The response time concealed information test (RT-CIT) can reveal that a person recognizes a relevant item (probe) among other, irrelevant items, based on slower responding to the probe compared to the irrelevant items. Thereby, if this person is concealing knowledge about the relevance of this item (e.g., recognizing it as a murder weapon), this deception can be unveiled. In the present paper, we examined the impact of a speed versus accuracy instruction: Examinees ( N = 235) were either presented with instructions emphasizing a focus on speed, with instructions emphasizing a focus on accuracy, or with no particular speed or accuracy instructions at all. We found that although participants responded to the probe and the irrelevants marginally faster when they had received instructions emphasizing speed, there was no significant difference between RTs of the different experimental groups and crucially no significant difference between the probe–irrelevant RT differences either. This means that such instructions are unlikely to benefit the RT-CIT, but it also suggests that related deliberate manipulation (focusing on speed on or accuracy) is unlikely to decrease the efficiency of the RT-CIT—contributing further evidence to the RT-CIT’s resistance to faking.
A two-dimensional numerical simulation of detonation in a reactive dispersed liquid droplet cloud is performed with an Eulerian-Eulerian method. This study aims to investigate the model and the effects of two-phase sub-models on the propagation of a detonation through an n-heptane spray. Firstly, the simulations are compared to the experiments conducted in the thesis of Mohamed El-Amine Benmahammed . Three simulations are carried out for a mono-dispersed/one sample cloud of droplets with a mass corresponding to equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.3. The Eulerian-Eulerian method predicted the experimental detonation velocity and gaseous phase thermodynamic properties with reasonable accuracy. Secondly, an investigation of the effects of the mobilization of the droplet size poly-dispersity on the detonation properties was carried out. For a droplet Sauter mean diameter of 30 µm, the effect of the number of droplet samples used for modeling the poly-dispersity modifies the front structure and detonation properties. For instance, comparing 15 samples of droplet size to a unique sample, the detonation velocity decreases by 2.0 %, and the mean detonation cell width increases by 10 %.
Background Self-stigma is considered to have immensely negative influences on the living and psychological states in patients with epilepsy. Understanding the stigma experienced by patients with epilepsy is essential considering its negative impact on their treatment and quality of life (QOL). However, few sufficiently validated self-report instruments are available to evaluate self-stigma in patients with epilepsy. The Epilepsy Stigma Scale (ESS) is one of the most commonly used self-reported questionnaires available to evaluate self-stigma in patients with epilepsy. The present study translated the ESS into Japanese to validate the Japanese version of the ESS (ESS-J) in Japanese adults with epilepsy. Methods The study included 338 patients with epilepsy (166 men, aged 18–75 years) who underwent comprehensive assessment including long-term video-electroencephalography monitoring, neuroimaging studies, and neuropsychological and psychosocial assessments in the Tohoku University Hospital Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. This study consisted of two phases: (1) translation of the ESS into Japanese using the back-translation technique; and (2) statistical analysis of the ESS-J to evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity. Results The 2-factor model achieved acceptable fit to the data: χ² = 161.27, df = 34, p < 0.01, comparative fit index = 0.929, root mean square error of approximation = 0.105, standardized root mean squared residual = 0.047, Akaike’s information criterion = 203.27 and, Bayesian information criterion = 283.56. These two subscales were named enacted stigma and felt stigma based on the theoretical model of self-stigma. We found the ESS-J to have acceptable internal consistency as follows: enacted (7 items; α = 0.88) and felt stigma subscale (3 items; α = 0.82). The concurrent validity was confirmed by adequate correlation with other related instruments. Both enacted and felt stigma had positive and moderate correlations with depression as measured by the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (r = 0.44, p < 0.01; r = 0.41, p < 0.01, respectively) and with anxiety as measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder -7 (r = 0.48, p < 0.01; r = 0.38, p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion The ESS-J demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. The present study provided preliminary evidence about the psychometric properties of the ESS-J, indicating the reliable factorial structure, adequate internal consistency, and satisfactory construct and concurrent validity. Measurement of the two types of self-stigma may offer a useful tool for clinical interpretation of patients’ psychological state throughout epilepsy care, and as one of the patient-reported outcomes in QOL research.
Background Quantification of gene expression such as RNA-Seq is a popular approach to study various biological phenomena. Despite the development of RNA-Seq library preparation methods and sequencing platforms in the last decade, RNA extraction remains the most laborious and costly step in RNA-Seq of tissue samples of various organisms. Thus, it is still difficult to examine gene expression in thousands of samples. Results Here, we developed Direct-RT buffer in which homogenization of tissue samples and direct-lysate reverse transcription can be conducted without RNA purification. The DTT concentration in Direct-RT buffer prevented RNA degradation but not RT in the lysates of several plant tissues, yeast, and zebrafish larvae. Direct reverse transcription on these lysates in Direct-RT buffer produced comparable amounts of cDNA to those synthesized from purified RNA. To maximize the advantage of the Direct-RT buffer, we integrated Direct-RT and targeted RNA-Seq to develop a cost-effective, high-throughput quantification method for the expressions of hundreds of genes: DeLTa-Seq (Direct-Lysate reverse transcription and Targeted RNA-Seq). The DeLTa-Seq method could drastically improve the efficiency and accuracy of gene expression analysis. DeLTa-Seq analysis of 1056 samples revealed the temperature-dependent effects of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana . Conclusions The DeLTa-Seq method can realize large-scale studies using thousands of animal, plant, and microorganism samples, such as chemical screening, field experiments, and studies focusing on individual variability. In addition, Direct-RT is also beneficial for gene expression analysis in small tissues from which it is difficult to purify enough RNA for the experiments.
Despite considerable scholarly attention on the institutional and normative aspects of development cooperation, its longitudinal dynamics unfolding at the global level have rarely been investigated. Focusing on aid, we examine the evolving global structure of development cooperation induced by aid flows in its entirety. Representing annual aid flows between donors and recipients from 1970 to 2013 as a series of networks, we apply hierarchical stochastic block models to extensive aid-flow data that cover not only the aid behavior of the major OECD donors but also that of other emerging donors, including China. Despite a considerable degree of external expansion and internal diversification of aid relations over the years, the analysis has uncovered a temporally persistent structure of aid networks. The latter comprises, on the one hand, a limited number of major donors with far-reaching resources and, on the other hand, a large number of mostly poor but globally well-connected recipients. The results cast doubt on the efficacy of recurrent efforts for “aid reform” in substantially changing the global aid flow pattern.
Using light as a local heat source to induce a temporary pyroelectric current is widely recognized as an effective way to control the polarization of crystalline materials. In contrast, harnessing light directly to modulate the polarization of a crystal via excitation of the electronic bands remains less explored. In this study, we report an Fe(II) spin crossover crystal that exhibits photoinduced macroscopic polarization change upon excitation by green light. When the excited crystal relaxes to the ground state, the corresponding pyroelectric current can be detected. An analysis of the structures, magnetic properties and the Mössbauer and infrared spectra of the complex, supported by calculations, revealed that the polarization change is dictated by the directional relative movement of ions during the spin transition process. The spin transition and polarization change occur simultaneously in response to light stimulus, which demonstrates the enormous potential of polar spin crossover systems in the field of optoelectronic materials.
Reduced population growth at low population density has important implications for conservation, colonization success, and wildlife management. In this context, the Allee effect, i.e., the positive relationship between per capita growth rate and biomass at small population density, is a crucial biological phenomenon since it is directly related to population extinction. The present paper deals with a two-species interacting model with predator-prey relationship, where prey population experiences mate finding Allee effect caused by predator. Here we assume that an individual's searching efficiency decreases linearly with predator density due to predation, and investigate how predation intensity affects predator-prey dynamics. Moreover, we consider the Monod-Haldane type functional response for predator-prey interactions, which shows group defense of prey against the predator. We provide a detailed mathematical analysis, including positivity and boundedness of solutions, all biologically feasible equilibria, and their local and global stabilities. From our detailed mathematical analysis, we can observe that when the system carrying capacity is low, at most one interior equilibrium exists, and system dynamics is simple, compared to the case with high carrying capacity, in which multiple coexistence equilibria may exist. We discuss three co-dimension one bifurcations mathematically, e.g., Hopf-bifurcation, transcritical bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation. We notice multi-stability in our system, where the system can be bi-stable when there are two-interior equilibria with high carrying capacity. However, a unique attractor exists when there is only a single interior equilibrium, and both populations persist. We perform extensive numerical simulations by varying two parameters simultaneously and explore how system dynamics are complex when carrying capacity is high compared to low carrying capacity. Moreover, in the numerical section, we discuss other important biological phenomena, e.g., the paradox of enrichment, bubbling, etc.
Background: Despite advances in next generation sequencing technologies, the identification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) can often hinder definitive diagnosis in patients with complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the underlying cause of disease in a family with two children with severe developmental delay associated with generalized dystonia and episodic status dystonicus, chorea, epilepsy, and cataracts. Methods: Candidate genes identified by autozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were characterized using cellular and vertebrate model systems. Results: Homozygous variants were found in three candidate genes: MED27, SLC6A7, and MPPE1. Although the patients had features of MED27-related disorder, the SLC6A7 and MPPE1 variants were functionally investigated. SLC6A7 variant in vitro overexpression caused decreased proline transport as a result of reduced cell-surface expression, and zebrafish knockdown of slc6a7 exhibited developmental delay and fragile motor neuron morphology that could not be rescued by L-proline transporter-G396S RNA. Lastly, patient fibroblasts displayed reduced cell-surface expression of glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins linked to MPPE1 dysfunction. Conclusions: We report a family harboring a homozygous MED27 variant with additional loss-of-function SLC6A7 and MPPE1 gene variants, which potentially contribute to a blended phenotype caused by multilocus pathogenic variants. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
We have successfully fabricated electrically conductive cotton fabrics with a low sheet resistance. The electrically conductive fabrics have attracted much attention as materials for flexible devices. We used N, N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) as a solvent, in which single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed without any dispersants. The electrically conductive cotton fabrics were fabricated using a simple polydopamine (PDA)-assisted dip-and-dry method. The electrically conductive fabrics were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The low sheet resistance of 9 ± 2 Ω/sq was achieved for electrically conductive cotton fabrics using DMF-SWCNT inks. Moreover, we demonstrated the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) using the fabricated electrically conductive cotton fabrics. The EMI SE and return loss were measured in the two frequency ranges (4–6 and 8–12 GHz) using waveguides and a vector network analyzer (VNA). The measured SE was about − 30 dB. The fabricated electrically conductive DMF-SWCNT-PDA cotton fabrics fulfilled the requirement for the practical EMI shielding.
We report the development of the stepwise photochromic imidazole dimer bridged by a sulfur atom. The one-photon absorption leads to the generation of the colored biradical species, which rapidly recombines to the initial imidazole dimer following first-order reaction kinetics. The further photochemical reaction of the biradical species produces the long-lived colored species, which shows intermolecular dimerization.
This paper is concerned with the ergodic problem for viscous Hamilton–Jacobi equations with superlinear Hamiltonian, inward-pointing drift, and positive potential function which vanishes at infinity. Assuming some radial symmetry of the drift vector field and the potential function outside a large ball, we obtain sharp estimates of the generalized principal eigenvalue with respect to a perturbation of the potential function. We also specify the necessary and sufficient condition so that the spectral function contains a plateau.
This study examines the welfare implications of allowing border carbon adjustments (BCAs) in a globalized economy characterized by international trade and cross-border pollution (CBP). The model predicts that adopting BCAs is a weakly dominant strategy and global welfare is maximized when at least one country adopts BCAs in the presence of CBP, such as global warming. This is because adopting BCAs induces other countries to raise their domestic emission tax rates without concerns such as the excessive shrinkage of domestic production and aggravation of CBP.
The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica is a good in vivo model for studying the function of piwi genes in adult pluripotent stem cell (aPSC) due to their abundant aPSCs. Generally, PIWI family proteins encoded by piwi genes bind to small noncoding RNAs called piRNAs (PIWI–interacting piRNAs). The analysis of PIWI–piRNA complexes in the planarian is useful for revealing the functions of piwi genes in the aPSC system. In this chapter, we present an immunoprecipitation protocol for PIWI–piRNA complexes from whole planarians.
It is hoped that remotely classifying stress‐coping styles can be applied to decisions about how to approach things, learning, etc. In this study, we devised a classification method for stress coping styles based on the time‐series correlation of facial area temperature. As a result, we were able to classify stress coping styles with about 70% probability. © 2022 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.
It is important to clarify the mechanism of heteroepitaxial diamond growth, focusing on the change from three-dimensional to two-dimensional growth through coalescence, including dislocation reduction, impurity doping, etc. A detailed investigation was made of the relationship between the surface morphology and the crystalline quality of diamonds during the initial and early stages of their growth. An Ir (001) layer formed on a MgO (001) substrate was treated by ion irradiation through direct-current discharge. Diamond was then grown on the ion-irradiated surface for a short time by using a microwave plasma CVD (MPCVD) process. Surface and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) were used to investigate how the diamond grains grew to form a film. The resulting diamond grains and film were also characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The diamond grains randomly united to form a film, their in-plane orientation improved until coalescence was complete, and the proportion of diamond component gradually increased. Finally, we developed a model for growth of heteroepitaxial diamond grains based on our detailed observations
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.