Aquinas College
  • Grand Rapids, MI, United States
Recent publications
This paper provides a framework for understanding optimal lockdowns and makes three contributions. First, it theoretically analyzes lockdown policies and argues that policy makers systematically enact too strict lockdowns because their incentives are misaligned with achieving desired ends and they cannot adapt to changing circumstances. Second, it provides a benchmark to determine how strongly policy makers in different locations should respond to COVID-19. Finally, it provides a framework for understanding how, when, and why lockdown policy is expected to change.
Present work deals with the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) with appreciable solubility and processability and the detailed structural, morphological, electrical and optical characterization of the polymer, obtained using chemical oxidative polymerization technique with ammonium persulfate (APS) as the oxidant. Various dopants such as di (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinic acid sodium salt (NaDEHS), dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaDBSA) are used to improve solubility of the polymer in different solvents. Studies are carried out on doped polypyrrole in powder and spin coated thin film forms. Elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy studies show that dopants are effectively integrated into the PPy structure. FESEM and TEM studies affirm the significant effect of the dopants in modifying the morphology of PPy structure, and the XRD studies reveal the significant degree of crystallinity achieved through doping. Appreciable extent of solubility and processability acquired through doping and the enhanced crystalline order and electrical conductivity brought about through doping make chemically synthesized, suitably doped polypyrrole a potential candidate for diverse technological applications. Graphical abstract
Background: Quadriceps weakness is common after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and can alter gait mechanics. Functional resistance training (FRT) is a novel approach to retraining strength after injury, but it is unclear how it alters gait mechanics. Therefore, we tested how 3 different types of FRT devices: a knee brace resisting extension (unidirectional brace), a knee brace resisting extension and flexion (bidirectional brace), and an elastic band pulling backwards on the ankle (elastic band)-acutely alter gait kinetics in this population. Hypothesis: The type of FRT device will affect ground-reaction forces (GRFs) during and after the training. Specifically, the uni- and bidirectional braces will increase GRFs when compared with the elastic band. Study design: Crossover study. Level of evidence: Level 2. Methods: A total of 15 individuals with ACL reconstruction received FRT with each device over 3 separate randomized sessions. During training, participants walked on a treadmill while performing a tracking task with visual feedback. Sessions contained 5 training trials (180 seconds each) with rest between. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRFs were assessed on the ACL-reconstructed leg before, during, and after training. Changes in GRFs were compared across devices using 1-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. Results: Resistance applied via bidirectional brace acutely increased gait kinetics during terminal stance/pre-swing (ie, push-off), while resistance applied via elastic band acutely increased gait kinetics during initial contact/loading (ie, braking). Both braces behaved similarly, but the unidirectional brace was less effective for increasing push-off GRFs. Conclusion: FRT after ACL reconstruction can acutely alter gait kinetics during training. Devices can be applied to selectively alter gait kinetics. However, the long-term effects of FRT after ACL reconstruction with these devices are still unknown. Clinical relevance: FRT may be applied to alter gait kinetics of the involved limb after ACL reconstruction, depending on the device used.
Nanofluids with suitable heat transfer properties were found to be applied in thermal insulators, transport, nanodevices, medicine, etc. Their heat transfer properties are influenced by the particle size, morphology, and concentration of the nanoparticles present in the nanofluids. Nanofluids of different morphologies of zinc oxide such as nanospheres, nanoflowers, and nanorods were synthesized and their thermal properties were evaluated using a dual-beam thermal lens technique. All these nanofluids were found to exhibit tunable thermal diffusivity depending on concentration. The nanofluids with flower-like morphology show maximum deviation in diffusivity due to the layered structure and the increased surface area. As compared to pristine zinc oxide nanofluids, casein-capped zinc oxide nanofluids show excellent thermal insulation properties at 60 μg/ml. The findings suggest that biofunctionalized zinc oxide nanofluid is a promising candidate for a variety of thermal applications.
The amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface increases day by day. Nanoparticle-coated textiles are an effective way to protect human skin against this radiation. Here, biofunctionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of casein were applied to the cotton material to study the sunscreen action of the textiles. UV–visible photo spectrometry and ultraviolet protection factor analysis identify the effectiveness of UV protection provided by the prepared material. The coated fabrics are found to have 90% or above UV blocking properties and find potential applications in medical, cosmetic, or sports fabrics.
This article reports new methodology for cross-cultural exploration of psychometric properties of a four-dimensional hierarchical love scale. We collected data from 2831 participants from nine regional locations from six countries and assessed their responses to the love scale as well as several other love feelings. We applied a new methodological approach using recently advanced statistical methods to the comparison of forty love attitudes underscoring four distinct latent attitudes associated with love to another person in romantic relationships across these samples. The results demonstrate the importance of measurement invariance tests for cross-cultural comparison of scores on love scales. To properly assess measurement invariance, we suggest five statistical procedures, which we investigated in this study: (1) making corrections for acquiescence and extreme response biases; (2) taking into consideration cultural uniqueness in how participants respond to the measures, which may contribute to poor model fit; (3) accounting for such cultural uniqueness to make cross-cultural comparisons more valid; (4) removing items, which substantially contribute to poor model fit; and (5) shortening the subscales when scoring and analyzing the data. The results of the studies propose two shortened versions (33 and 30 items) of the love scale as two cross-culturally valid and invariant alternatives to the original 40-item scale.
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, use of symptom-screening tools to limit attendance of infected workers has been widespread. However, it remains unknown how the reliability of responses to these tools may be compromised by individual and social factors. We aimed to determine whether personal concern over lost wages impacts responses to COVID-19 symptom-screening questionnaires making them less useful in limiting person-to-person transmission. Methods: We utilized an anonymous online questionnaire, administered through personal social media networks and those of two U.S. private colleges between September 16, 2020 and November 2, 2020 and distributed to currently or recently employed individuals 18 years of age or older. Participants considered ambiguous hypothetical scenarios involving possible COVID-19 symptoms or exposure and responded to a COVID-19 symptom screen (N = 219). Findings: In response to symptom-related scenarios (i.e., elevated temperature or slight cough), respondents lacking access to paid sick leave were 2.2 to 2.7 times more likely to attend work than those with access to paid leave (p < .05). This was not true for contact-related scenarios. Pay type and income level also significantly influenced screening responses. Conclusion/application to practice: Risk of acute wage loss and overall financial stability appear to influence work-attendance decisions with regard to COVID-19 symptom screens. Broadened availability of paid leave and additional specificity within screening questionnaires would likely improve symptom-screen reliability.
Present paper gives a detailed description of the studies carried out on dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) doped, polypyrrole (PPy)/graphene nanocomposite films grown on glass substrates by spin coating and electro-spraying techniques. Solutions of doped polypyrrole/graphene nanocomposite are obtained in different solvents including dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and meta-cresol (m-cresol). Thin films of DBSA doped, PPy/graphene nanocomposites are obtained on glass substrates by spin coating using the solutions in different solvents. Attempts are made to improve the solubility of DBSA doped PPy/graphene composite in m-cresol, by subjecting the solution in m-cresol to electro-spraying for two different concentrations of graphene. Presence of the dopant DBSA and graphene brings about more structural order for the DBSA doped, PPy/graphene nanocomposite and upgrades the crystalline nature of the nanocomposite to a significant extent. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of spin coated and electro-sprayed films of doped PPy/graphene nanocomposite are investigated in detail. One of the solvents used, m-cresol is known for its secondary doping effects. Electro-sprayed films of the nanocomposite are obtained using m-cresol as the solvent and these films show exceptionally higher extent of structural order and crystallinity, compared to spin coated films. Possibility of obtaining nanocomposite films with homogenous distribution of dopants and that of the components of the composite is higher when electro-spraying technique is used, compared to spin coating. Secondary doping effect of m-cresol and the advantageous aspects of electro-spraying technique in obtaining homogeneous distribution of the dopant DBSA and the precise dispersion of graphene in PPy matrix are the prime factors contributing towards the commendable structural order and more crystalline and defect free nature observed in electro-sprayed films of the nanocomposite. Flexible films of DBSA doped PPy/graphene nanocomposite, grown on glass substrates via spin coating and electro-spraying, exhibit remarkable enhancement in electrical conductivity, compared to pristine PPy films, derived from the orderly arrangement of the dopant and the presence of homogeneously dispersed graphene. These films offer potential application prospects as electromagnetic interference shields and as polymer based electrodes in rechargeable cells and display devices. They are highly flexible and combined with their commendable electrical conductivity, mechanical stiffness and biocompatible nature are quite suitable for designing various types of biomedical devices. Graphical abstract
Educator Preparation Programs (EPPs) are tasked with providing preservice teachers with pedagogical theory, practical field experiences, mentorship, and scaffolded professional dispositions during critical phases of their preparation. In addition, EPPs collaborate with school districts and state departments of education to address critical issues in the field, including teacher retention and shortages. Our research explores how one EPP pilot, designed to build upon experience, supported working adult education students (e.g., parapros) seeking initial teacher certification. We sought to understand how adult teacher candidates engaged in professional learning and emergent professional relationships. Our qualitative study examined the experience of the first cohort of a 3-year pilot program. Using andragogy as a conceptual framework and paired with Danielson Evaluation Dispositions to expand on this professionalism, the data expanded on these professional dispositions through a thematic network analysis. Emerging from this analysis and through an andragogical lens, cohort members exhibited key traits associated with adult learners, including application of skills, flexibility, identification of growth, and relationship building. Our research concluded with implications for EPPs and suggestions for further research for programs at the intersections of andragogy and initial teacher certification.
We report the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of zinc oxide nanostructures synthesized using a low-temperature, facile method with the assistance of milk protein, casein. The nanoflower structure with hexagonal-shaped petals was identified in casein assisted zinc oxide, whereas the flower embryo was obtained without casein. The influence of casein in growth mechanism, morphology, and biofunctionalization is also discussed. A noticeable change was observed in the fluorescence spectra of casein added sample. BET analysis reveal that the addition of casein increases the surface area by 60% which implies casein acts as a capping agent during the preparation. In the presence of casein, the larger surface area of the nanostructure provides a greater number of active sites for interaction, allowing for increased photocatalytic activity. The improved antibacterial activity implies the increased diffusing capacity of casein-added zinc oxide through the cell membrane.
Spherical, flower and rod-like zinc oxide nanostructures have been successfully biosynthesized at 70 °C in the presence of milk protein casein through a simple precipitation method. The concentration of casein in an alkaline medium determines the structure of zinc oxide. The chemical synthesis of highly crystalline zinc oxide nanostructures is accomplished at relatively low processing temperature using casein. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the phase purity and crystalline nature of zinc oxide nanostructures. Morphological changes in the samples were identified through electron microscopic images. Casein linkage with the ZnO nanostructures was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy. The role of casein on the morphological features has been explained on the basis of its self-assembling nature, copolymerization, and secondary structure formation. The effects of morphological change in the optical properties are studied using a UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results indicate that casein is a good mediator for the morphology-controlled growth of nanostructures at moderately low temperatures.
To date, limited research has been undertaken regarding the interplay between differentiation of self (DoS), parental involvement, and the prevalence of psychological symptoms in emerging adults (EA) aged between 18 and 25 years in Australia. The current study aims to assess whether there is an association between mental health symptoms, perceptions of parental warmth, involvement, and autonomy support and indicators of DoS, including self-regulation capacity and emotional reactivity. In a study of 129 undergraduate students aged between 18 and 30 years, greater DoS, involving both lower emotional reactivity and the ability to take an ‘I position’ in relation to others, was found to be associated with fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms in EA. In addition, EA who demonstrated lower levels of emotional reactivity (higher DoS) had lower scores in depressive and anxiety symptoms. Parenting variables of caregiver warmth and autonomy granting were also found to be related to lower depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as greater DoS in EA. Regression models show that there were main effects for DoS on depressive symptoms; however, parenting behaviours were not found to moderate this relationship. Overall, this research is important as it supports Bowen’s (1978) theorising in relation to the relationship between DoS and mental health, and consideration of the contribution of parenting variables to indicators of well-being in EA. In this, family therapy has a role in educating both young adults and their parents in how best to promote independence and autonomy for improved psychological health. Further research should focus on the complexity of parenting controlling behaviours on mental health symptoms in EA.
Gender disparity persists in the United States; women are still paid less than men and are also subject to discrimination in the workplace based on the fact that they may become mothers. Further, there is evidence to indicate that single mothers are judged more harshly than their married mother counterparts and single fathers. As a form of amelioration, some women self medicate with alcohol and according to the CDC), alcohol use disorder (AUD) is on the rise for women. Although there is research on gender disparity, the motherhood penalty, and AUD, there are no experiments testing socio-cognitive judgments on those combined factors and specifically examining what we term “the single motherhood penalty”. Therefore, in two experiments using between-participants designs, participants rated a picture of a person (female or male) paired with a brief description where marital status (single or married) and type of ailment (alcohol or physical) was manipulated. In Experiment 1, a passive AUD manipulation did not show a clear single motherhood penalty. In Experiment 2, the results of an active AUD manipulation supported the predicted single motherhood penalty (Experiment 2a), but did not show an analogous single fatherhood penalty (Experiment 2 b). These findings are the first to offer empirical evidence that socio-cognitive judgments might perpetuate the interplay of the single motherhood penalty and AUD.
Present study deals with the efforts undertaken to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-substituted polypyrrole (PPy) as the cathode active material in Li-ion-based cells. Improvement in the electrochemical performance is achieved by synthesizing polypyrrole by chemical oxidative polymerization strategy using ammonium persulfate (APS) as the oxidant. Polypyrrole synthesized using the modified approach is subjected to lithiation by treating with n-butyllithium in hexanes (n-BuLi). Lithium-enriched PPy is used as the cathode active material to assemble Li-ion cells, and the assembled cells are subjected to detailed electrochemical characterization. The cells are found to show significant improvement in the electrochemical performance.
This paper reports the synthesis of Sillenite phase stabilized multiphasic magnetoelectric Bismuth Ferrite. Five set of samples were prepared by employing different synthesis techniques namely soft chemical route and rapid liquid phase sintering. These samples were prepared by varying the stoichiometry of the precursors to identify the optimum conditions for the formation of the multiferroic phase of Bismuth Ferrite and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, SQUID VSM and Ferroelectric loop tracer. It is found that tartaric acid plays an important role in the stabilization of the Sillenite phase. The Sillenite phase imparts magnetic property to the already ferroelectric BiFeO3 and this material exhibits magnetoelectric characteristics. The details are discussed in this paper.
This chapter seeks to explain the broad dissatisfaction among the general population of observed political outcomes. To illustrate this, this chapter discusses the growth of the federal tax code over the last century. Despite there being near universal public support for a tax code that is shorter, simpler, and contains fewer loopholes, the precise opposite is provided each year. To explain the disconnect between desires and outcomes, this chapter puts forth a systems theory of politics. Where markets can be thought of as a system driven by competition, politics is best thought of as a system driven by precedent.
“Emotional processes in cultural contexts” presents the structure of emotional life and functions of emotions in cultural contexts. It describes multiple studies and their findings about cultural patterns of emotional control and regulation, emotional differentiation, and complexity of emotions, which can be used as the building blocks for construction of models. The chapters also propose several examples of the cultural models of emotions based on compilation of findings from studies, which have already completed. In particular, the chapter reviews cultural models of emotions in the culture of self and culture of relating.
“Diversity of cultures” introduces the concept of culture and shows a diversity of types of cultures, going beyond traditional global, transnational, national, and ethnic understanding of cultures. The chapter presents the reasons and research findings that regional populations of societies, religious groups, and communities of people of different socioeconomic status and social class can be considered as cultures. It describes mixed and multicultural cultures as the new cultural realities that need to be explored.
Subjective emotional experience emerges from several sources: physiological changes and body sensations, awareness of these changes, perception of an event eliciting emotion, and its appraisal. Being biologically based in its roots, the experience of emotions may still be influenced by cultural factors through appraisal, interpretation, and labeling, which in turn depend on the culture-specific meaning of the event (Matsumoto & Hwang, 2012).
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366 members
Scott R. Brown
  • Kinesiology
Bethany Kilcrease
  • History Department
Justine M Kane
  • School of Education
Victor Karandashev
  • Department of Psychology and Counselor Education
Rebecca Penny Humphrey
  • Biology Department
1607 Robinson Road SE, 49506, Grand Rapids, MI, United States