Treating clients with severe mental illness in community mental health settings can be challenging. Often, they lack solid intrapersonal support and have utilized surrounding resources to the best of their ability; yet, they still find themselves caught in the system of repeat treatment with no actual results. We can resolve these issues, which are amendable to family treatment and intervention, per previous research. It is essential for effective community mental health treatment that does not result in clients re-entering treatment on numerous occasions. Doing so could assist progress and advocate for inclusivity and emotional empowerment in identified clients—including their family members in treatment as a collective unit. This article proposes an ecological and systemic approach to mental health treatment for severe mental illnesses and provides treatment implications for clinicians.
A community sample of foreign‐born first generation (n = 53) and U.S.‐born secondgeneration (n = 57) youth of Indian origin (ages 18–25) was studied. Variables predicting self‐critical perfectionism were perceived prejudice, enculturation, and communication difficulty with parents and their interaction with generation status. The differences between the two generations pointed to nuanced self‐pressures of Indian immigrant youth, despite good academic standing and middle‐class family income. Implications discuss counseling with Indian immigrant youth. Se estudió una muestra comunitaria de jóvenes de origen indio (de edades entre 18 y 25 años) de 1ª generación, nacidos en el extranjero (n = 53), y de 2ª generación, nacidos en EE. UU. (n = 57). Las variables predictoras del perfeccionismo autocrítico fueron el prejuicio percibido, la enculturación y las dificultades de comunicación con los padres, así como la interacción de estas variables con el estado de la generación. Las diferencias entre ambas generaciones apuntaron a sutiles presiones internas en los jóvenes inmigrantes indios, a pesar de tener buenos resultados académicos e ingresos familiares de clase media. Se discuten las implicaciones para la consejería con jóvenes inmigrantes indios.
A growing number of environmental professionals are realizing that equitable and meaningful engagement of local community members in the development of programming is essential for catalyzing the durable, long-term action needed to conserve wildlife. Many who attempt to codesign programs with (not for) communities find that choosing the most effective strategies to accomplish this task is crucial and can oftentimes feel daunting. In this paper, a validated psychometric instrument called the Five Factors of Sustained Engagement (Five Factors) was used to analyze community engagement projects from two AZA-accredited institutions, highlighting how the leaders of each project believe they have fostered each factor in their projects. Professionals can use the Five Factors as guideposts and evaluation criteria to increase the long-term motivation of community members to engage in conservation efforts over time. The discussion offers strategies that psychological research has shown to increase long-term motivation for wildlife conservation and suggest how to implement them in the codesign of conservation programming with the communities that are impacted by it the most. Together, this synthesis offers an innovative, psychology-based approach to fostering and evaluating the success of sustainable community engagement for conservation Wildlife conservation projects are rarely su long-term engagement from the humans who are most impacted by those projects.
Capsule: In a single-year study, attaching geolocators to male Prairie Warblers Setophaga discolor, one of the smallest species to date to carry geolocators, decreased return rates but had no effect on inter-annual territory fidelity. Aims: To examine the effects of light-level geolocators on return rates and inter-annual territory fidelity of adult, male Prairie Warblers migrating to and from their non-breeding grounds. Methods: During the 2016 breeding season we captured adult male Prairie Warblers at two sites in northeastern USA and attached geolocators and colour rings to one group of birds, and only colour rings to another group of birds. During the 2017 breeding season, we estimated return rates to the sites and inter-annual territory fidelity (i.e. distance between territory locations from one year to the next) for the birds that returned to the sites. We compared return rates and territory fidelity between birds with and without geolocators. Results: Geolocators significantly decreased return rates of male Prairie Warblers to the study sites by 0.18 (95% credible interval [CI]: −0.37 to 0.01) from 2016 to 2017. Birds that returned exhibited a range of distances between estimated locations of territories in each year (7–2104 m), but the differences in distances between birds with and without geolocators were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Although return rates were lower for Prairie Warblers with geolocators, these effects should not necessarily disqualify their use. Rather, the magnitude of the negative effects on individuals needs to be considered against the benefits and reliability of the information gained for the population or species. We recommend the effects of geolocators and other tracking tags should be studied and reported in conjunction with the main objectives of the study for which the tags are being used.
The authors examined the experiences of nine American doctoral students completing a clinical psychology practicum in a primary care clinic in Blanchard, Haiti. This training followed natural and human-made disasters that have traumatized Haitians since the 2010 earthquake. The clinical psychology training program partnered with Haitian medical staff and the trainees provided diverse services, incorporating the use of community-based translators: individual counseling; art and play therapy groups for children; psychoeducational classes; and support groups for diabetic, cardiac, and sickle cell disorder patients. In addition, they conducted research on child disaster trauma assessment and engaged in community resilience-building conversations. The trainees wrote daily self-reflections recounting their challenges, cultural and economic differences, successes, expectations, fears, and personal and professional development. Ninety daily reflection notes were coded applying the consensual qualitative research method. A coding team identified domains and their respective categories/themes in relation to two research questions addressing doctoral clinical psychology trainees’ experiences of a practicum in Haiti and their Haitian clients’ mass trauma and responses to counseling interventions. The domains related to experiences of the Haiti practicum were Impact of Practicum Experiences in Haiti on Doctoral Trainees and Use of Translators in Global Mental Health Practice. The domains related to intervention experiences in this international trauma-affected community were Transnational Disaster Counseling, Respect for Human and Civic Rights, and Haitian Client-Specific Practice. The findings have direct implications for training in transnational disaster counseling and accessibility to services.
This paper contributes to emerging discourse about the ongoing challenges and opportunities of social marketing as a discipline. The paper presents a qualitative perspective on existing challenges faced by social marketing and offers suggestions for addressing these challenges. Nine semi-structured interviews with social marketing academics and practitioners from six different countries were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to analyse and interpret the qualitative data. The study provides insight into existing challenges for social marketing, classified into three key themes according to their position within or outside of the discipline: 1) poor branding of the discipline as an internal challenge, 2) competing disciplines as an external challenge, and 3) overall reach of the discipline, seen as both an internal and external challenge. The findings suggest that social marketing needs to overcome poor branding issues to sufficiently address external challenges. We conclude by arguing for more robust marketing of the discipline. While scholars have identified the challenges and opportunities for social marketing as a discipline, they have paid little attention to examining these challenges from the viewpoint of expert practitioners and academics. This paper presents a nuanced contextual understanding of the identified challenges through a qualitative perspective and explores how social marketing can overcome these challenges.
For many avian species, spatial migration patterns remain largely undescribed, especially across hemispheric extents. Recent advancements in tracking technologies and high‐resolution species distribution models (i.e., eBird Status and Trends products) provide new insights into migratory bird movements and offer a promising opportunity for integrating independent data sources to describe avian migration. Here, we present a three‐stage modeling framework for estimating spatial patterns of avian migration. First, we integrate tracking and band re‐encounter data to quantify migratory connectivity, defined as the relative proportions of individuals migrating between breeding and nonbreeding regions. Next, we use estimated connectivity proportions along with eBird occurrence probabilities to produce probabilistic least‐cost path (LCP) indices. In a final step, we use generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) both to evaluate the ability of LCP indices to accurately predict (i.e., as a covariate) observed locations derived from tracking and band re‐encounter datasets versus pseudo‐absence locations during migratory periods, and to create a fully integrated (i.e., eBird occurrence, LCP, and tracking/band re‐encounter data) spatial prediction index for mapping species‐specific seasonal migrations. To illustrate this approach, we apply this framework to describe seasonal migrations of 12 bird species across the Western Hemisphere during pre‐ and post‐breeding migratory periods (i.e., spring and fall, respectively). We found that including LCP indices with eBird occurrence in GAMMs generally improved the ability to accurately predict observed migratory locations, when compared to models with eBird occurrence alone. Using three performance metrics, the eBird + LCP model demonstrated equivalent or superior fit relative to the eBird‐only model for 22 of 24 species‐season GAMMs. In particular, the integrated index filled in spatial gaps for species with over‐water movements and those that migrated over land where there were few eBird sightings, and thus, low predictive ability of eBird occurrence probabilities (e.g., Amazonian rainforest in South America). This methodology of combining individual‐based seasonal movement data with temporally dynamic species distribution models provides a comprehensive approach for integrating multiple data types to describe broad‐scale spatial patterns of animal movement. Further development and customization of this approach will continue to advance knowledge about the full annual cycle and conservation of migratory birds.
The primary opportunities for improved conservation and sustainability outcomes are through changing human behavior. Zoos, aquariums, and other public-facing biodiversity conservation institutions offer an important space for environmental learning and facilitating proenvironmental behavior change. We have focused, in this review, on examining common behavior change models as well as the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Behavior Change , a widely regarded model within the health fields and, recently, in the fields of environmental and leadership studies, with new research applying the TTM specifically in a zoo setting. We have discussed critiques of the TTM and rebuttals to those critiques. We have presented examples of TTM applications in a zoo setting. Our objective has been to explore the TTM as a possible "best fit" framework and tool for zoo and aquarium practitioners in facilitating proenvironmental behavior. Key findings include that (a) the TTM differs significantly from other proenvironmental behavior theoretical models, including those that are prevalent in the conservation psychology literature and applied by zoos and aquariums, in terms of the TTM stages of change and processes of change constructs; (b) the TTM appears to overlap significantly with the 10 interventions or treatments identified by researchers as the most effective approaches to facilitating proenvironmental behavior; and (c) there is nascent and promising application of TTM constructs in zoo and aquarium programming. We remain impressed by the potential of the TTM to address a critical question within the conservation psychology research field concerning proenvironmental behavior: what specific tools to employ and when.
Recreational fisheries are diverse in scale, scope, and participation worldwide, constituting an important ecosystem service of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Management of these socio‐ecological systems is challenged by monitoring gaps, stemming from difficulties engaging with participants, biased sampling, and insufficient resources to conduct biological or social surveys of fish and human populations. In the Internet age, online data have great potential to make a meaningful contribution to recreational fisheries research, monitoring, and management. Recreational fishers in some countries increasingly use social and other digital media to share their experiences with followers, with most data freely available to web scrapers that compile databases of text (e.g. tweets, status updates, comments), photos, videos and other media that contain information about spatiotemporal activity, sentiments towards catches/experiences, targeted and bycatch species, effort levels, and more. Although the future of recreational fisheries research, monitoring and management will likely involve more digital scraping, uptake is only just beginning and there are several challenges including tool availability/accessibility, sampling biases, and making findings relevant and usable to practitioners. Despite these challenges, we envision fisheries managers will increasingly turn towards online sources of fisheries data to supplement conventional methods. We challenge scientists to work towards continued method development and validation of various digital fisheries data tools and emphasize how biases from the online behaviour of users may complicate interpretations of these data for fisheries management.
The United States’ fishing and seafood industries experienced major shifts in consumer demand and social-distancing restrictions starting in March 2020, when the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic were unfolding. However, the specific effects on fishers and seafood processors are less well known. Fishermen and seafood workers are potentially at risk during a pandemic given existing tight working quarters, seasonal work, and long hours. To address these concerns, and given a lack of data on the sector, we reviewed news articles, scientific articles, and white papers to assess the various effects of COVID-19 on US seafood workers. Here, we show that most COVID-19 cases among seafood workers occurred during summer 2020 and during the beginning of 2021. These cases were documented across coastal areas, with Alaska experiencing the largest number of cases and outbreaks. Seafood workers were about twice as likely to contract COVID-19 as workers in other parts of the overall US food system. We also documented a number of indirect effects of the pandemic. New social-distancing restrictions and policies limited crew size, resulting in longer hours and more physical taxation. Because of changes in demand and the closure of some processing plants because of COVID-19 outbreaks, economic consequences of the pandemic were a primary concern for fishers and seafood workers, and safety measures allowed for seafood price variation and losses throughout the pandemic. We also highlight a number of inequities in COVID-19 responses within the seafood sector, both along racial and gender lines. All of these conditions point to the diverse direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on fishers and seafood workers. We hope this work sets the foundation for future work on the seafood sector in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, improving the overall workplace, and collecting systematic social and economic data on workers.
Population projection models are important tools for conservation and management. They are often used for population status assessments, for threat analyses, and to predict the consequences of conservation actions. Although conservation decisions should be informed by science, critical decisions are often made with very little information to support decision-making. Conversely, postponing decisions until better information is available may reduce the benefit of a conservation decision. When empirical data are limited or lacking, expert elicitation can be used to supplement existing data and inform model parameter estimates. The use of rigorous techniques for expert elicitation that account for uncertainty can improve the quality of the expert elicited values and therefore the accuracy of the projection models. One recurring challenge for summarizing expert elicited values is how to aggregate them. Here, we illustrate a process for population status assessment using a combination of expert elicitation and data from the ecological literature. We discuss the importance of considering various aggregation techniques, and illustrate this process using matrix population models for the wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) to assist U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decision-makers with their Species Status Assessment. We compare estimates of population growth using data from the ecological literature and four alternative aggregation techniques for the expert-elicited values. The estimate of population growth rate based on estimates from the literature (λmean = 0.952, 95% CI: 0.87–1.01) could not be used to unequivocally reject the hypotheses of a rapidly declining population nor the hypothesis of a stable, or even slightly growing population, whereas our results for the expert-elicited estimates supported the hypothesis that the wood turtle population will decline over time. Our results showed that the aggregation techniques used had an impact on model estimates, suggesting that the choice of techniques should be carefully considered. We discuss the benefits and limitations associated with each method and their relevance to the population status assessment. We note a difference in the temporal scope or inference between the literature-based estimates that provided insights about historical changes, whereas the expert-based estimates were forward looking. Therefore, conducting an expert-elicitation in addition to using parameter estimates from the literature improved our understanding of our species of interest.
Pinus rigida (Pitch Pine)–Quercus ilicifolia (Scrub Oak) barrens require active management to maintain, but the effects of forest management on snakes and game birds is poorly understood. We conducted vegetation surveys and examined incidental encounter data of a variety of snake and game bird species on a managed pine barren in Montague, MA, from 2008 to 2018. We recorded 73 observations, including 44 Coluber constrictor constrictor (Northern Black Racer) and 7 Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) nests. All of our observations were in managed habitats (Scrub Oak, treated Pitch Pine, and powerline corridors) which had low (<30%) tree canopy cover. Observed densities of Northern Black Racers did not significantly vary among these open-canopy habitats, or with time since treatment between 2 to 8 years since initial harvest in treated Pitch Pine. We did not conduct extensive surveys in unmanaged, closed-canopy Pitch Pine forests; thus, we were unable to determine the relative use by racers and game birds of unmanaged versus managed habitats. Nevertheless, snakes and game birds were using and nesting in the managed habitats at least to some extent. Our findings on racers and game birds from this study are preliminary, but combined with results from other studies, they suggest that ecosystem management in pine barrens can benefit snakes and game birds, along with a wide variety of other taxa.
Context Whole Health is an emerging healthcare framework that emphasizes wellbeing in place of illness. Conflict Analysis (CA), an online self-guided assessment, leverages innovative diagnostic and therapeutic resources that shares Whole Health objectives, including helping users explore their identity and develop a personalized health plan and helping users develop resources to optimize their health. Objectives Paper presents CA implementation-effectiveness study in a Veteran Affairs inpatient substance recovery care. Design Patients were randomized to CA or mindfulness control. Patients completed Whole Health outcomes measures at baseline, completion (post), and three-week follow-up. Interventions took 2.5 h. Attending psychologist assessed CA protocols and completed outcome evaluation. Due to Coronavirus, recruitment and follow-up were curtailed. Setting Study took place in a rural northern New England Veteran Affairs inpatient substance recovery unit. Outcome Measures Measures include The Personal Growth Initiative Scale, The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, The Patient Health Questionnaire, Perceived Psychological Wellbeing, and Perceived Therapeutic and Diagnostic Benefit. Results 12 patients were randomized, 11 completed post measures (CA=5; Mindfulness = 6), and 7 completed follow-up measures (CA=3; Mindfulness=4). CA offered significant Whole Health benefits when compared to control. Additionally, participant and clinician evaluations indicated that CA can be personally relevant, meaningful, and motivate therapeutic growth. Implications include extending CA research and expanding Whole Health related interventions. Although initial results suggest implementation feasibility and Whole Health benefit, more research is necessary to establish CA's utility within inpatient substance recovery care in particular and psychiatric rehabilitation in general.
“Michael” is a 60-year-old Black male receiving substance abuse treatment at a Veterans Affairs hospital. As part of Michael's care, he participated in an implementation and feasibility trial evaluating Conflict Analysis (CA), a self-guided online therapeutic assessment. CA leverages innovative diagnostic and therapeutic resources to improve client engagement and therapeutic achievement. CA employs narrative formats, encouraging patients to frame experiences within personal vocabulary, and provides personalized feedback automatically extracted from patient responses. CA is self-guided, widely accessible, and has few costs. Paper presents Michael's protocol, associated therapeutic outcome measures, and psychologist's evaluation of CA benefits. Michael completed brief online CA deployment containing a wellness-based personality inventory, four narrative tasks, and an interactive feedback template. Michael completed insight, stress, depression, wellbeing, and perceived diagnostic and therapeutic benefit measures at baseline, post, and three-week follow-up. Interventions took 2.5 hours. Attending psychologist reviewed CA protocols and completed diagnostic and therapeutic questionnaires. Michael's record identifies elevated dominance. Protocol highlights Michael's drinking as mechanism to lessen social anxieties, anger, and competitiveness. Results suggest CA encouraged increased motivation to change, treatment engagement, and reduced depression. Psychologist rated benefit at maximum threshold. Implications include improving assessment efficacy, increasing online care opportunities, and expanding CA research.
The use of “belly scoring” can offer a novel, non-invasive objective management tool to gauge food intake between individuals, groups, and populations, and thus, population fitness. As food availability is increasingly affected by predation, ecological competition, climate change, habitat modification, and other human activities, an accurate belly scoring tool can facilitate comparisons among wildlife populations, serving as an early warning indicator of threats to wildlife population health and potential population collapse. In social species, belly scores can also be a tool to understand social behavior and ranking. We developed and applied the first rigorous quantitative photogrammetric methodology to measure belly scores of wild painted dogs ( Lycaon pictus ). Our methodology involves: (1) Rigorous selection of photographs of the dorso/lateral profile of individuals at a right angle to the camera, (2) photogrammetrically measuring belly chord length and “belly drop” in pixels, (3) adjusting belly chord length as a departure from a standardized leg angle, and (4) converting pixel measurements to ratios to eliminate the need to introduce distance from the camera. To highlight a practical application, this belly score method was applied to 631 suitable photographs of 15 painted dog packs that included 186 individuals, all collected between 2004–2015 from allopatric painted dog populations in and around Hwange (n = 462) and Mana Pools National Parks (n = 169) in Zimbabwe. Variation in mean belly scores exhibited a cyclical pattern throughout the year, corresponding to biologically significant patterns to include denning demand and prey availability. Our results show significant differences between belly scores of the two different populations we assessed, thus highlighting food stress in the Hwange population. In the face of growing direct and indirect anthropogenic disturbances, this standardised methodology can provide a rapid, species-specific non-invasive management tool that can be applied across studies to rapidly detect emergent threats.
Background We investigated the effect of delirium burden in mechanically ventilated patients, beginning in the ICU and continuing throughout hospitalization, on functional neurologic outcomes up to 2.5 years following critical illness. Methods Prospective cohort study of enrolling 178 consecutive mechanically ventilated adult medical and surgical ICU patients between October 2013 and May 2016. Altogether, patients were assessed daily for delirium 2941days using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Hospitalization delirium burden (DB) was quantified as number of hospital days with delirium divided by total days at risk. Survival status up to 2.5 years and neurologic outcomes using the Glasgow Outcome Scale were recorded at discharge 3, 6, and 12 months post-discharge. Results Of 178 patients, 19 (10.7%) were excluded from outcome analyses due to persistent coma. Among the remaining 159, 123 (77.4%) experienced delirium. DB was independently associated with >4-fold increased mortality at 2.5 years following ICU admission (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 4.77; 95% CI, 2.10–10.83; P < .001), and worse neurologic outcome at discharge (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.02; 0.01–0.09; P < .001), 3 (aOR, 0.11; 0.04–0.31; P < .001), 6 (aOR, 0.10; 0.04–0.29; P < .001), and 12 months (aOR, 0.19; 0.07–0.52; P = .001). DB in the ICU alone was not associated with mortality (HR, 1.79; 0.93–3.44; P = .082) and predicted neurologic outcome less strongly than entire hospital stay DB. Similarly, the number of delirium days in the ICU and for whole hospitalization were not associated with mortality (HR, 1.00; 0.93–1.08; P = .917 and HR, 0.98; 0.94–1.03, P = .535) nor with neurological outcomes, except for the association between ICU delirium days and neurological outcome at discharge (OR, 0.90; 0.81–0.99, P = .038). Conclusions Delirium burden throughout hospitalization independently predicts long term neurologic outcomes and death up to 2.5 years after critical illness, and is more predictive than delirium burden in the ICU alone and number of delirium days.
Climate change-related natural disasters, including wildfires and extreme weather events, such as intense storms, floods, and heatwaves, are increasing in frequency and intensity. These events are already profoundly affecting human health in the United States and globally, challenging the ability of communities to prepare, respond, and recover. The purpose of this research was to examine the peer-reviewed literature on community resilience initiatives in one of the most densely populated and economically important regions, the Northeastern United States, and to identify evidence-based interventions and metrics that had been field-tested and evaluated. This paper addresses two critical gaps in the literature: (1) what strategies or interventions have been implemented to build or enhance community resilience against climate change-related natural disasters; and (2) what metrics were used to measure community resilience as an outcome of those strategies or interventions? This review provides a succinct list of effective interventions with specific health outcomes. Community or state-level health officials can use the results to prioritize public health interventions. This review used existing database search tools to discover 205 studies related to community resilience and health outcomes. Methods set criteria to assess if interventions were able to measure and change levels of community resilience to the health impacts associated with a changing climate. Criteria included: (a) alignment with the United States’ National Preparedness Goal for reducing risks to human health and for recovering quickly from disasters; (b) derived from publicly available data sources; (c) developed for use by communities at a local scale; and (d) accessible to modestly resourced municipalities and county health agencies. Five (5) peer-reviewed, evidence-based studies met all of the selection criteria. Three of these articles described intervention frameworks and two reported on the use of standardized tools. Health-related outcomes included mental health impacts (PTSD/depression), mental stress, emergency preparedness knowledge, social capital skills, and emergency planning skills. The paper recommends the COAST project, COPEWELL Rubric for self-assessment, and Ready CDC intervention as examples of strategies that could be adapted by any community engaged in building community resilience.
In January 2021, there were 7 known individual red wolves (Canis rufus) remaining in the only wild population, located in Northeastern North Carolina (NENC). Anthropogenic mortality is the largest threat to survival of this population. Leading theory predicts that by understanding the attitudes and behavioral inclinations of the general public toward red wolves, better decisions can be made about how and where to concentrate outreach and interventions. Another view is that a very small minority of individuals must refrain from killing endangered species before restoration can succeed, so research and interventions need to focus on those few. We conducted interviews and surveys in nine counties in and around the NENC reintroduction area to measure attitude and behavioral inclinations toward red wolves, acceptance of the red wolf recovery program, and trust in the lead agency. We used two sampling techniques and in both samples pluralities or majorities liked red wolves, supported their restoration, disliked policy that would limit red wolf protections, trusted the agency, and would not kill a wolf illegally. While these data seem favorable for red wolf recovery, our results show a small group of people are driving the species to extinction through poaching. Self-identified male hunters in the probability group reported the greatest inclination to poach, with 11% saying they would kill any wolf they encountered on their own. We recommend engaging peer processes that discourage illegal behaviors and focusing energetic anti-poaching interventions on hostile actors to restore red wolves in this human dominated landscape.
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