Context: C-Phycocyanin is a protein with anti-scavenger, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions against agents that cause cellular damage. The cardioprotective action of C-phycocyanin against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been studied in animal models. Objective: To investigate C-phycocyanin’s effect on oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiac damage in a model of isoproterenol-induced AMI. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) sham þ vehicle (0.9% saline solution by oral gavage, OG); (2) sham þ C-phycocyanin (50 mg/kg/d, OG); (3) AMIþ vehicle, and (4) AMIþ Cphycocyanin. AMI was induced by administering isoproterenol (20, 10, 5 and 3 mg/kg each dose per day), and serum cardiac enzymes were quantified. After five days, the animals were euthanized; the heart was dissected to determine oxidative stress, redox environment, inflammation and cardiac damage markers. Results: We observed that C-phycocyanin reduced AMI-increased cardiac enzymes (CK by about 53%, CKMB by about 60%, AST by about 16% and ALT by about 21%), lipid peroxidation (57%), reactive oxygen species (50%), nitrites (46%), oxidized glutathione (41%), IL1b (3%), INFc (5%), TNFa 3%), Bcl2 (37%), Bax (43%), COX2 (21%) and caspase 9 (61%). Finally, C-phycocyanin reduced AMI-induced aberrant histological changes related to myonecrosis, interstitial oedema and inflammatory infiltration in the heart muscle. Conclusions: C-Phycocyanin prevents AMI-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and heart damage. This study is the first report that employed C-phycocyanin in an animal model of AMI and supports the potential use of C-phycocyanin in the management of AMI.
Background Lower limb asymmetry among athlete with unilateral chronic ankle instability (CAI) during bilateral landing can be a potential source of ankle sprain reinjury. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of bilateral symmetry of vertical time to stabilization (vTTS) in postural sway after double-leg landing (DLL) in elite athletes with unilateral CAI. Methods Twenty professional players with unilateral CAI and ten healthy controls were assigned to three groups (soccer, basketball, and control groups, n = 10 each). The postural balance during DLL tasks was assessed based on center of pressure (CoP) and vTTS. Multiple analysis of variance was conducted to statistically analyse the CoP and vTTS which followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc test ( P < 0.05). Results The vTTS of the injured foot was significantly longer in the soccer and basketball players than in the control players ( P = 0.006, p < 0.001 respectively). The intragroup comparison showed a significant difference in the vTTS of CAI and uninjured feet among the basketball players (mean difference = 1.3 s). The basketball group exhibited a worse balance in CoP oscillations results between groups. Conclusions The findings suggested that symmetry between double-leg vTTS values, may be important as much as the sooner vTTS in reduced CoP oscillations and enhanced balance after DLL. Balancing exercises should achieve sooner vTTS in soccer players and symmetry in the double-leg vTTS of basketball players with unilateral CAI while maintaining static balance during dynamic-to-static postural changes to reduce recurrent ankle sprain.
A voltage gain interleaved soft switched DC-DC Boost converter without auxiliary switch is proposed in this paper. Step-up characteristics are achieved without using any transformer, coupled inductor, voltage multiplier cell, switched inductor/switched capacitor in the proposed topology. All semiconductor devices operate under soft-switching conditions. Consequently, the converter has high efficiency. The auxiliary circuit is not located in the main power path, and the control circuit remains PWM. All advantages of interleaved topologies are gathered in the proposed converter. The converter efficiency is equal to 97.6% at nominal power. All mentioned benefits candidate the converter to use in photovoltaic applications. A 200 W prototype of the converter is constructed and tested in the laboratory. The experimental results are in total agreement with the theoretical considerations. Crown
This paper presents a new systematic scheme for designing optimized robust and efficient steady state load shedding (LS) in standalone inverter-based microgrids (IBMGs) considering uncertainties of the load and renewable generations. In order to incorporate different states of non-dispatchable renewable based-Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and load demand fluctuations, the scenario tree model is implemented. To reduce the computational burden of the proposed model, a scenario-reduction technique using the Kantorovich distance (or Wasserstein distance) criteria is adopted to extract a sufficiently small number of scenarios. To reflect the system frequency in each opted scenario, a new power flow (PF) procedure, in which the system frequency turns up as a supplementary state variable is adopted. This procedure aims at minimizing the required shed loads to maintain the MG frequency over the critical frequency, when the inverters cannot tolerate any overload. According to the optimal curtailed load for different scenarios, a step-wise LS scheme is proposed for applying to an on-line operation manner. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in two typical MV MG in standalone mode, a medium-scale 21 bus test system and a large-scale 118 bus test system, to ensure the efficiency and reliability of the proposed method in real conditions and systems. The obtained results evidence the effectiveness and the correctness of the presented LS scheme to diagnose power shortages and to maintain system frequency in the desirable range. Furthermore, the obtained results by proposed LS model have been compared with the conventional priority-based LS and the superiority of the proposed model over conventional models is proved.
Phalaenopsis orchid (the moth orchid; Phalaenopsis spp.) is the most sold indoor's potted plant in the world's major floriculture markets. In the present study, the effects of night interruption light (NIL) quality and different NPK fertilizers were evaluated on the vegetative growth and flowering of Phalaenopsis orchid ‘Evolution’ in a factorial experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. In the first factor, six-old month plants from the last days of August to October, when the length of flower buds was about 5 cm, were grown under NIL in the controlled chambers of a greenhouse. NI was provided by white (NI-W), red (NI-R) and blue (NI-B) LEDs at the significantly reduced intensity of 15-23 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹ PPF. The NIL qualities employed for 4-h a day throughout the dark period. Control plants received 10 h of light during the day. In the second factor, three water-soluble NPK fertilizers including 19-6-20, 12-12-36 and 20-20-20 were applied separately throughout the entire vegetative and reproductive stage to plants at the concentration of 1 g L⁻¹. According to the results, NI-W and NI-B reduced the leaf area compared to the control, while NI-R had no effect. Flowering was not affected by the NIL quality, and all plants flowered upon employed treatments. Under the NI-B treatment, days to the first flower opening, as well as leaf area, were increased; meanwhile, chl a, b, total chl, carotenoid, and the number of leaves and florets in an inflorescence were decreased. Among NPK fertilizers, the highest leaf area and dry weight were found in 19-6-20 NPK. Flowering yield was practically unaffected by the kind of the NPK fertilizer used. However, NPK fertilizer 12-12-36, led to an increase of P and K contents and a decrease of Ca content in the leaves of plant during the reproductive stage. These results suggest that both NIL quality and NPK fertilizers had different effects on growth and flowering. NI-R and NI-W had more pronounced effects on the growth and flowering characteristics of Phalaenopsis orchid. The negative role of 20-20-20 treatment compared to 19-6-20 could be due to the adverse effects of higher P. Among different NPK fertilizers, 19-6-20 efficiently affected physiological and morphological characteristics of Phalaenopsis orchid, but the reproductive stage was not significantly impacted by employed NPK fertilizers.
Oxidative desulfurization(ODS) is an effective method for obtaining fuels that contain ultra-low sulfur. The purpose of this paper is to prepare a novel and effective bifunctional heterogeneous catalytic system for the desulfurization process by using nanorods cryptomelane octahedral manganese oxide molecular sieve(nanorod-OMS-2) and molybdenum oxide as active components. The MoOX/nanorod-OMS-2 catalysts were synthesized with different molybdenum loadings. The catalytic activities were evaluated for oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in the presence of H2O2 and acetonitrile. Results of characterization analyzes showed that the synthesized catalysts contain the conventional surface area, pore-volume, mixed micro-mesoporous structures, and the molybdenum oxides species highly dispersed on the nanorod-OMS-2 surface. A synergistic effect was observed between Mn and Mo species which created strong acidic sites. In addition, the activity of catalysts is dependent on the composition of meso-microporous structures and the presence of strong acidic sites due to the interactions between the Manganese‑molybdenum oxide species. In optimum condition over the Mo(7.5 wt%)/nanorod-OMS-2 catalyst, the percentage of sulfur removal was achieved to 99%. The kinetic of ODS reaction was studied, and the pseudo-first-order rate law was obtained with respect to DBT. The reusability of Mo(7.5 wt%)/nanorod-OMS-2 was studied and the efficiency of catalyst has decreased from 99% to 98% during three cycles. The effects of oxidant/sulfur molar ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature were studied, and the optimum values were 8:1, 2 h and 65 °C, respectively.
A low‐profile eight‐element printed dipole antenna (PDA) array backed by broadband rhomboid artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is introduced for wireless communication systems. By loading a 4 × 27 AMC reflector into the eight‐element array of PDA, a low‐profile wideband structure with enhanced radiation properties is achieved. The measured S parameters show the broad bandwidth from 4.75 to 7.05 GHz in C‐band with enhanced gains of eight elements (more than 8 dBi) and the suitable isolation between the array elements of more than 23 dB for multi‐input multi‐output (MIMO) systems. The suggested PDA with a pair of the microstrip meandered folded poles excited by an E‐shaped microstrip feedline expands the bandwidth in the range of 5.85–6.95 GHz (S11 ≤ −10 dB). The novel AMC unit cell is realized based on the recognized method as rhomboid coupled parasitic patches. The rhomboid AMC design operates at 6.26 GHz with an AMC bandwidth of 5.20–7.24 GHz (32.8%). Then, the suggested rhomboid AMC surface as a reflector of the antenna is inserted into the PDA to exhibit −10 dB measured impedance bandwidth from 4.94 to 6.93 GHz (more than 33%) for wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications. The suggested PDA with AMC compared to the PDA without AMC exhibits a size reduction of 34%, enhanced gain up to 8 dBi, and excellent impedance matching (at least −20 dB) with directional radiation patterns.
One of the main barriers for the wide penetration of fuel cell electric vehicles is the lack of proper infrastructures for hydrogen transportation that hinders the implantation of refuelling stations. This barrier could be overcome by deploying onsite hydrogen generators based on mature electrolysis and hydrogen storage technologies. This way, the necessity of hydrogen transportation is avoided. In addition, electrolysers can be onsite supplied by means of renewable generators like photovoltaic panels, while the produced hydrogen can also be destined to generate electricity through fuel cells thus obtaining a monetary revenue. Thereby, the economy of the system may be improved in order to make viable this kind of infrastructures. However, the optimal coordination of the different assets is challenging and requires the use of energy management tools to pursue the optimal performance of the installation. In this kind of infrastructures, the energy management problem is performed under substantial uncertainties; moreover, these unknown parameters have a very different character. Thus, while energy pricing and renewable generation can be forecasted using conventional techniques, refuelling demand is highly unpredictable. To this end, this paper proposes a novel stochastic-interval model for the optimal scheduling of photovoltaic-assisted refuelling stations. The new proposal uses interval notation to model the inherent uncertainty of renewable generation and energy pricing, while the vehicle demand is modelled using a more suitable approach based on scenarios. In this regard, a comprehensive stochastic model for fuel cell electric vehicles is developed, which is based on reported driving behaviour and common characteristics of commercial vehicles. To solve the problem subjected to uncertainties, an iterative solution methodology is developed which allows adopting risk-seeker and risk-averse operational strategies. A case study is analysed to validate the new proposal and discussing the importance of the different economic activities that can be exploited in refuelling stations. Results reveal the importance of selling energy to the grid in order to complement the revenues obtained from refuelling; however, this process is highly impacted by uncertainties and the operational strategy, observing variations up to 50% in the total profit depending on the strategy adopted.
Forward and reverse supply chains are one of the most important issues in supply chain management. These kinds of supply chain networks include a direct and reverse supply chain. In this paper, a multi-objective closed-loop supply chain network consisting of multi-level, multi-period, and multi-products is proposed under the set of parameter uncertainties. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer linear programming model. The model assumes a shortage and a remaining inventory at the end of each period. The first objective function is to minimize the total costs of the network. The second one is to maximize the on-time delivery of the products purchased from suppliers to factories. The third objective is to maximize the quality according to the quality of the products produced in the forward supply chain and those that can be recovered in the reverse supply chain. Another point worth noting in this manuscript is selecting the best supplier. Because choosing the best supplier is one of the most critical decisions that purchasing managers have to make in a supply chain. It is based on different criteria, such as price, quality, customer service, and delivery, discussed in this article. Uncertainty is also considered in the model, and a scenario-based robust optimization approach is used to cope with it. Due to the problem’s multi-objective nature, four exact methods, namely LP-metric, sequential linear goal programming (SLGP), TH approach, and simple additive weighting are used to solve the objective functions. Finally, the most effective method for solving various numerical examples is selected as the best method by the least deviations compared to the other methods; in this paper, the SLGP method is chosen. To illustrate the response to a problem in more detail, some of the SLGP method outputs are presented. The results show the efficiency of the proposed model. Thus, it can be used in a variety of industries whose products are recycled and where the quality of products and the choice of appropriate suppliers are of great importance.
This paper presents a cavity-assisted coherent feedback scheme to cool a mechanical resonator to the ground-state in a weak optomechanical coupling setup. Based on the theory of sideband cooling, resolved sideband regime is a mandatory condition for the ground-state cooling (GSC) in optomechanical systems. Assisted cooling and feedback cooling methods have been proposed and shown to be beneficial for cooling in unresolved sideband cases. In this paper, a cooling method is proposed by combining both approaches. In the proposed method, a coherent feedback loop is added to a cavity-assisted optomechanical system to enhance the cooling performance. The proposed feedback aims to reach the mechanical ground-state in the unresolved sideband regime (USR). Rate equations of the mechanical resonator are derived, and then, by applying Fermi’s golden rule and analyzing the fluctuation spectrum of the optical force, optimal conditions for cooling are obtained. Results show that applying coherent feedback, improves the cooling performance of the system significantly and it is possible to achieve GSC in USR. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed method is capable of cooling the mechanical resonator to much lower energy levels than it is achievable in cavity assisted method.
Fluorinated metal–organic frameworks (F-MOFs) as fast-growing porous materials have revolutionized the field of gas separation due to their tunable pore apertures, appealing chemical features, and excellent stability. A deep understanding of their structure–performance relationships is critical for the synthesis and development of new F-MOFs. This critical review has focused on several strategies for the precise design and synthesis of new F-MOFs with structures tuned for specific gas separation purposes. First, the basic principles and concepts of F-MOFs as well as their structure, synthesis and modification and their structure to property relationships are studied. Then, applications of F-MOFs in adsorption and membrane gas separation are discussed. A detailed account of the design and capabilities of F-MOFs for the adsorption of various gases and the governing principles is provided. In addition, the exceptional characteristics of highly stable F-MOFs with engineered pore size and tuned structures are put into perspective to fabricate selective membranes for gas separation. Systematic analysis of the position of F-MOFs in gas separation revealed that F-MOFs are benchmark materials in most of the challenging gas separations. The outlook and future directions of the science and engineering of F-MOFs and their challenges are highlighted to tackle the issues of overcoming the trade-off between capacity/permeability and selectivity for a serious move towards industrialization.
Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty) is a perennial herb that has been widely cultivated for its phytoremediation potential, prevention of soil erosion and, in particularr, for production of aromatic essential oils. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on morpho-physiological traits, essential oils content and composition of vetiver grass exposed to water deficit stress. Three irrigation levels (40%, 70%, and 100% available water) and foliar application of SNP (250 and 500 μM) were applied to six months plants under greenhouse conditions. the findings indicated that water deficit reduced shoot and root growth, leaves chlorophyll, carotenoid and relative water content whereas, total phenol and flavonoid content, electrolyte leakage, proline, antioxidant enzyme activity, and roots essential oils content increased with decreasing soil available water. SNP application ameliorateed adverse effects of water deficit stress by rising antioxidant capacity, proline, phenolic compounds and pigments accumulation as well as reducing electrolyte leakage, which was highly pronounced in 500 μM cobcentration. The highest shoot and root dry weight were obtained from SNP at 500 and 250 μM in the irrigation level of 100% available water, respectively. The maximum amount of phenol, total flavonoids, essential oil percent (0.284%), proline, catalase, and peroxidase were observed in plants exposed to the 40% available water following treatment with 500 μM SNP. Heatmap results showed that the impact of SNP on vetiver grass is more significant under severer stress, while its efficiency might decrease under no-stress condition. Therefore, applying water deficit stress and SNP would be a potantial tool for improving plant essential oils yield.
Local binary pattern is one of the most known descriptors, which is used for texture classification. Although completed local binary pattern is seemingly the most precise variant of this type of descriptor and provides high classification accuracy by joining three histograms of features. Merging these histograms increases the features number significantly. To reduce the size of features, in this paper, some mapping methods are proposed for feature reduction and mapping of these features into a histogram. All of the proposed mapping methods are rotation and illumination invariant. Furthermore, a constraint feature selection method is proposed that selects discriminative features. Applying the introduced methods to the known benchmarks like Outex (TC3, TC10, TC13, TC12(t) and TC12(h)), UIUC, CUReT and Defect Fabric datasets indicates that even by adopting lower number of features, the classification rate is enhanced from 1% to 9% while the features number are decreased around 10% to 99%. Comparison results on the same datasets imply the superiority of the proposed schemes to the conventional methods.
Considering the destructive effect of stresses on the photosynthetic apparatus of plants and the important role of light in photosynthesis, we investigated the effect of complementary light on the photosynthetic apparatus under salinity and alkalinity stress conditions. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in monochromatic blue (460 nm), monochromatic red (660 nm), dichromatic blue/red (1:3), white/yellow (400–700 nm) at 200 μmol m⁻² S⁻¹, and without LED treatment were used. The stress treatments were in three stages: Control (no stress), Alkalinity (40 mM NaHCO3), and Salinity (80 mM NaCl). Our results showed that salinity and alkaline stress reduced CO2 assimilation by 62.64% and 40.81%, respectively, compared to the control treatment. The blue light spectrum had the highest increase in water use efficiency (54%) compared to the treatment without supplementary light. Under salinity and alkalinity stress, L, K, and H bands increased and G bands decreased compared to the control treatment, with blue/red light causing the highest increase in L and K bands under both stress conditions. In salinity and alkalinity stress, white/yellow and blue/red spectra caused the highest increase in H bands. Complementary light spectra increased the G band compared to the treatment without complementary light. There was a significant decrease in power indices and quantum power parameters due to salt and alkalinity stress. The use of light spectra, especially blue, red, and blue/red light, increased these parameters compared with treatment without complementary light. Different light spectra have different effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of plants. It can be concluded that using red, blue spectra and their combination can increase the resistance of plants to stress conditions and be adopted as a strategy in planting plants under stress conditions.
In this paper, a new four-wing attractor is reported in a fractional-order chaotic system. The chaoticness of the proposed system is investigated by obtaining Lyapunov exponents and compared with that of well-known chaotic systems in the literature. The findings reveal extremely high chaoticness of the introduced system which makes it a proper choice for encryption systems and secure communication. Furthermore, synchronization of the proposed system is studied in this paper. Sliding mode control has been used for this purpose and it is proven and illustrated that the synchronization error is asymptotically stable by employing the Lyapunov stability theorem.
Environmental pollution is regarded as a major environmental crime in most countries ; Iran is no exception. This study examines water and soil polluting behavior among villagers in Jimabad, Mashhad County-a rural area in the Razavi Khorasan province in the northeastern region of Iran. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 315 respondents in the population of the villagers of Jimabad. This article reports on the levels of water and soil polluting behavior among the respondents and the results are discussed in terms of techniques of neu-tralization, religiosity and cultural context.
In this paper, impact of the causality of frequency-dependent models of soil on the effective area of grounding grids buried in single and two-layer soils is studied. In the analyses, the computationally efficient multi-conductor transmission line method is used. The simulation results show that the causality plays an important role on the effective area so that it can decrease or increase the effective area in comparison with the non-causal model. This reduction or increase depends on the low-frequency resistivity of dispersive soil and current waveform. The relative error due to non-causality is considerable only for the subsequent stroke current, whereas for the first stroke current, it is low enough to be ignored. In addition, the burial depth effect on the effective area in causal and non-causal-dispersive soils is investigated. With the aim of more accurate design, comprehensively predicting formulae for effective area versus low-frequency resistivity of soil, burial depth and current waveform under causal assumption are proposed. Finally, importance of effective area based on causal and non-causal models on the lightning-induced voltage on the soil surface is investigated.
Marrubium parviflorum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. and Marrubium cuneatum Russell, are naturally distributed in various parts of Iran. It is difficult to clearly identify these species, because of their morphological similarities. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the morphological characteristics and genetic diversity among various populations of these species in the country to find more variable traits and compare their genetic structure. In total, we evaluated 16 populations of these species, with up to ten replications per each population. For morphology, we studied the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of both reproductive and vegetative organs. For molecular investigations, the nuclear DNA was extracted using modified CTAB method and amplified using twelve ISSR molecular primers. Data were analyzed using SPSS, PAST, GenAlex, STRUCTURE, and Geno–Dive. Results indicated that in both species, most of the quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics varied among and within the populations. Parameters of genetic diversity and polymorphism differed among the populations of both species. According to AMOVA test, the great proportion of significant genetic difference in M. parviflorum belonged to within populations, which was supported by a high rate of gene flow, a weak population genetic differentiation and clustering analyses. While, the reverse conditions were registered in M. cuneatum populations. According to Nei’s genetic distance and structure analysis, populations of M. parviflorum and M. cuneatum were clustered into seven and five genetics groups, respectively. However, the populations of both species were mixed together in morphological and ISSR dendrograms, which revealed similarity between them. It seems that the occurrence of ancestral gene flow or recent speciation were responsible for these similarities.
In this contemporary era, due to the growth of the world's population, fast progress of modern industries all over the world and comprehensible limitation of the world's freshwater reserves for the future, desalination of saline wastewater, to supply freshwater and resource recovery, has become increasingly vital. Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal with different industrial applications, while the solution including Cd compounds is highly toxic, even in very small amounts. Due to its solubility in water, Cd can enter aquatic ecosystems and endanger them. Thus, Cd is investigated as a dangerous and carcinogenic metal in the environment and has a negative effect on various tissues of the human body. Therefore, Cd recovery from aqueous media and saline wastewater is very crucial. In this review, different methods for Cd removal and recovery from saline wastewaters, including conventional to some novel innovative methods, have comprehensively been reviewed. Also, suitable, objective and scientific comparisons have critically been performed among different strategies for Cd removal.
Improving the reliability of microgrids as well as satisfying technical and economic constraints are very important challenges for distribution system operators (DSOs), which should be considered in both the long-term and short-term horizons. Therefore, this paper presents a dynamic model for multi-microgrids maintenance planning over a 10-year period, taking into account daily operating conditions. The proposed model is designed as a bi-level problem, in the first level of which the microgrids perform their maintenance planning and report its result to the DSO. Then, in the second level, DSO performs day-ahead scheduling of the entire network with the goals of adhering to microgrids schedule and minimizing system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI). Note that the objective functions of both levels are formulated in the form of two-objective problems through the Epsilon-constraint method. Finally, the proposed model is implemented on a 69-bus distribution network and results demonstrate that maintenance services, despite the increase in planning costs, will lead to a significant reduction in operating costs and will be cost-effective in the long-term horizon. The results also indicate that distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR), despite a 19.62% increase in maintenance costs, leads to a 15.23% reduction in operating costs. Finally, the results illustrate that coordinated operation of storage systems and demand response (DR) programs reduces operating costs by 5.67%.
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