⁻¹ AH application doses, respectively. Similar decreases were obtained for 5–10, 10–15 and 15–20 cm layers. Results obtained have shown that application of AH and AP to saline-sodic soil is an effective reclamation material to remove salts from soil surface within a short time, particularly in arid climates.
Significant improvements can be obtained through different thermal energy management systems (TEMS) in internal combustion engines during warm up period. When the engine thermal energy management system works correctly, it ensures that the engine components are cooled exactly as needed, which is important in energy consumption and harmful exhaust emissions production. Additionally, thanks to the reduced warm up time, friction losses are reduced, after-treatment performance is increased, comfort conditions are improved in the passenger compartment, and the windshield quickly clears ice and condensation. However, the effects of the designed engine TEMSs on the energy balance during the warm up period should be well known. For this purpose, an experimental setup was established for not only the averages of the effects of different thermal strategies established as commonly done in the literature, but also the changes during the whole warm up process were analyzed. Then, three different TEMS were compared, and the effects of energy losses on each other were revealed. Results have shown that the warm up time can be reduced by 30 % with different engine TEMS, and thus, specific fuel consumption and CO emission can be reduced at different levels under several engine operating conditions. It was observed that when the engine coolant was not sent to the oil cooler heat exchanger during the warm up period, the thermostat opening time decreased from 252 s to 218 s. Moreover, it has been observed that the engine can reach steady state operating conditions approximately 10 % faster when the thermal energy is transferred from the exhaust gases, where a significant part of the fuel energy is lost, to the cooling water during the warm-up period.
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3,523 members
Yücel Yilmaz
  • Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saltuk Ceyhun
  • Faculty of Fisheries
Selda Ors
  • Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation
  • Department of Medical Anatomy
Ozan Sever
  • Faculty of Sport Sciences
Atatürk University Campus, Erzurum, Turkey
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. Ömer ÇOMAKLI