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Governments internationally encourage and support the development of modular buildings as they can improve efficiency in the construction industry. Meanwhile, judging from the numerous reports published by public agencies responsible for the regulation and enforcement of workplace safety (e.g., HSE UK), occupational health and safety is an important aspect that the construction industry has been concerned with as there is still much room for improvement. Therefore, practitioners and scholars have begun to study the safety risks of modular construction. In a similar manner, this paper summarises the existing literature on the application of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology in the safety management of the construction industry in general and the main safety hazards of modular construction. The authors then analyse the application of BIM technology in the safety risk management of modular construction as a joint topic. This is the main contribution of this paper as there is very little research being done that links all three subjects together. The findings show that BIM technology has a great application potential in modular construction, and specifically in the training of staff, safety inspection, and crane management. By adopting BIM-based solutions it is likely to improve worker safety awareness, detect hazardous factors and scenarios and optimise site layout.
The paper is based on the experience of creating and piloting a functioning ‘Incubator’ crowdsourcing platform for designing public spaces in an estate regeneration project in South London. The paper uses a cybernetics framework to analyse and present the way the platform itself was created and how issues of effectiveness, efficiency and equity were dealt with. It explores the generic qualities of interface and reviews applications of variety reduction in established crowdsourcing CS) models. It briefly presents the legal and socio-spatial parameters (like property rights) associated with the creation of the Incubators platform as well as the generic rules applicable to human-spatial relationships, based on studies exploring human-spatial interactions. Practical constraints including costs, catchments, life-span and meaningful feedback are looked into, followed by a discussion on social and political limitations associated with this form of public participation. The paper explains how those constraints where taken into account when establishing the operational parameters of the software platform and the experiences gained from the operation of the platform. Challenges and complications, such as the exclusion of actors, are identified together with the responses encountered in practice. While the Incubators platform succeeded in attracting younger planning participation demographics, older demographics were marginalised by the platform’s graphical user interface and social networking features. These findings highlight why, in spite of what it promises, ‘crowdsourced urbanism’ is prone to similar traits with those of analogue participation. In that sense, creating a CS platform which could convey the grass-roots ideas of actors and users of urban spaces in an efficient way that could be applied to a broad range of planning systems, appears to be a challenge.
On 30 October 2020, an earthquake of Mw 6.9 hit the Aegean coasts of Turkey and Greece. The epicentre was some 14 km northeast of Avlakia on Samos Island, and 25 km southwest of Seferihisar, Turkey, triggering also a tsunami. The event has been followed by >4,000 aftershocks up to Mw 5.2 The Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT) has immediately gathered a team to conduct a hybrid reconnaissance study, bringing together remote and field investigation techniques. The mission took place between 16 November and 17 December, inclusive of three sets of field study carried out by the field crews for building damage assessment in the affected areas in Turkey and Greece under the coordination of the remote team. The mission also aimed to assess the viability of alternative data sources for an appraisal of the future viability of hybrid missions. This paper summarises the mission setup and findings, and discusses the benefits of and difficulties encountered during this hybrid reconnaissance activity.
TATA‐binding protein associated factor 4 (TAF4) is a subunit of the Transcription Factor IID (TFIID) complex, a central player in transcription initiation. Other members of this multimeric complex have been implicated previously as monogenic disease genes in human developmental disorders. TAF4 has not been described to date as a monogenic disease gene. We here present a cohort of eight individuals, each carrying de novo putative loss‐of‐function (pLoF) variants in TAF4 and expressing phenotypes consistent with a neuro‐developmental disorder (NDD). Common features include intellectual disability, abnormal behavior, and facial dysmorphisms. We propose TAF4 as a novel dominant disease gene for NDD, and coin this novel disorder ‘TAF4‐related NDD’ (T4NDD). We place T4NDD in the context of other disorders related to TFIID subunits, revealing shared features of T4NDD with other TAF‐opathies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasm driven by canonical gene mutations in JAK2, CALR or MPL in more than 80% of the cases. PMF cases that lack these canonical alterations are termed triple-negative PMF (TN-PMF). The pathologic and genetic characteristics of TN-PMF compared to conventional PMF with canonical driver mutations (DM-PMF) have not been well studied. We aim to identify clinicopathologic and molecular genetic differences between TN-PMF (n = 56) and DM-PMF (n = 89), all of which fulfilled the 2016 WHO diagnostic criteria for PMF. Compared to the control group, TN-PMF patients were more likely to have thrombocytopenia and less likely to have organomegaly. The bone marrow with TN-PMF showed fewer granulocytic elements and more frequent dyserythropoiesis. Cytogenetic analysis showed a higher incidence of trisomy 8. Targeted NGS revealed a lower frequency of ASXL1 mutations but an enrichment of ASXL1/SRSF2 co-mutations. Our findings demonstrated several clinicopathologic and molecular differences between TN-PMF and DM-PMF. These findings, particularly the observed mutation profile characterized by a higher frequency of ASXL1 and SRSF2 co-mutation, suggest that at least a subset of TN-PMF may be pathogenetically different from DM-PMF, with potential prognostic implications.
The durability performance of blended cementitious systems with calcined clays is reviewed in this paper by the RILEM TC 282-CCL on calcined clays as supplementary cementititous materials (SCMs) (working group on durability). The impact of metakaolin and other calcined clays on the porosity and pore structure of cementitious systems is discussed, followed by its impact on transport properties such as moisture ingress. The durability performance of binary and ternary cementitious systems with calcined clay is then reported with respect to chloride ingress, carbonation, sulphate attack, freeze–thaw and alkali-silica reaction. The role of unique microstructural alterations in concretes with calcined clay-limestone combinations due to the formation of CO3-AFm and their impact on different durability exposures is emphasised. While a large majority of studies agree that the chloride resistance of concretes with calcined clays is significantly improved, such concretes seem to be more susceptible to carbonation than those produced with plain Portland cement or other SCMs used at lower replacement levels. Also, several studies are focused on metakaolin and lower grade kaolinite clay, while there are limited studies on calcined smectite/illite or mixed clays, which could also play a crucial role to the improved adoption of large reserves of clay sources to produce sustainable binders.
To respond to the rapid introduction and development of calcined clays as supplementary cementitious material (SCM), the toolbox of characterization methods for cementitious materials requires extension to raw clay characterization. Borrowing concepts and methods developed in the field of clay mineralogy, this paper outlines the merits and limits of widely accessible characterization techniques for raw clays intended for use as SCM, when calcined. The paper focuses mainly on the identification and quantification of the raw clay mineral components, as these characteristics have important implications for further material processing and performance. General notes are provided on clay sampling and pre-treatment as well as bulk chemical analysis. The main techniques considered are X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Their application on raw clays is introduced, highlighting clay-specific aspects of sample preparation, data acquisition, and processing. Guidelines and interpretation tables are provided to aid in the analysis of the acquired data, while limitations and potential interferences are identified. Options for remote prospection by infrared spectroscopy are included as well. To illustrate the type of information to be gained and the complementarity of the techniques, two representative raw clays are fully characterised. This paper aims to highlight that mineralogical characterization is a feasible and often necessary step in the study and assessment of raw clays that can deliver a wealth of informative data if carried out appropriately.
Context.—: Most laboratories currently use patient tissues for validating immunohistochemical stains. Objective.—: To explore advantages of using cell lines with known antigenicity as a validation method. Design.—: Five American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) cell lines with known negative, low positive, and moderate to strong estrogen receptor (ER) expression as well as negative, equivocal, and positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression were cultured and made into cell blocks. One block from each cell line was fixed in formalin and another in ethanol before cell block preparation. Two sets of paired unstained slides from each block were sent to 10 different laboratories for HER2 and ER staining to be stained on runs from different days according to each laboratory's defined protocol. Results.—: The 10 study participants evaluated 40 slides in a blinded fashion. For ER expression, all 80 interpretations for the ER strong and moderate positive cell lines had the target ER-positive result and 74 of 80 ER-negative cell lines (92.5%) had agreement with the intended negative result. The ER low positive cell line showed varied but positive expression, among all observers. The HER2 (3+)-positive cell lines yielded a target interpretation of 3+ in 65 of 80 (81.2%). For the HER2-negative cell line 69 of 78 interpretations (88.5%) were consistent with the target response (0 or 1+). No significant variation was observed between the ethanol- and non-ethanol-exposed cell lines, or between runs by the same laboratory. Variation from target results clustered within laboratories. Conclusions.—: This study indicates that variability between laboratories can be identified by using cell lines for quantitative or semiquantitative immunohistochemistry when using cultured cell lines of known antigenicity. These cell lines could potentially play a role in aiding anatomic pathology laboratories in validating immunohistochemistry tests for formalin- and ethanol-fixed tissues.
p>Mary Elmes Bridge is a 66m single span Pedestrian and Cyclist bridge opening in Cork, Ireland in July 2019. In September 2016, Cork City Council launched a competition for a single span – no supports in the river were allowed- pedestrian crossing over the River Lee between the historic bridges of St. Patrick’s (a stone arch form 1860’s) and Brian Boru (a former rolling bascule from 1920). The competition was launched as part of Cork City Councils key objective to encourage greater sustainable travel in the form of walking and cycling within the city Centre. Constrained by heavy trafficked quay roads, the design of a single span 66m crossing was a real challenge when taking into account that the flooding level for the 200years return is 400mm higher than the existing footpaths. The winning solution is a slender, steel shallow through beam with a slight arching effect. The main span is fully integral with the abutments with the central steel box girder and variable width cantilevered walkways joining at both landing points to a stiff concrete piled foundations. The concept adopts a clever strategy to integrate at grade landings with existing footpath levels while making the structure compatible with future city flood defenses. The use of the pedestrian walkway as a flange in the longitudinal direction allows the structure to achieve a significant slenderness. This proposal establishes a connective dialogue with its surrounds and compliant with challenging flooding and visual requirements.</p
A case study exploring the development of Arup’s Knowledge & Information Handbook. A digital guide to support our global organisation in making the best use of our systems, tools, and knowledge sharing resources to provide access to the right knowledge, information and people at the point of need to improve the quality and efficiency of our work. The Handbook provides practical guidance to those tools and resources, it sets out when and how to use them, and gives real life examples of the benefits using the tools has delivered - how they helped save time, fostered collaboration, and improved the quality of our work. Adoption of these resources make us more effective in our day-to-day work and enable us to store and share our own and each other’s knowledge for the overall benefit of Arup and our clients.
The Bataan-Cavite Interlink Bridge (BCIB) is a proposed 32km sea-crossing bridge at the mouth of Manila Bay, Philippines. BCIB will connect Bataan to Cavite, to unlock opportunity for economic growth and expansion outside Metro Manila. It comprises of land viaducts, marine viaducts and two cable-stay navigation bridges of 400m and 900m span. The bridge link has to cater for extreme conditions of deep water, seismicity, typhoons and ship impact. The paper will describe the feasibility studies, preliminary design of the link and how the bridge options were assessed in order to achieve an optimum solution.
River flow regimes face increasing pressure from human activities including water resource management operations and climate change. Consequently, extreme hydrological events are becoming more severe and commonplace, and there is a pressing need to understand and manage their ecological effects. Extreme low‐flows (ELFs) – those displaying significantly greater magnitudes and durations than typical low‐flow conditions – are being increasingly experienced globally. Fish and macroinvertebrate responses to ELFs have been more widely researched relative to other organism groups in riverine environments, although such studies have employed variable methodological techniques. In this perspective piece, we identify field‐based assessments and controlled experiments as two key research paradigms used to examine riverine faunal responses to ELFs. Field‐based assessments are often explorative and can benefit from utilising large‐scale and long‐term datasets. Alternatively, controlled experiments typically employ more hypothesis‐driven approaches and can establish strong cause and effect linkages through high replication and control over potentially confounding parameters. Each paradigm clearly possesses their respective strengths, which we highlight and discuss how these could be better harnessed to optimise scientific advancements. To date, studies examining faunal responses to ELFs in these two research paradigms have largely been undertaken in parallel. Here, we argue that future research should seek to develop closer synergies to optimise the quality and quantity of evidence to better understand riverine faunal responses to ELFs. Such scientific advances are of paramount importance given the vulnerability of riverine fauna, and the ecosystems they comprise, as they face a new era of ELFs in many global regions.
Feasibility Study and Detailed Design of the 27km sea-crossing Brunei Temburong Bridge (now called Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Bridge) which comprises of two cable-stayed navigation bridges, 14km of marine viaducts and 12km of swamp viaducts. The paper summarises and describes the design and innovative environmentally friendly construction techniques for the marine and swamp viaducts and the unique Islamic architectural design of the cable stayed bridges.
The emerging economies in Southeast Asia are facing challenges in achieving decarbonisation and energy resilience. Small modular reactors (SMRs) could represent a strategic option but are yet to be properly understood and communicated at the policy level, especially in terms of the favourable implications for energy security and economic and technical benefits, as well as inherent risks and mitigation strategies. With the flourishing designs and start-up companies driving potentially new business models for future nuclear power projects, we present a series of actionable recommendations for utilities and policymakers in Southeast Asia, together with an analysis on the importance of including SMRs as an option in the future energy mix.
This chapter focuses on new tools in relation to decarbonisation and begins with a discussion on the ‘Decarbonisation of buildings’. Developed countries with low rates of building replacement such as the UK and Germany face a different challenge. In developed countries including Singapore and Japan, high rates of building replacement are the issue. The chapter shows how renewable materials in the form of timber, plants and microorganisms, are changing the construction industry. It focuses on refit and refurbishment through flexible and adaptable design as research suggests that obsolete buildings, decaying structures, demolition to pave way for new architecture and ruination are prevalent. The chapter concludes with more direct contributions from ‘Computational tools and digital technologies' that support decarbonisation. Computational tools and digital technologies are a key enabler of circular economy approaches and other carbon reduction measures at each stage of a building's life cycle.
Accurately predicting red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements in cardiothoracic (CT) surgery could improve blood inventory management and be used as a surrogate marker for assessing hemorrhage risk preoperatively. We developed a machine learning (ML) method to predict intraoperative RBC transfusions in CT surgery. A detailed database containing time-stamped clinical variables for all CT surgeries from 5/2014–6/2019 at a single center (n = 2410) was used for model development. After random forest feature selection, surviving features were inputs for ML algorithms using five-fold cross-validation. The dataset was updated with 437 additional cases from 8/2019–8/2020 for validation. We developed and validated a hybrid ML method given the skewed nature of the dataset. Our Gaussian Process (GP) regression ML algorithm accurately predicted RBC transfusion amounts of 0 and 1–3 units (root mean square error, RMSE 0.117 and 1.705, respectively) and our GP classification ML algorithm accurately predicted 4 + RBC units transfused (area under the curve, AUC = 0.826). The final prediction is the regression result if classification predicted < 4 units transfused, or the classification result if 4 + units were predicted. We developed and validated an ML method to accurately predict intraoperative RBC transfusions in CT surgery using local data.
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