Artesis Plantijn Hogeschool Antwerpen
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Two previous studies showed kinematic differences between novice and experienced performers during unchoreographed movements executed in standing position. However, no study explores if these kinematic differences holds during unchoreographed movements executed in quadrupedal position. The aim of this study is to compare the movement behaviour of experienced and novice performers during an exercise wherein they are challenged to use dynamic and largely unchoreographed movement patterns executed in quadrupedal position. The exercise studied was the Cat exercise, in which participants were asked to behave like a feline for 10 minutes. An inventory of the chosen movements and the assessment of their average and coefficient of variation of the ground contact temporal parameters, computed by analysing the tri-dimensional whole-body kinematics of 25 performers (n = 13 novices and n = 12 experienced), was compared according to their experience level. No significant difference was found between the groups for the number of chosen movements, and median or coefficient of variation of ground contact temporal parameters, except for a greater foot/ knee swing coefficient of variation in experienced performers. This suggests that biomechanical constraints induced by quadrupedal position "prevent" a different selection of motor strategies by experienced performers, although the latter can be more variable in their movements.
It is now well established that stock voice-leading patterns were an essential component of eighteenth-century compositional and improvisational practices both in Italy and abroad. In this article I focus on one of those patterns, which, as far as I am aware, remains unscrutinized: a dominant pedal point in the bass with a paradigmatic upper voice that descends chromatically from scale steps 5 to 2. In the first two sections, I deal with this pattern successively in eighteenth-century music pedagogy, with special emphasis on the teaching of the Neapolitan maestro Fedele Fenaroli, and in actual galant repertory, thereby exploring both its voice-leading and its syntactic possibilities. In the third section, I compare how this dominant pedal relates to other, already identified pedal-based patterns.
Background: Many women experience giving birth as a negative or even as a traumatic event. Birth space and its occupants are fundamentally interconnected with negative and traumatic experiences, highlighting the importance of the social space of birth. Aim: To explore experiences of women who have had a negative or traumatic birth to identify the value, sense and meaning they assign to the social space of birth. Methods: A feminist standpoint theory guided the research. Secondary discourse analysis of 51 qualitative data sets/transcripts from Dutch and Czech Republic postpartum women and 551 free-text responses of the Babies Born Better survey from women in the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Spain, and the Czech Republic. Findings: Three themes and associated sub-themes emerged: 1. The institutional dimension of social space related to staff-imposed boundaries, rules and regulations surrounding childbirth, and a clinical atmosphere. 2. The relational dimension of social space related to negative women-healthcare provider interactions and relationships , including notions of dominance, power, authority, and control. 3. The personal dimension of social space related to how women internalised and were affected by the negative social dimensions including feelings of faith misplaced, feeling disconnected and disembodied, and scenes of horror. Discussion/conclusion: The findings suggest that improving the quality of the social space of birth may promote better birth experiences for women. The institutional, relational, and personal dimensions of the social space of birth are key in the planning, organisation, and provision of maternity care.
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate finger food components as part of a complete meal for older adults with major motoric eating difficulties. Overall, the evaluation of sensory characteristics as well as texture analysis forms a valuable basis for further development of a meal that can be eaten without cutlery, comprising flatbread, beef rolls and brown sauce. The nutritionally enriched flatbreads were generally perceived as neutral in odour and flavour, while higher concentrations of protein and fat influenced the texture negatively. Although bread was not commonly eaten with a meal, the consumer evaluation stressed the importance of texture of flatbreads intended for wrapping. Differences between meat cuts were not pronounced; however, beef rolls made from inner thigh were perceived as more tender and crumblier than beef rolls made from outer thigh. Moreover, the odour and flavour intensity were thought to be higher in beef rolls braised in rolls due to the caramelised surface. However, tenderness was considered the most important parameter for beef rolls whereas crumbliness and dryness in tender meat can be compensated for by serving the meat with sauce. In fact, sauce was found to play an important role in a well-accepted meal. The addition of sweet, sour, or bitter tastes to brown sauces, to investigate the effect of basic tastes, reduced the perceived intensity of the original flavour profile of the brown sauces. Finally, combinations of the developed meal components could be investigated further to create attractive finger food meals for those unable to eat with knife and fork.
Truck arrivals at distribution centres (DCs) follow two main working practices: either working on a first-come-first-served principle or, alternatively, using time slots. While the former results in time losses due to unanticipated waiting time, the latter should generate less time losses as more time is spent scheduling beforehand. Yet, although a schedule is made, in reality ad-hoc changes still require that sometimes orders are served on a first-come-first-served basis, making the use of slots appear as superfluous. This research looks into the reasons why using time slots does not bring the expected benefits and collects data to show the time spent on scheduling (planning and dispatching) procedures for both working practices. To do so, time measurements are carried out to reflect both the duration of each procedure and the operational delay generated to trucks. An in-depth analysis is carried out on data from three distribution centres and five trucking companies that call those DCs. This research shows that, although slot booking systems are in use, they do not bring the expected time savings. This shortcoming happens due to the incompatibility of the multiple ICT systems in use for slot bookings at different DCs and the variety of rules that need to be met when rebooking slots. As follow-up, this research proposes an overarching solution defined as a Dynamic Slot booking System (DSS) that can address these issues. The conceptual design of a DSS that is proposed makes use of data and algorithms to anticipate ad-hoc changes. This DSS closes the gap between fragmented information available at DCs for slot use, planning of trucking companies, real-time time delay databases and the operational planning needs. Further results are given with regard to the time savings that can be made when a DSS is rolled out. Average-size carriers, running on average 75 trucks, can save between 885 and 992 min per day due to automatic rescheduling of trucks that currently arrive earlier or later than the planned slots. Moreover, for trucks that arrive later than the planned slots, DCs that handle 72 trucks a day can save on a daily basis around 50 min of labour. This labour is currently used for the manual follow up of the planning and for processing ad-hoc changes.
Background Considering (1) that reading proficiency is fundamental for educational success, (2) the reciprocal relationship between affective aspects of reading (e.g., reading attitude and motivation) and reading behaviour and ability, (3) the alarming decline in students' reading attitude throughout primary and secondary education and (4) the rather large group of pre-service teachers starting teacher education with a negative reading attitude, this study used a person-centred approach to examine the development of pre-service teachers' reading attitude throughout teacher education and how it relates to their perceived reading ability and reading behaviour. Methods In a sample of 128 pre-service teachers, cluster (movement) analysis was executed at the start of teacher education and near graduation to identify different reading attitude clusters and possible changes throughout teacher education. A distinction between purpose (recreational vs academic) and context (personally vs socially-oriented) was made when assessing reading attitude components. Results Three reading attitude profiles (i.e., personally-oriented, socially-oriented and low-attitude) were corroborated at both measurement occasions. Cluster movement analysis identified that the majority remained in the same profile over time (53–62%). When pre-service teachers did switch profile, they most likely evolved towards the personally- or socially-oriented profile (reading as a mere personal activity vs willing to interact about reading, respectively). Convergent validity evidence was found in that pre-service teachers in the low-attitude profile (24%) were least likely to read and perceived themselves as least competent in reading. They further appeared to be least willing to invest in reading promotion in their future school(s) of all profiles. Conclusions It may be worrisome that about one fourth of the pre-service teachers in this sample enters the profession with a rather negative reading attitude. Encouragingly, the majority of pre-service teachers either retained or increased their positive reading attitude throughout teacher education.
Worldwide, children face adverse childhood experiences, being exposed to risks ranging from, exposure to political violence and forced migration over the deleterious effects of climate change, to unsafe cultural practices. As a consequence, children that seek refuge or migrate to European countries are extremely vulnerable, often struggling with integration in school, peer community, and their broader social circle. This multifaceted struggle can derive from external factors, such as the adaptation process and contact with other children, or internal factors such as the fears and trauma that every child carries within them since they departed from their homeland. To bounce, grow, connect, and create in both adversity and opportunity, children need to build resilience, i.e., the capacity of an individual to maintain stable psychological functioning throughout the course of adversity. On the one hand, building resilience requires developing a set of individual skills (internal protective factors), such as self-control, emotion regulation, self-esteem, and agency. On the other hand, building resilience involves developing social skills (external protective factors), connection, and close relationships. In this theoretical contribution, we review and map existing research to argue that activities based on the combination of music and movement has a strong potential to intensively build resilience. First, we connect the concepts of resilience and eudaimonia, based on the protective factors and key components of resilience. Then we discuss how music and movement, separately, may contribute to building resilience. Next, drawing on the basic mechanisms of musical sense-making, we argue that through combining music and movement, children engage in empowering musical sense-making processes that support building resilience, and in this way, support them to grow together and deeply experience eudaimonic values such as self-awareness, confidence and self-esteem, personal autonomy, connection, belonging, and bonding. Finally, we connect theory to practice. Based on the presented theoretical elaborations and on the authors’ experience as practitioners, we propose a set of guiding principles for the design of movement-based musical activities that foster the internal and external factors necessary to build resilience.
Problem: Within maternity care policies and practice, pregnant migrant women are regarded as a vulnerable population. Background: Women’s experiential knowledge is a key element of woman-centred care but is insufficiently addressed in midwifery practice and research that involves migrant women. Aim: To examine if pregnant migrant women’s experiential knowledge of vulnerability corresponds with sets of criteria of vulnerability, and to explore how migrant women make sense of vulnerability during pregnancy. Methods: A sequential two-phased mixed-methods study, conducted in the Netherlands, integrating survey data of 89 pregnant migrant women and focus group data obtained from 25 migrant mothers - living in deprived areas according to the Dutch socio-economic index. Results: Criteria associated with vulnerability were reported by 65.2% of the participants and 62.9% of the participants reported adverse childhood experiences. On a Visual Analogue Scale, ranging from 0 (not vulnerable) to 10 (very vulnerable), participants self-reported sense of vulnerability showed a mean score of 4.2 (�2.56). Women’s experiential knowledge of vulnerability significantly correlated with the mean sum score of clinical criteria of vulnerability (r .46, p .002) and with the mean sum score of adverse childhood experiences (r .48, p < .001). Five themes emerged from the focus group discussions: “Look beyond who you think I am and see and treat me for who I really am”, “Ownership of truth and knowledge”, “Don’t punish me for being honest”, “Projection of fear” and “Coping with labelling”. Conclusion: Pregnant migrant women’s experiential knowledge of vulnerability is congruent with the criteria. Calling upon experiential knowledge is an attribute of the humane woman-midwife relationship.
Persons with certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CACNA1D gene (encoding voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha 1-D) have increased risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar, schizophrenia and autism. The molecular consequences of SNPs on gene expression and protein function are not well understood. Thus, the use of animal models to determine genotype-phenotype correlations is critical to understanding disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe the behavioural changes in larval zebrafish carrying an essential splice site mutation (sa17298) in cacna1da. Heterozygous mutation resulted in 50% reduction of splice variants 201 and 202 (haploinsufficiency), while homozygosity increased transcript levels of variant 201 above wild type (WT; gain-of-function, GOF). Due to low homozygote viability, we focused primarily on performing the phenotypic analysis on heterozygotes. Indeed, cacna1da sa17298/WT larvae displayed hyperlocomotion-a behaviour characterised in zebrafish as a surrogate phenotype for epilepsy, anxiety or psychosis-like behaviour. Follow-up tests ruled out anxiety or seizures, however, as neither thigmotaxis defects nor epileptiform-like discharges in larval brains were observed. We therefore focused on testing for potential "psychosis-like" behaviour by assaying cacna1da sa17298/WT larval locomotor activity under constant light, during light-dark transition and in startle response to dark flashes. Furthermore, exposure of larvae to the antipsychotics, risperidone and haloperidol reversed cacna1da-induced hyperactivity to WT levels while valproate decreased but did not reverse hyperactivity. Together, these findings demonstrate that cacna1da haploinsufficiency induces behaviours in larval zebrafish analogous to those observed in rodent models of psychosis. Future studies on homozygous mutants will determine how cacna1d GOF alters behaviour in this context.
Objectives Most research on starting palliative care focuses on the role of healthcare services and professional carers. However, patients and their family carers may also play a role. Especially opportunities for starting palliative care might exist among family carers. This study focused on family carers by identifying their behaviours and underlying determinants that might contribute to starting palliative care. Methods A qualitative study with 16 family carers of deceased persons who used palliative care was conducted using semistructured, face-to-face interviews. Constant comparison analysis was used to identify groups of behaviours that influenced starting palliative care and related determinants. The behavioural determinants were matched with concepts in existing behavioural theories. A preliminary behavioural model was developed. Results Most reported behaviours regarding starting palliative care were related to communicating with the seriously ill person, other family members and professional carers; seeking information and helping the seriously ill person process information from professional carers; and organising and coordinating care. Determinants facilitating and hindering these behaviours included awareness (eg, of poor health), knowledge (eg, concerning palliative care), attitudes (eg, negative connotations of palliative care) and social influences (eg, important others’ opinions about palliative care). Conclusions This study identified relevant family carers’ behaviours and related determinants that can contribute to starting palliative care. As these determinants are changeable, the palliative care behavioural model that resulted from this study can serve as a basis for the development of behavioural interventions aiming at supporting family carers in performing behaviours that might contribute to starting palliative care.
The State Archives of Belgium, in particular, the archives of Archduke Albert VII of Austria, hold a letter which possibly is a copy of the letter, or an excerpt of the letter, of Kepler to Emperor Rudolf II of October 1604 on SN1604, that is, the first letter of Kepler on the subject. Together with this letter, there are other letters on SN1604, written by Johannes Brengger and Michiel Coignet. In one of these letters, the very observation by Brengger which Kepler cites can be found. The letters are in Albert’s archive because he asked his Court Mathematician Coignet about the phenomenon. It is less clear why Albert was interested in the phenomenon, given the lack of interest in science at his court.
Introduction Different models of frameworks for dietetic care are used in Europe. There is a substantial need for a consistent framework to compare research results and to cooperate on an international level. Therefore, one of the goals of the EU-funded project IMPECD was the development of a unified framework Dietetic Care Process (DCP) in order to foster a shared understanding of process-driven dietetic counselling. Materials and Methods Based on a literature review and in-depth analysis of different frameworks an iterative and incremental development process of finding solutions for decision-making within the consortium consisting of dietetic experts from 5 European HEI was passed. The developed DCP model was integrated in an online training course including 9 clinical cases (MOOC) to train students. The draft versions and the concluding final version DCP model were evaluated and re-evaluated by teachers and 25 students at two Intensive Study Programmes. Results The DCP model consists of five distinct, interrelated steps which the consortium agreed on: Dietetic Assessment, Dietetic Diagnosis, Planning Dietetic Intervention, Implementing Dietetic Intervention, Dietetic Outcome Evaluation. A standardized scheme was developed to define the process steps: dedication, central statement, aim and principles, and operationalization. For example, Dietetic Assessment is the first step of the DCP (dedication). It is a systematic process to gather dietetically adequate and relevant information about the client by using state-of-the-art methods (central statement). The aim is to identify nature and cause of dietetic related problems of the client (aim and principles). The gathered information are documented in types of categories (client history, diet history, behavioural-environmental, clinical status) or following the ICF-model (operationalization). The clinical cases used within the MOOC proved that the DCP model is suitable to be put into practice. Discussion Existing different process models were analyzed to create a new and consistent concept of a unified framework DCP. The variety within the European countries represented by the consortium proved to be both a challenge in decision-making and an opportunity to integrate multinational perspectives and intensify the scientific discourse. The development of a standardized scheme with precise definitions is a prerequisite for planning study designs in health services research. Besides, clarification is essential for establishing process-guided work in practice. The evaluated MOOC is now implemented in study programmes used by 5 European HEI in order to keep approaches and process-driven action comparable. The MOOC promotes the exchange of ideas between future professionals on an international level.
The craving for multiphase materials with adjustable properties for mammalian cell encapsulation persists despite intensive research on 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. This interest is incited by the complex interaction between cells and different materials, various manufacturing methods, cell chip applications, and the aspiration to abolish animal experiments. This study aims to show the feasibility of preparing a stable multiphase material for prolonged mammalian cell embedment and 3D cell culture. The material comprises silica as the solid phase, cell culture medium with serum as the main liquid phase and air as the gas phase. The silica sol-cell culture medium-serum mixture was foamed, and it turned into a stable foamed hydrogel. The stability, flow properties and foaming parameters were studied by rheological and surface tension measurements. The viability of embedded cells was studied by measuring the metabolic activity at different time points. Their sensitivity to the surrounding conditions was compared to cells grown in monolayers by exposing them to a toxic compound. A stable foamed hydrogel with cell culture medium as the main liquid phase was prepared. Based on oscillatory measurements, the foamed hydrogel stays stable for at least 6–7 weeks and the embedded mammalian cells remain viable for the same time period. Appropriate surface tension and viscosity were crucial for an at least twofold volume increase by foaming, which is necessary for the mammalian cells to survive and proliferate. A test with a toxic compound reveals a difference in the sensitivity of cells in monolayer cultures versus embedded cells.
It is common for patients presenting with a newly diagnosed lung mass to have concomitant coronary artery disease. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons database reports a 20.9% incidence rate of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer. These two conditions have multiple coinciding risk factors, including increased age, tobacco use, and lifestyle. As a result, a high overlap of patients with concomitant disease is expected. This cohort of patients presents a significant challenge for decision-making and therapeutic intervention as there is no consensus on how to best treat this patient population. This chapter attempts to address issues such as the choice between a one- or two-stage procedure, the use of extracorporeal circulation for myocardial revascularization, the choice of incision and the extent of pulmonary resection.
Objective. Infective endocarditis (IE) is a potentially short-term lethal condition. An association with malignancy could complicate diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. The questions to be answered are: (1) which type of malignancies are encountered; (2) how often has the association between malignancy and IE been described, and (3) what are thus far the diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with both conditions. Methods. A literature search from 2010 to 2018 has been performed with the focus on IE and cancer/malignancy/neoplasm, as well as with risk factors for adverse outcome, when cancer was included in the analysis. Results. An association between digestive, respiratory and hematologic malignancy with IE has been observed in four large databases. The most important mechanisms for this association are a “port of entry” and immune suppression. Sixteen studies dealt with the effect of short and mid-term cancer on the outcome of surgery of IE in these patients. No uniform management strategy could be identified. It seems that a malignancy does not alter the short-term outcome for IE, although referral to a tertiary cardiac center and surgical treatment are less common for patients with known malignancy. Conclusions. Although there is an association between malignancy and IE, no treatment strategy has yet been developed for these patients. Short-term outcome of IE is unaltered by cancer. In most papers, the effect of cancer on mid-term survival is only significant in a univariate analysis, without being a predictor. The results indicate that cardiac surgery for IE should not be withheld in patients in whom a treatable malignancy has been found.
The author name Roxanne Bleijenbergh was incorrectly published as Roxanne van Bleijnbergh in the above article.
As two of the most esteemed fruit veg-etables, watermelons and melons aredepicted in numerous paintings. Weput these, sometimes unusual, depic-tions into context. We also discuss thegenetic basis for the bitter taste of theirwild ancestors and for the intense redcolor of the watermelon flesh.
It is common nowadays for parents to share information about their children on social network sites (SNSs). However, little is known on how adolescents think and feel about this sharenting behavior. Therefore, this study explores adolescents' perception of the reasons why parents share information about their adolescent children on SNSs, and adolescents' attitudes toward sharenting. A survey study was conducted among 817 adolescents. Factor analyses pointed toward four perceived sharenting motives: parental advice motives, social motives, impression management motives, and informative-archiving motives. Adolescents believed that parents mainly shared information about their children due to informative-archiving motives. They believed that parental advice motives were less common. Preliminary analyses pointed out that adolescents largely disapproved of sharenting. They mainly considered it as embarrassing and useless. Regression analysis indicated that when adolescents perceived sharenting as an impression management issue, the more negative their attitudes were toward sharenting. Conversely, the more adolescents thought that parents shared information about their children due to informative-archiving motives, the less they disapproved of sharenting. Additionally, when adolescents themselves disclosed more personal information or when they were more often confronted with sharenting, they had more positive attitudes toward sharenting. Adolescents who were more concerned about their online privacy, were more likely to disapprove of sharenting.
This chapter presents the principles of the midwifery curricula and the transition of midwifery students to qualified midwives working in Wallonia (the French-speaking part of Belgium) and Flanders (Dutch-speaking part of Belgium).
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Dirk van Merode
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Hiram Bollaert
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Herman Van de Mosselaer
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Brussels, Belgium