Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) - which include cytotoxic Natural Killer (NK) cells and helper-type ILC - are important regulators of tissue immune homeostasis, with possible roles in tumor surveillance. We analyzed ILC and their functionality in human lymph nodes (LN). In LN, NK cells and ILC3 were the prominent subpopulations. Among the ILC3s, we identified a CD56+/ILC3 subset with a phenotype close to ILC3 but also expressing cytotoxicity genes shared with NK. In tumor-draining LNs (TD-LNs) and tumor samples from breast cancer (BC) patients, NK cells were prominent, and proportions of ILC3 subsets were low. In tumors and TD-LN, NK cells display reduced levels of NCR (Natural cytotoxicity receptors), despite high transcript levels and included a small subset CD127- CD56- NK cells with reduced function. Activated by cytokines CD56+/ILC3 cells from donor and patients LN acquired cytotoxic capacity and produced IFNg. In TD-LN, all cytokine activated ILC populations produced TNFα in response to BC cell line. Analyses of cytotoxic and helper ILC indicate a switch toward NK cells in TD-LN. The local tumor microenvironment inhibited NK cell functions through downregulation of NCR, but cytokine stimulation restored their functionality.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is efficient at inducing drastic albeit variable weight loss and type-2 diabetes (T2D) improvements in patients with severe obesity and T2D. We hypothesized a causal implication of the gut microbiota (GM) in these metabolic benefits, as RYGB is known to deeply impact its composition. In a cohort of 100 patients with baseline T2D who underwent RYGB and were followed for 5-years, we used a hierarchical clustering approach to stratify subjects based on the severity of their T2D (Severe vs Mild) throughout the follow-up. We identified via nanopore-based GM sequencing that the more severe cases of unresolved T2D were associated with a major increase of the class Bacteroidia, including 12 species comprising Phocaeicola dorei, Bacteroides fragilis, and Bacteroides caecimuris. A key observation is that patients who underwent major metabolic improvements do not harbor this enrichment in Bacteroidia, as those who presented mild cases of T2D at all times. In a separate group of 36 patients with similar baseline clinical characteristics and preoperative GM sequencing, we showed that this increase in Bacteroidia was already present at baseline in the most severe cases of T2D. To explore the causal relationship linking this enrichment in Bacteroidia and metabolic alterations, we selected 13 patients across T2D severity clusters at 5-years and performed fecal matter transplants in mice. Our results show that 14 weeks after the transplantations, mice colonized with the GM of Severe donors have impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity as compared to Mild-recipients, all in the absence of any difference in body weight and composition. GM sequencing of the recipient animals revealed that the hallmark T2D-severity associated bacterial features were transferred and were associated with the animals' metabolic alterations. Therefore, our results further establish the GM as a key contributor to long-term glucose metabolism improvements (or lack thereof) after RYGB.
Background Recent multicenter studies identified COVID-19 as a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, no large multicenter study has compared the incidence of IPA between COVID-19 and influenza patients. Objectives To determine the incidence of putative IPA in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients, compared with influenza patients. Methods This study was a planned ancillary analysis of the coVAPid multicenter retrospective European cohort. Consecutive adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for > 48 h for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia or influenza pneumonia were included. The 28-day cumulative incidence of putative IPA, based on Blot definition, was the primary outcome. IPA incidence was estimated using the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method, considering extubation (dead or alive) within 28 days as competing event. Results A total of 1047 patients were included (566 in the SARS-CoV-2 group and 481 in the influenza group). The incidence of putative IPA was lower in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia group (14, 2.5%) than in influenza pneumonia group (29, 6%), adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio (cHR) 3.29 (95% CI 1.53–7.02, p = 0.0006). When putative IPA and Aspergillus respiratory tract colonization were combined, the incidence was also significantly lower in the SARS-CoV-2 group, as compared to influenza group (4.1% vs. 10.2%), adjusted cHR 3.21 (95% CI 1.88–5.46, p < 0.0001). In the whole study population, putative IPA was associated with significant increase in 28-day mortality rate, and length of ICU stay, compared with colonized patients, or those with no IPA or Aspergillus colonization. Conclusions Overall, the incidence of putative IPA was low. Its incidence was significantly lower in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia than in those with influenza pneumonia. Clinical trial registration The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04359693 .
Cells receive, and adjust to, various stimuli, which function as part of complex microenvironments forming their “context”. The possibility that a given context impacts the response to a given stimulus defines “context-dependency” and it explains large parts of the functional variability of physiopathological and pharmacological stimuli. Currently, there is no framework to analyze and quantify context-dependency over multiple contexts and cellular response outputs. We established an experimental system including a stimulus of interest, applied to an immune cell type in several contexts. We studied the function of OX40 ligand (OX40L) on T helper (Th) cell differentiation, in 4 molecular (Th0, Th1, Th2, and Th17) and 11 dendritic cell (DC) contexts (monocyte-derived DC and cDC2 conditions). We measured 17 Th output cytokines in 302 observations, and developed a statistical modeling strategy to quantify OX40L context-dependency. This revealed highly variable context-dependency, depending on the output cytokine and context type itself. Among molecular contexts, Th2 was the most influential on OX40L function. Among DC contexts, the DC type rather than the activating stimuli was dominant in controlling OX40L context-dependency. This work mathematically formalizes the complex determinants of OX40L functionality, and provides a unique framework to decipher and quantify the context-dependent variability of any biomolecule or drug function.
Background Disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are fundamental to understanding the impact on, and expectations of, patients with genetic disorders, and can facilitate constructive and educated conversations about treatments and outcomes. However, generic PROMs may fail to capture disease-specific concerns. Here we report the development and validation of a Gaucher disease (GD)-specific PROM for patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1) a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, bruising, bone disease, and fatigue. Results and discussion The questionnaire was initially developed with input from 85 patients or parents of patients with GD1 or GD3 in Israel. Owing to few participating patients with GD3, content validity was assessed for patients with GD1 only. Content validity of the revised questionnaire was assessed in 33 patients in the US, France, and Israel according to US Food and Drug Administration standards, with input from a panel of six GD experts and one patient advocate representative. Concept elicitation interviews explored patient experience of symptoms and treatments, and a cognitive debriefing exercise explored patients’ understanding and relevance of instructions, items, response scales, and recall period. Two versions of the questionnaire were subsequently developed: a 24-item version for routine monitoring in clinical practice (rmGD1-PROM), and a 17-item version for use in clinical trials (ctGD1-PROM). Psychometric validation of the ctGD1-PROM was assessed in 46 adult patients with GD1 and re-administered two weeks later to examine test–retest reliability. Findings from the psychometric validation study revealed excellent internal consistency and strong evidence of convergent validity of the ctGD1-PROM based on correlations with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Most items were found to show moderate, good, or excellent test–retest reliability. Conclusions Development of the ctGD1-PROM represents an important step forward for researchers measuring the impact of GD and its respective treatment.
Background The “Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) principles of care” were published in 2014 as the gold standard for care of patients with PIDs, setting a common goal for stakeholders to ensure that patients with PID have access to appropriate care and good quality of life. Since then, IPOPI (the International Patient Organisation for Primary Immunodeficiencies), has been working with national PID patient organisations as well as collaborating with scientific and medical institutions and experts to bring these principles closer to the day-to-day life of individuals with PIDs. Method The six PID Principles of Care were revised to consider advances in the field, as well as political developments that had occurred after their initial publication in 2014. Based on this revision the list was updated, and a new principle was added. The six established principles were: diagnosis, treatment, universal health coverage, specialised centres, national patient organisations and registries. Each principle was structured and measured through a series of criteria, and was given the same weight, as they have been considered to all be equally important. Specific weights were attributed to the criteria depending on their relevance and importance to quantify the principle. The index was translated into a survey for data collection: initially involving data from selected countries for a pilot, followed by integration of data from IPOPI’s national member organisations and key countries. Results The PID Life Index was developed in 2020 to assess the status of the PID environment and the implementation of the 6 principles worldwide. The Index allows for benchmarking countries either according to a set of principles and criteria or based on the user’s preferences. This can be displayed in an interactive map or through a data visualisation system. Conclusion The PID Life Index has been developed successfully and has potential to become an important source of information for PID stakeholders, to increase awareness and information as well as support advocacy initiatives on PIDs nationally, regionally or globally.
Background Vitamin C has potential protective effects through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of vitamin C supplementation on microvascular function and peripheral tissue perfusion in human sepsis remains unknown. We aimed to determine vitamin C effect on microvascular endothelial dysfunction and peripheral tissue perfusion in septic shock patients. Methods Patients with septic shock were prospectively included after initial resuscitation. Bedside peripheral tissue perfusion and skin microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine iontophoresis in the forearm area were measured before and 1 h after intravenous vitamin C supplementation (40 mg/kg). Norepinephrine dose was not modified during the studied period. Results We included 30 patients with septic shock. SOFA score was 11 [8–14], SAPS II was 66 [54–79], and in-hospital mortality was 33%. Half of these patients had vitamin C deficiency at inclusion. Vitamin C supplementation strongly improved microvascular reactivity (AUC 2263 [430–4246] vs 5362 [1744–10585] UI, p = 0.0004). In addition, vitamin C supplementation improved mottling score ( p = 0.06), finger-tip ( p = 0.0003) and knee capillary refill time (3.7 [2.6–5.5] vs 2.9 [1.9–4.7] s, p < 0.0001), as well as and central-to-periphery temperature gradient (6.1 [4.9–7.4] vs 4.6 [3.4–7.0] °C, p < 0.0001). The beneficial effects of vitamin C were observed both in patients with or without vitamin C deficiency. Conclusion In septic shock patients being resuscitated, vitamin C supplementation improved peripheral tissue perfusion and microvascular reactivity whatever plasma levels of vitamin C. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04778605 registered 26 January 2021.
Azacitidine and decitabine are cytosine analogs that function as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors. These agents, commonly referred to as "hypomethylating agents," are widely used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this review, we discuss the clinical development of these drugs, including the early studies that led to the optimization of their doses and schedules, and the pivotal studies that led to their regulatory approval, both as monotherapy and in combination with venetoclax for older adults with AML who are unfit for intensive chemotherapy. We also review the more recent development of oral hypomethylating agent formulations and the novel oral strategies being developed in myelodysplastic syndrome and AML.
Introduction Individuals with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or leptin receptor (LEPR) deficiency are young and experience severe obesity, hyperphagia, and comorbidities, which can impair quality of life (QOL). Methods Two pivotal Phase 3 trials explored the effect of setmelanotide on body weight and hunger in individuals with obesity due to POMC (NCT02896192) or LEPR (NCT03287960) deficiency. QOL and depression were investigated in parallel using the disease-specific, age-appropriate Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results In total, the POMC and LEPR trials enrolled 21 patients. Adults (≥ 18 years old; n = 7) had moderate-to-severe impairment in QOL at baseline, with mean (standard deviation [SD]) IWQOL-Lite total score 60.3 (13.2; maximum IWQOL-Lite total score = 100). The effect of setmelanotide on IWQOL-Lite total score was observed as soon as Week 5. Among those with scores at Week 52, 5 of 6 adults experienced a clinically meaningful improvement, with mean (SD) total scores increased from baseline by 24.2 (12.1) points. Children (6–12 years old; n = 2) and adolescents (13–17 years old; n = 4) had impaired QOL at baseline, with mean (SD) self-reported PedsQL total scores 53.3 (6.2) and 63.3 (29.1), respectively (maximum PedsQL total score = 100). Three of 5 patients experienced clinically meaningful improvement in PedsQL, with 2 children whose PedsQL total score increased by 28.3 and 3.3 points and 3 adolescents whose mean (SD) total score increased from baseline by 5.8 (18.3) points. Baseline mean (SD) PHQ-9 score (in those ≥ 12 years old) was 5.3 (3.8) and was generally maintained through Week 52. Conclusions Patients with POMC or LEPR deficiency had impaired, and in some cases severely impaired, QOL before setmelanotide treatment. Setmelanotide improved QOL in patients as early as Week 5, with some patients no longer experiencing impaired QOL at Week 52. Improvements in QOL may be related to a reduction in hunger and body weight associated with setmelanotide. Because of the highly complex psychological consequences of rare genetic diseases of obesity, some patients may require a long period of treatment to improve QOL and benefit from interdisciplinary care.
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS–CoV-2)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes high mortality. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have potentially relevant immune-modulatory properties, whose place in ARDS treatment is not established. This phase 2b trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of UC-MSCs in patients with SARS–CoV-2-induced ARDS. Methods This multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (STROMA–CoV-2) recruited adults (≥ 18 years) with SARS–CoV-2-induced early (< 96 h) mild-to-severe ARDS in 10 French centres. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three intravenous infusions of 10 ⁶ UC-MSCs/kg or placebo (0.9% NaCl) over 5 days after recruitment. For the modified intention-to-treat population, the primary endpoint was the partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO 2 /FiO 2 )-ratio change between baseline (day (D) 0) and D7. Results Among the 107 patients screened for eligibility from April 6, 2020, to October 29, 2020, 45 were enrolled, randomized and analyzed. PaO 2 /FiO 2 changes between D0 and D7 did not differ significantly between the UC-MSCs and placebo groups (medians [IQR] 54.3 [− 15.5 to 93.3] vs 25.3 [− 33.3 to 104.6], respectively; ANCOVA estimated treatment effect 7.4, 95% CI − 44.7 to 59.7; P = 0.77). Six (28.6%) of the 21 UC-MSCs recipients and six of 24 (25%) placebo-group patients experienced serious adverse events, none of which were related to UC-MSCs treatment. Conclusions D0-to-D7 PaO 2 /FiO 2 changes for intravenous UC-MSCs-versus placebo-treated adults with SARS–CoV-2-induced ARDS did not differ significantly. Repeated UC-MSCs infusions were not associated with any serious adverse events during treatment or thereafter (until D28). Larger trials enrolling patients earlier during the course of their ARDS are needed to further assess UC-MSCs efficacy in this context. Trial registration : NCT04333368. Registered 01 April 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/history/NCT04333368 .
Background Transition from childhood to adulthood (TCA) is usually difficult in rare, progressive and multisystemic diseases. New treatments and modalities of care for many lysosomal diseases (LD) can increase life expectancy, and a successful TCA can help patient who reach adulthood to avoid disruption to health care. In France, some TCA initiatives have been taken by referral centers but in view of the problems encountered by Vaincre les Maladies Lysosomales (VML), the LD patient association, they seem to be insufficient. The aim of this study is to determine the current state of the TCA process and to identify actions to improve it through interviews with patient families and physicians in LD referral centers. The study is based upon an observational, non-interventional, cross-sectional, national survey which used two anonymous questionnaires. These questionnaires, developed by a scientific committee including representatives from VML and medical specialists in LD, were sent to patients who were receiving care in pediatric departments at age 15 years or older. Questionnaires were also sent to their referral pediatricians. Results Fifty-four patients were included. Forty-two questionnaires were completed by patients and their corresponding physicians and 12 were completed by physicians only. The majority of the patients (80%) were informed that transfer to adult healthcare would occur, but 52% were informed after their eighteenth birthday. Forty-eight percent indicated that they were informed that a TCA coordinator would be appointed; for 39% the time frame for the transfer was communicated, and 31% were informed of the composition of the adult medical team. Among the actions that patients rated as “important/very important”, and considered to be a priority in their comments, the most frequently cited were the provision of explanatory documents on the TCA (94%), the transmission of the medical file from the pediatric sector to the adult sector (94%) and a joint consultation with both pediatrician and adult unit physician (91%). Physicians were in agreement concerning the primary importance of the last two actions. Conclusion This study provides a basis for the deployment, on the national level, of transition programs which include specific actions that patients view as priorities.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at high-risk for severe COVID-19 and have altered immune responses to vaccination. We sought to evaluate the dynamics of immune response to BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in HSCT recipients. We systematically proposed vaccination with BNT162b2 to HSCT recipients and gave a third vaccine dose to those showing titers of IgG(S-RBD) below 4160 AU/mL 1 month following the second dose. We then quantified anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies dynamics in 133 of these HSCT recipients (88 after two and 45 after three vaccine doses) 6 months after the first vaccine dose. Mean IgG(S-RBD) titer at 6 months was significantly lower than the peak value measured 1 month after a second ( p < 0.001) or third ( p < 0.01) vaccine dose. IgG(S-RBD) titers at 6 months were strongly correlated to peak values ( p < 0.001) and a peak titer above 10,370 AU/mL predicted persistent protection at 6 months. Seventy-two percent (96/133) of patients retained protective antibody levels at 6 months. Immunosuppressive drugs and low lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood correlated with lower IgG(S-RBD) titers at 6 months. Four patients (3%) developed PCR-documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and one died.
Background The causes of an early onset of puberty are still not clearly defined and may vary from subject to subject. In girls, even if 90% of early puberty is idiopathic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is performed to exclude secondary causes of precocious puberty, in particular pathological lesions as hypothalamic tumours (hamartoma). In some cases, other intracranial lesions are considered as incidental findings. Aim of the study is evaluating the prevalence of abnormal intracranial lesions detected by brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI with particular focus on the prevalence of pineal gland cysts in the diagnostic work-up of girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) as onset before 8 years and central early puberty (CEP) as onset before 10 years. Material and methods MRI data of girls referred from January 2010 to December 2015 to the Pediatric Endocrinology Unit of University of Pavia for early onset of breast development were collected. Results We collected 123 MRI data of girls referred to the Pediatric Endocrinology Unit of University of Pavia for early onset of breast development in the study period. Out of them, 25 (20.3%) had cerebral abnormalities and 15 (12.2%) had pineal gland cysts. No significant differences were noted in auxological, ultrasound and hormonal parameters at diagnosis among girls with or without pineal cysts. Patients have been observed for at least three years after the discontinuation of therapy. None of our patients had an unfavorable evolution. Conclusions Although pineal cysts seem to be not involved in the onset of puberty, the relevance of the finding remains controversial. Our study wants to provide further insight into the incidence of pineal cysts in pubertal advances. Of note, pineal cysts are often asymptomatic and do not evolve over time.
Background Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is classified as the most frequent cause of delayed puberty (DP). Finding out the etiology of DP during first evaluation may be a challenge. In details, pediatricians often cannot differentiate CDGP from permanent hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (PHH), with definitive diagnosis of PHH awaiting lack of puberty by age 18 yr. Neverthless, the ability in providing a precise and tempestive diagnosis has important clinical consequences. Main text A growth failure in adolescents with CDGP may occur until the onset of puberty; after that the growth rate increases with rapidity. Bone age is typically delayed. CDGP is generally a diagnosis of exclusion. Nevertheless, other causes of DP must be evaluated. A family history including timing of puberty in the mother and in the father as well as physical examination may givee information on the cause of DP. Patients with transient delay in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis maturation due to associated conditions, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, kidney insufficiency and anorexia nervosa, may experience a functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. PHH revealing testosterone or estradiol low serum values and reduced FSH and LH levels may be connected to abnormalities in the central nervous system. So, magnetic resonance imaging is required in order to exclude either morphological alterations or neoplasia. If the adolescent with CDGP meets psychological difficulties, treatment is recommended. Conclusion Even if CDGP is considered a variant of normal growth rather than a disease, short stature and retarded sexual development may led to psychological problems, sometimes associated to a poor academic performance. A prompt and precise diagnosis has an important clinical outcome. Aim of this mini-review is throwing light on management of patients with CDGP, emphasizing the adolescent diagnosis and trying to answer all questions from paediatricians.
Ethics is an unconventional field of research for a surgeon, as ethics in surgery owns several specificities and surgery is considered an aggressive specialty. Therefore, the interest of research in medical ethics is sometimes unclear. In this short essay, we discussed the interest of research in medical ethics using a comparison to thermodynamics and mainly, entropy. During the transformation of a figure from one state to another, some energy is released or absorbed; yet, a part of this energy is wasted because of “unordered” (and unsuccessful) reactions: it is Entropy. This “wasted energy” exists in Medical practice and justifies research in Medical ethics.
Background A dysregulated immune response is emerging as a key feature of critical illness in COVID-19. Neutrophils are key components of early innate immunity that, if not tightly regulated, contribute to uncontrolled systemic inflammation. We sought to decipher the role of neutrophil phenotypes, functions, and homeostasis in COVID-19 disease severity and outcome. Methods By using flow cytometry, this longitudinal study compares peripheral whole-blood neutrophils from 90 COVID-19 ICU patients with those of 22 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients hospitalized for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 38 healthy controls. We also assessed correlations between these phenotypic and functional indicators and markers of endothelial damage as well as disease severity. Results At ICU admission, the circulating neutrophils of the COVID-19 patients showed continuous basal hyperactivation not seen in CAP patients, associated with higher circulating levels of soluble E- and P-selectin, which reflect platelet and endothelial activation. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients had expanded aged-angiogenic and reverse transmigrated neutrophil subsets—both involved in endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Simultaneously, COVID-19 patients had significantly lower levels of neutrophil oxidative burst in response to bacterial formyl peptide. Moreover patients dying of COVID-19 had significantly higher expansion of aged-angiogenic neutrophil subset and greater impairment of oxidative burst response than survivors. Conclusions These data suggest that neutrophil exhaustion may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and identify angiogenic neutrophils as a potentially harmful subset involved in fatal outcome. Graphic Abstract
Background Post‐intensive care syndrome (PICS) encompasses physical, cognition, and mental impairments persisting after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Ultimately it significantly impacts the long‐term prognosis, both in functional outcomes and survival. Thus, survivors often develop permanent disabilities, consume a lot of healthcare resources, and may experience prolonged suffering. This review aims to present the multiple facets of the PICS, decipher its underlying mechanisms, and highlight future research directions. Main text This review abridges the translational data underlying the multiple facets of chronic critical illness (CCI) and PICS. We focus first on ICU-acquired weakness, a syndrome characterized by impaired contractility, muscle wasting, and persisting muscle atrophy during the recovery phase, which involves anabolic resistance, impaired capacity of regeneration, mitochondrial dysfunction, and abnormalities in calcium homeostasis. Second, we discuss the clinical relevance of post-ICU cognitive impairment and neuropsychological disability, its association with delirium during the ICU stay, and the putative role of low-grade long-lasting inflammation. Third, we describe the profound and persistent qualitative and quantitative alteration of the innate and adaptive response. Fourth, we discuss the biological mechanisms of the progression from acute to chronic kidney injury, opening the field for renoprotective strategies. Fifth, we report long-lasting pulmonary consequences of ARDS and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Finally, we discuss several specificities in children, including the influence of the child’s pre-ICU condition, development, and maturation. Conclusions Recent understandings of the biological substratum of the PICS’ distinct features highlight the need to rethink our patient trajectories in the long term. A better knowledge of this syndrome and precipitating factors is necessary to develop protocols and strategies to alleviate the CCI and PICS and ultimately improve patient recovery.
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