In this paper we studied the diet in four allopatric populations of alpine salamanders in the Dinarides ( Salamandra atra prenjensis ). Food consumption was assessed by stomach flushing while food availability by pitfall traps and netting. We aimed to: (i) assess the realized dietary niche, (ii) investigate prey preferences, (ii) explore individual specialization, clustering and nestedness. All populations have an equally wide dietary span that is among the largest reported for terrestrial salamanders. On the other hand, the amount of ingested prey is rather low compared to other salamander species; the quantity of consumed prey did not differ among populations but younger individuals fed more than adults. Food composition somewhat differed among populations but not among sex/age classes. In all four populations, the bulk of diet consisted of beetles, spiders, snails and millipedes; except for beetles, such prey was also preffered together with centipedes and isopods. For most of the prey categories, the direction of the electivity indices was the same across populations. In none of the populations a nested pattern in the interindividual subdivision of dietary resources was registered. However, indications for individual specialization and modularity were observed disclosing that the broad niche of populations is composed of smaller individual niches that cluster along the dietary axis. Overall, the four populations have very similar structural characteristics of the dietary niche and there is little evidence for local dietary differentiation probably due to the absence of drivers for change.
In this work we will present the Lepidopterological collection which is stored in the Natural History Museum in Split created by Petar Novak for the exhibition purposes of the Museum. Aside from Lepidoptera, the collection contains other orders of insects including Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, Odonata, Hymenoptera, and Diptera which await taxonomical revaluation. The material was collected in the first half of the 20th century, mostly around Kaštela near Split. The collection contains 273 specimens belonging to 143 species. The Rhopalocera are presented with five families and 36 species, while Heterocera contains 21 families and 107 species.
The Geometridae is the second most diverse Lepidoptera family in Europe but its diversity has not been studied evenly across the continent. In this paper, we present the first tentative checklist of Geometridae from Kosovo, which is based on the results from our survey conducted in the period March-October 2020 and the existing literature. During our survey we recorded 89 Geometrid species, among them, 13 have been recorded for the first time in Kosovo. Along with the literature records, the tentative Checklist of Geometridae from Kosovo contains 247 species or about 24% of species of this family present in Europe. We consider that this number does not represent the final number of Geometridae species but is just a baseline for further studies of this moth family in Kosovo.
Hoverflies (Syrphidae) are a large Dipteran family, distributed almost worldwide. They play very important ecological roles such as plant pollination, nutrient recycling and predation of plant pests. The members of the genus Epistrophe Walker, 1852 are medium-sized hoverflies of which about 75 species have been described in the World, and 12 of them occur in Europe. During a survey, conducted from 16 th June to 4 th July 2021 at Blidinje Nature Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina), a new species, of the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was recorded-Epistrophe diaphana (Zetterstedt, 1843) and new records for species Epistrophe leiophthalma (Schiner and Egger, 1853) were observed. Specimens were collected from inflorescences of Common Hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium L.). Information about the records, species habitats, distribution and status in the country and the region is presented and discussed in this research work. Cvjetne muhe (Syrphidae) velika su porodica dvokrilaca, rasprostranjena u skoro ci-jelom svijetu. One sudjeluju u važnim ekološkim procesima kao što su oprašivanje biljaka, recikliranje hranjivih tvari i predacija nad biljnih štetočinama. Pripadnici roda Epistrophe Walker, 1852 srednje su velike cvjetne muhe kojih je do sada u svijetu opisano 75 vrsta od čega 12 u Europi. Tijekom istraživanja, provedenog od 16. lipnja do 4. srpnja 2021. godine u Parku prirode Blidinje (Bosna i Hercegovina), zabilježena je jedna nova vrsta za faunu Bosne i Hercegovine-Epistrophe diaphana (Zetterstedt, 1843), te i novi nalazi vrste Epistrophe leiophthalma (Schiner and Egger, 1853). Jedinke su prikupljene iz cvatova obične svinjske trave (Heracleum sphondylium L.). Predstav-ljeni su i raspravljani podaci o nalazima, staništima vrsta, rasprostranjenosti te statusu u zemlji i regiji.
New records of the genus Eilicrinia Hübner, 1823 in Croatia are presented and the previous literature records are summarized. Eilicrinia cordiaria (Hübner, 1790) has been recorded in Croatia after an apparent absence of 36 years at six new localities. The species has a scattered distribution in the country, with historical records originating from both Mediterranean and Continental regions while recent reports are limited to northern Croatia, mostly around the rivers Drava and Mura. For Eilicrinia trinotata (Metzner, 1845) the first record from Croatia is presented, from Bansko hill in Baranja region. Both species can be considered as scarce in Croatia and further studies are needed in order to assess their status and distribution.
Across the distribution of the Caspian whipsnake (Dolichophis caspius), populations have become increasingly disconnected due to habitat alteration. To understand population dynamics and this widespread but locally endangered snake’s adaptive potential, we investigated population structure, admixture, and effective migration patterns. We took a landscape-genomic approach to identify selected genotypes associated with environmental variables relevant to D. caspius. With double-digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing of 53 samples resulting in 17,518 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified 8 clusters within D. caspius reflecting complex evolutionary patterns of the species. Estimated Effective Migration Surfaces (EEMS) revealed higher-than-average gene flow in most of the Balkan Peninsula and lower-than-average gene flow along the middle section of the Danube River. Landscape genomic analysis identified 751 selected genotypes correlated with 7 climatic variables. Isothermality correlated with the highest number of selected genotypes (478) located in 41 genes, followed by annual range (127) and annual mean temperature (87). We conclude that environmental variables, especially the day-to-night temperature oscillation in comparison to the summer-to-winter oscillation, may have an important role in the distribution and adaptation of D. caspius.
We analysed the status and distribution of the Sage Skipper Muschampia proto (Ochsenheimer, 1808), a rather rare and local Hesperiidae species at the edge of its range in the north-western part of the Balkan peninsula, mainly Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. In order to determine the species’ presence in the region, we mapped the occurrence of its hostplant, Jerusalem Sage Phlomis fruticosa Linnaeus (Lamiaceae). We also summarized all the available knowledge on M. proto in the Balkan Peninsula and provided a literature overview for each country this species has been recorded in so far. In Croatia, the distribution of M. proto is very limited and is located only in the wider surroundings of Dubrovnik city. In the present paper, we also provide the first and only record of M. proto in Bosnia & Herzegovina, from a single locality close to the Croatian border in the Dubrovnik area. Due to its limited distribution in both countries, we propose that the conservation status of the species should be changed from none to vulnerable.
We have developed a new platform named "Biologer" intended for recording species observations in the field (but also from literature resources and collections). The platform is created as user-friendly, open source, multilingual software that is compatible with Darwin Core standard and accompanied by a simple Android application. It is made from the user’s perspective, allowing everyone to choose how they share the data. Project team members are delegated by involved organisations. The team is responsible for development of the platform, while local Biologer communities are engaged in data collection and verification. Biologer has been online and available for use in Serbia since 2018 and was soon adopted in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In total, we have assembled 536 users, who have collected 163,843 species observation records data from the field and digitalised 33,458 literature records. The number of active users and their records is growing daily. Out of the total number of gathered data, 89% has been made open access by the users, 10% is accessible on the scale of 10×10 km and only 1% is closed. In the future, we plan to provide a taxonomic data portal that could be used by local and national initiatives in Eastern Europe, aggregate all data into a single web location, create detailed data overview and enable fluent communication between users.
Vlažna staništa pružaju mnoge usluge ekosustava, npr. služe kao prirodne retencije poplavnih voda, a mogu biti i područja za rekreaciju šire javnosti. Predstavljaju i životno važna staništa za brojne životinjske vrste, stoga su mnoga vlažna staništa pod nekim stupnjem zaštite. Unatoč tomu, fauna mnogih vlažnih staništa i dalje je većinom nepoznata, posebice po pitanju kornjaša. Nepoznavanje faune određenog područja otežava upravljanje istim. Jedna takva lokacija je šuma Turopoljski lug, smještena jugoistočno od glavnog grada Zagreba. Terensko istraživanje provedeno je od ožujka do rujna 2017. Koristile su se četiri metode: kečiranje, zamke s mamcima na stablima, svjetlosne zamke s UV žaruljama po noći i sakupljanje rukom. Rezultatima je pridodano i nekoliko nalaza od ranije. Ukupan broj poznatih vrsta kornjaša za Turopoljski lug podignut je s 51 na 133. Devet vrsta imaju gotovo ugrožen IUCN status ugroženosti, od kojih je sedam saproksilnog načina života. Iz područja su poznate tri vrste navedene u Dodacima II i IV Direktive o staništima, od kojih smo zabilježili samo Cerambyx cerdo . Također, pronađen je zanemaren nalaz iz literature za četvrtu – Phryganophilus ruficollis . Potrebno je preispitati i, po potrebi, izmijeniti dosadašnji način upravljanja šumom. Buduća usmjerena istraživanja određenih skupina kornjaša trebala bi uroditi dodatnim povećanjem broja vrsta poznatih za lug, dok bi ciljano kartiranje prisutnosti vrsta s Dodataka iznjedrilo prijeko potrebne podatke za zaštitu prirode.
The amphibian and reptile fauna of North-western Croatia was never systematically surveyed and knowledge of it is incomplete. In 2008–2015, we conducted a detailed survey of the region and recorded 17 amphibian species (85% of all species in Croatia) and 13 reptile species (33% of all reptile species in Croatia). We recorded all typical and widespread species of amphibians and reptiles expected to occur the relatively well-preserved habitats in this area. Further, we also present data on some rare species such as Vipera berus and Zootoca vivipara as well as on species included in the Natura 2000 network: Triturus carnifex, T. dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, B. variegata and Emys orbicularis. The surprising species richness of the studied area, which is under high anthropogenic pressure, establishes a good foundations for further protection and management of amphibians and reptiles.
Cortodera flavimana is a Pontic species which occurs from Austria and Hungary, through Serbia and south-eastern Europe and Turkey. It was not previously known from Croatia. Two specimens were found, one in Cerna (E Croatia, in 2008) and one in Okuje (NW Croatia, in 2013), raising the number of known Cortodera species in Croatia to five; the other being C. humeralis, C. femorata, C. holosericea and C. villosa. These records represent an expansion of the species’ known range and indicate the possibility of new records, at least in Croatia, and the need for further research into longhorn beetles in the country.
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