Thiol-disulfide couple maintains an intracellular redox status. Dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis acts crucial parts in metabolic processes involving signal mechanisms, inflammation, antioxidant defense. Thiol-disulfide homeostasis have been implicated in numerous diseases. In this comprehensive review we identified the studies that examined the thiol-disulfide homeostasis in psychiatric disorders. Most cases demonstrated alterations in thiol-disulfide homeostasis and in most of them the thiol-disulfide balance tended to change direction to the disulfide side, that is, to the oxidative side. Currently, the fact that N-acetylcysteine, a thiol-containing compound, is of great interest as a new treatment approach in psychiatric disorders and the role of glutathione, the most abundant thiol, in the brain highlights the importance of evaluating the thiol-disulfide balance in psychiatric disorders.
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been used widely in dentistry due to its sealing ability and biocompatibility. Delayed setting time is one of the major limitations of MTA. Various additives have been studied to further improve the properties of MTA with varied degrees of success. In this study, we have investigated the effect of a calcium phosphate mineralization promoting-peptide (MPP3) on the physical and chemical properties of MTA in comparison with Na2HPO4. Based on the reported effects of MPP3 on calcium-phosphate mineralization reaction, our hypothesis was that MPP3 may also show beneficial effects on the calcium-silicate mineralization system of MTA. Na2HPO4 was used for comparison since its setting accelerant effect on MTA has been well documented. The cements were prepared by mixing with distilled water, 0.40 mM MPP3 solution, 15% Na2HPO4 solution, and a combination of MPP3 and Na2HPO4 solution. Initial and final setting times were measured via Vicat needle. Microhardness values were measured via Vickers indenter at 1,3,7, and 28 days after hydration. Compressive strength after setting was measured via universal testing machine. Morphological and compositional analyses were performed via FESEM imaging, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The microhardness data was evaluated via repeated-measures ANOVA. Setting time and compressive strength data were evasluated via one-way ANOVA. Initial setting time was reduced to ∼3 min in the Na2HPO4 containing groups but remained at ∼5 min in the control and MPP3 groups. Final setting times were significantly reduced in all groups compared to the control group. The reduction in the final setting times in the Na2HPO4 containing groups were significantly higher compared to the MPP3 group. Microhardness was significantly higher in the MPP3 group at all time points. No statistically significant difference in compressive strength was observed among the groups. FESEM analysis showed presence of ettringite crystals in the MPP3 group, and NaBiO3 crystals in the Na2HPO4 containing groups. XRD analysis showed a broadening of peaks at 2θ = 32° in the Na2HPO4 containing groups, possibly due to presence of NaBiO3. Raman spectroscopy showed statistically higher ettringite content in the MPP3 containing groups. Our findings indicate that MPP3 is a beneficial additive to eliminate some of the drawbacks associated with MTA with no detrimental effects on mechanical properties and without resulting in phases that potentially cause discoloration, such as NaBiO3. We propose that the reduced final setting time and increased microhardness by MPP3 may be associated with the increased ettringite content. Future studies, where wider range of MPP3 concentrations are studied may help elucidate and optimize the beneficial effects of MPP3 observed in this study.
It is very important for clinicians to provide restorative treatments that provide durability for endodontically treated teeth. Trauma, occlusal premature contact, and features of teeth are some of the issues that can cause vertical root fractures (VRFs) in root canal-treated teeth. The aim of this 3-D study was to compare stress distribution on mandibular premolar teeth when using a variety of post designs instrumented with different rotary systems. Six mandibular premolar teeth were instrumented with the following tools: ProTaper Next, WaveOne (WO), Reciproc (R), ReciprocBlue (RB), F6-Skytaper, and TF-Adaptive. Teeth were scanned using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the images were transferred to the Catia V5R25 software. Data were recorded in a stereolithography (STL) format. Four different post systems were used, fabricated from metal, fiber, zirconia, and titanium, respectively. Dentin, gutta, post, core, and crown models were added to the solid model. ANSYS V17.2 finite element analysis (FEA) software was used to determine stress distribution on each assembly. Finite analysis models were created that allowed for the calculation of stress distribution of 250-N loading at a 45° angle and vertical in relation to the roots. The maximum principal stress and von Mises values were higher under oblique loading on the roots. The F6-Skytaper and WO systems showed lower stress than other systems. The TF-Adaptive instrument showed higher stress distribution than the other models. Fiber and titanium posts showed lower stress than others. The F6-Skytaper, R, and RB instruments were found to be most effective in terms of displacement of the crown, resulting in the lowest stress values. Fiber and titanium posts showed better results than other post systems, while root canals instrumented with the F6-Skytaper and WO instruments were less likely to result in root fractures.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of erector spinae plane block (ESPB) and rhomboid intercostal block (RIB) on pain, disability, quality of life and patient satisfaction in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled double-blind study, 60 patients with a diagnosis of MPS were randomized into two groups. In group ESPB (N.=30), US-guided ESPB was performed, and in group RIB (N.=30), US-guided RIB was performed. The pain severity of the patients was assessed using the Numerical Rating Scale before treatment, and immediately after the intervention, on the first day, and one, two, four and six weeks after the intervention. The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) for health-related Quality of Life, the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and patient satisfaction were evaluated before treatment and six weeks after treatment. Results: In both groups, significant improvements were observed in all parameters during the six-week follow-up period compared to pretreatment values (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between groups for any parameters at any time interval. Conclusions: This study showed that ESPB and RIB blocks are effective techniques for pain, disability, and quality of life in patients with MPS. We suggest that the interfascial space can be useful in the administration of analgesic agents for the treatment of MPS.
Introduction Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare sexual development disorder characterized by a normal male phenotype. Müllerian structures cannot regress due to the absence of anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) or resistance to AMH receptor. In addition to male internal genitalia, female reproductive organs, including the uterus, uterine tubes, and upper 1/3 of the vagina are also detected. We will present a patient with PMDS who presented with bilateral cryptorchidism. Clinical Case A 31-year-old single man was referred to our clinic because of bilateral undescended testes and a rudimentary uterus detected during the evaluation of the lower abdominal pain. On physical examination, his body mass index (BMI) was 21.2. His arm span was 170 cm, and his upper-lower segment ratio was 0.96. Beard, axilla, and pubic hair development were normal; however, testes were not in the scrotum bilaterally. His karyotype analysis was 46XY. His prenatal, natal, and postnatal histories were not remarkable. His parents were not consanguineous; the younger brother had a history of undescended testis operation at age one. In laboratory examination, blood glucose, renal and liver functions were normal. Androstenedione, DHEAS, total and free testosterone, FSH, LH, total-hCG, AFP were normal. AMH>9µg/L. In the spermiogram, no sperm was observed. A rudimentary uterus and proximal vagina were observed in the abdominal computed tomography (CT). Symmetric solid masses measuring 55×40 mm compatible with bilateral undescended testis were detected in the ovarian lodges. The mass extended to the inguinal canal on the left and the scrotum on the right. In association with these masses, there were also tubular structures with the biggest diameter of 16 mm on the right and 13 mm on the left. Prostate sizes were normal. Seminal vesicles were not observed. PMDS was considered owing to 46 XY karyotypes, normal testosterone level, normal sexual development, external genitalia findings, accompanying Mullerian structures, and a high level of AMH. AMH gene mutation was not detected. However, AMH receptor type 2(AMHR2) gene mutation could not be studied. Bilateral undescended testicles, uterus, uterine tubes, and the tubular structures in the abdomen were excised. Classical type seminoma with lympho-vascular invasion was detected in the right-side tubular structure. Tumor-negative testicular tissue was frozen for possible fertility in the future. The patient received one cycle of Carboplatin. No metastasis was detected in the post-operative PET-CT scan. In post-operative evaluation, FSH, LH levels were high, total and free testosterone levels were low. AMH < 0.01 µg/L. The patient was started on testosterone replacement therapy. Conclusion PMDS is a rare cause of male pseudo-hermaphroditism. Malignant degeneration and infertility are two critical points in terms of treatment. Early diagnosis with increased awareness is essential in preserving fertility and preventing malignant degeneration.
Constantly rising energy demand compels research on clean and sustainable energy generation techniques. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising route for hydrogen generation. Apart from metal–oxide semiconductors, there are limited number of studies that centers around graphitic carbon materials which act as a semiconducting material. This study focuses on an easily manufactured photoanode, i.e., nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide acting as the semiconductor coupled with silver nanoparticles for increased electron transfer and investigates its PEC performance for hydrogen generation. Photocurrent density of the photoanode was found to be 0.69 mW/cm2 at 0.95 V vs. RHE under visible LED light illumination. Incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) and applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) values were calculated as 23.77% at 500 nm wavelength and 0.69% at 0.93 V vs. RHE, respectively. Results showed that the nanocomposite seems as a promising photoanode toward PEC applications.
Boron derivatives are one of the promising additives as a lubrication oil and fuel additive for manufacturing, aviation, aerospace, and defense technologic products. In this study, trimethyl borate was analyzed for combustion characteristics of a single-cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignition engine as a fuel additive. The engine operated at 2500 rpm, and the experiments were conducted at 25%, 50% 75%, and full load conditions. Trimethyl borate was added with 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% by wt into gasoline, and combustion characteristics, engine performance, and exhaust emissions were compared with the reference fuel. In-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, the start of combustion and duration, brake-specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, and exhaust emissions were examined. Trimethyl borate accelerates the combustion with closing to full throttling load. At full throttling, maximum in-cylinder pressure was observed for gasoline as 30.51 bar and for the TriM2.5 as 26.88 bar. Minimum brake-specific fuel consumption was observed at 75% loading with 495.31 g/kWh, and the maximum thermal efficiency seemed like 16.5% for the Trim2.5 rate. CO and HC emissions were improved with all the addition rates and the upmost value was obtained at Trim2.5 with 12.1% and 14.4% respectively.
Aim: To identify the risk factors associated with intussusception in children with immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV)-gastrointestinal (GI) tract involvement and to evaluate the outcomes of medical treatment and surgical intervention and the course of patients with intussusception. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in 157 patients under 18 years of age who were followed up with the diagnosis of IgAV-GI tract involvement between January 2015 and September 2022. The characteristics of the patients who developed intussusception were evaluated in detail. Results: One hundred and fifty-seven patients with GI tract involvement were included in the study. The mean age of patients with IgAV-GI tract involvement was 8.7 ± 3.7 years. The female-to-male ratio was 1:1.5. Intussusception was detected in 14 patients (8.9%). Two patients (14.3%) underwent surgery, and the remaining 12 patients (85.7%) had their medical therapy intensified. Patients with GI tract involvement were divided into two groups as with (n = 14) and without (n = 143) intussusception. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in the time from the onset of the first symptom of IgAV to the onset of steroids (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in age at onset of IgAV, gender distribution, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. Conclusions: The time from the onset of the first symptom of IgAV to the start of steroids is a risk factor for the development of intussusception in patients with IgAV-GI tract involvement. In these patients, medical treatment usually reduces intussusception without the need for surgical intervention.
The relationship between the dimensional assessment of personality and difficulties in emotion regulation has yet to be made clear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of personality traits and emotion regulation on personality functioning. Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Personality Inventory for DSM‐5 (PID‐5) and Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS) were rated for 220 patients with depression and/or anxiety disorder diagnosis and 100 healthy controls. Stepwise regression analyses (SRA) were used to find potential predictors of personality functioning, and generalized linear analyses (GLA) were used to find mediators between the traits and personality functioning. SRA results in the clinical group showed that higher depression, antagonism, difficulties in impulse control and difficulties in awareness predicted higher levels of dysfunction in personality. According to GLA results in the clinical group, the impulse subscale of DERS partially mediated the relationship between antagonism and level of impairment in personality functioning. Our results indicate that certain emotion regulation styles and personality traits play an important role in predicting personality functioning in the clinical sample of depression and anxiety patients. Future studies should focus on specific emotion dysregulation strategies and broaden the dimensional personality literature in different samples.
Introduction: The effect of vitamin D status on steatosis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we planned to investigate this interaction using a large-scale population-based cohort. Material and methods: Patients diagnosed with simple steatosis (K76.0) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (K75.8) by using the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) coding system, and who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) measurements at the diagnosis, were included in the study. Control group comprised subjects without liver diseases. Age, gender, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and 25OHD levels, and the date of the measurements were recorded. Results: We compared ALT and 25OHD measurements between the patient and control groups, and between the simple steatosis and NASH subgroups. 25OHD levels were lower and ALT levels were higher in the patient group (p < 0.001, effect size = 0.028, and p < 0.001, effect size = 0.442, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that when 25OHD levels decrease by 1 ng/dL, it increases the risk of being in the patient group by 3.7%. Conclusion: Our results suggest that vitamin D status may be related to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although this relationship is weak, it may be important in the pathogenesis of steatosis.
Background: Infections of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are mainly due to gram-positive bacteria (GPB). Data about gram negative bacteria CIED (GNB-CIED) infections are limited. Aims of our work are to investigate risk factors, clinical and diagnostic characteristics, and outcome of patients with GNB-CIED. Methods: Multicenter, international, retrospective, case-control-control study on patients undergoing CIED implantation from 2015 to 2019 in 17 centers across Europe. For each patient diagnosed with GNB-CIED, one matching control with GPB-CIED infection and two matching controls without infection were selected. Results: 236 patients were enrolled: 59 with GNB-CIED infection, 59 with GPB-CIED infection and 118 without infection. No differences regarding clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic managements were found between the groups. A trend toward higher rate of FDG PET/CT positivity was observed among patients with GN than in those with GPB-CIED infection (85.7% vs. 66.7%, p=0.208). Risk factors for GNB-CIED infection were Charlson Comorbidity Index Score (RRR=1.211, P= 0.011), obesity (RRR: 5.122, P=0.008), ventricular-pacing ventricular-sensing inhibited-response pacemaker (PM-VVI) implantation (RRR: 3,027, P=0.006) and the right subclavian vein site of implantation (RRR: 5.014, P=0.004). At 180-day survival analysis GNB-CIED infection was associated with increased mortality risk (HR=1.842, P=0.067). Conclusions: Obesity, high number of comorbidities, and right subclavian vein implantation site are associated with increased risk of GNB-CIED infection. A prompt therapeutic intervention that may be guided by the use of FDG PET/CT is suggested in patients with GNB-CIED infection considering the poorer outcome observed in this group.
Objectives This study aimed to compare color change of porcelain laminate veneers fabricated with two lithium disilicate ceramics and a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic material after luting with conventional dual-cure, amine-free dual-cure, or light-cure resin cements using artificial accelerated aging (AAA). Methods and Materials Ninety noncarious human maxillary central incisors were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks to prepare conventional laminate veneers with incisal coverage. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=30) to fabricate laminate veneer restorations using: (1) lithium disilicate ceramic, (2) lithium disilicate ceramic with high-density micronization, and (3) zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic. Impressions of the preparations were taken with a laboratory scanner. Acquired 3D images were processed into a surface tessellation language file. Data were exported for 3D printing on a printer, and laminate veneers were printed in castable wax resin. Ceramic veneers were heat-pressed after investment according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and further divided into three groups (n=10) according to luting cement type: (1) light-cure resin cement, (2) amine-free dual-cure resin cement, and (3) conventional dual-cure resin cement. Color measurements were performed from the middle of each specimen with a spectrophotometer before and after AAA for 300 hours with a total energy of 150 kJ/m2. Color changes were calculated with the CIEDE 2000 (ΔE00) formula. Color differences were assessed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α=0.05), and the paired t-test was used to compare the L*, a*, and b* parameters in each group before and after aging. Results There were no significant differences between the ceramic groups (p>0.05). The color changes of the materials ranged from 2.26 to 3.13. All materials were above the clinically acceptable limit (ΔE00>1.8). The conventional dual-cure resin cement group showed more color change (p>0.05). Conclusions Color changes were observed in all porcelain laminate veneers after artificial accelerated aging. The zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate veneers showed similar color changes as lithium disilicate veneers; the amine-free dual-cure resin cement showed a similar color change as light-cure resin cement after aging.
Objective Misophonia is characterised by abnormal reactions to certain sounds such as sounds of eating, breathing, nose sniffing. Misophonia can be seen in individuals with normal hearing or hearing loss. The aim of this study to evaluate central auditory processing in misophonia patients with temporal processing tests, such as the Frequency Pattern Test (FPT), Duration Pattern Test (DPT), and Gaps-in-Noise Test (GIN). Methods Thirty patients with misophonia and 30 healthy control subjects were included in this study. The pure tone audiometry test, tympanometry test, and acoustic reflex test were administered to all participants. The DPT, FPT, and GIN tests were conducted with all participants. Results There was no significant difference in the DPT scores between the two groups for both ears (p > .05). There was no significant difference in the FPT scores between the two groups for both ears (p > .05), and there was no significant difference in the GIN scores and GIN threshold (p > .05). Conclusions There was no difference between the healthy individuals and the misophonia patients when the temporal process of central auditory processing was evaluated.
The present study aimed to examine the effect of pH and time on the final morphology of calcium borate powders. Primarily, aqueous solutions that mainly consisted of borax and calcium chloride were prepared with five different pH values varying between 2 and 15. Hydrothermal synthesis temperature was determined as 200°C and four different times from 30 min to 24 h were selected. Phase formation and powder morphology were examined via X‐ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify type of borate groups. Results revealed that pH directly determines the growth mechanism of calcium borate crystals. Lower pH induced non‐classical growth by forming self‐assembled nano‐plates. Individual, rod‐like particles were observed for alkali solution. At weak basic conditions priceite (4CaO.5B2O3.7H2O), alkali condition parasibirskite (2CaO.B2O3.H2O) phase were obtained. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has been resulting in increased hospital occupancy rates. Rheumatic patients cannot still reach to hospitals, or they hesitate about going to a hospital even they are able to reach. We aimed to show the effect of the first wave of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the treatment of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or spondyloarthritis. Methods: Patients were divided into three groups as follows: pre-pandemic (Pre-p: starting on biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug therapy for the first time within 6 months before March 11, 2020); post-pandemic A (Post-p A: starting on biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug therapy for the first time within the first 6 months after March 11, 2020); post-pandemic B (Post-p B: starting on biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug therapy for the first time within the second 6 months). Results: The number of rheumatoid arthritis patients in the Post-p A and B groups decreased by 51% and 48%, respectively, as compared to the Pre-p group similar rates of reduction were also determined in the number of spondyloarthritis patients. The rates of tofacitinib and abatacept use increased in rheumatoid arthritis patients in Post-p period. Conclusion: The number of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis patients starting on biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs for the first time decreased during the first year of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Anomaly detection techniques have been widely studied by researchers to locate targets that stand out from their backgrounds. Low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition model (LSDM), on the other hand, is an encouraging method to take advantage of the low-rank property of hyperspectral images and extract information from both background and anomalies. In this work, a hybrid anomaly detection method is proposed by fusing LSDM model with the Laplacian matrix to distinguish anomalies effectively. The proposed method steps are twofold. First, the high dimensional data is decomposed as low-rank and sparse matrices by robust subspace recovery algorithm as preprocessing step. After the decomposition process, Mahalanobis distance is applied to the sparse part of the data. Different than previous studies, the inverse of the covariance matrix is computed by the Laplacian matrix. The proposed approach achieves the best detection results, according to the experimental findings. The superiority of the proposed algorithm is highlighted by comparing the state-of-the-art algorithms based on four hyperspectral images.
Introduction Risk factors (RF) associated with aseptic loosening (AL) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical shape variations in relation to the inner-diameter of the femur and the tibia as prognostic RF for AL of full hinge prosthesis (FHP) in primary and revision TKA. Materials and methods We retrospectively examined all patients, who underwent revision surgery (2003–2018) due to AL of the FHP in primary (n = 38) and revision TKA (n = 46). Diagnosis-appropriate controls without AL at minimum follow-up of 24 months were randomly collected for each group. Besides other risk factors, we also measured the inner diameter of the femur according to the Citak classification and of the tibia on anteroposterior radiographies. Results RF for AL are younger age in primary and revision as well as > 1 previous surgeries in revision TKA. The femoral index was shown to be a RF for AL in revision TKA (p = 0.001), but not in primary TKA. The novel tibial index was associated with AL in primary with AUC 0.776 (95% CI 0.67, 0.88), 65.8% sensitivity, 86.6% specificity and in revision TKA with AUC 0.817 (95% CI 0.73, 0.91), 82.6% sensitivity and 71.7% specificity. Conclusion This is the first study to calculate the tibial measurements and the tibial index according to Citak et al. and to identify them as prognostic RF for AL of the full hinge knee prosthesis in TKA and confirm the femoral index as a RF for AL also in revision full hinge knee prosthesis. Therefore, the preoperative radiological evaluation should include the analysis of the anatomical shape variants in order to select the appropriate prosthesis design with a possibly enhanced prognosis.
When do ordinary civilians mobilise to resist military coup attempts? Existing literature based largely on single case studies puts forward three variables: political culture, popular support for the government, and material (economic) dependency between the government and its supporters. Finding these explanations insufficient, we first utilise existing military coup data sets and identify the universe of cases of civilian resistance (19) to military coups. Taking our next cue from social movement and mobilisation studies, we focus on mobilisation networks and leadership as possible causal conditions. We also follow the approach of searching for the causes-of-effects, working backward from the outcome of interest (civilian resistance) to look for additional causal conditions. A comparative analysis of eight positive (civilian resistance) cases shows that collective yearning for change, transformative leadership, resistance by the leadership and robust mobilisation power in the state capital and largest cities may together carry more explanatory power. Validation of evidence provided by six negative (no civilian resistance) cases indicates that while a collective desire for change and transformative leadership may set the stage for resistance, it is ‘mobilisation power’ and ‘leadership resistance’ that exert more impact on the causal process of emergence of civilian resistance to military coups d’état.
Background: The transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) has acted on the causation and sustentation of mature B cell lymphomagenesis for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. The aim of this study was to show whether there is a relationship between the level of ROR1 surface expression in CLL cells and disease findings. Materials and Methods: The level of ROR1 cell surface expression was determined in accordance with the flow cytometric analysis of CLL patients at the first diagnosis time. 2 groups were formed according to the high and low ROR1 levels. The cut-off point to the ROR1 level was calculated for advanced-stage disease by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. A two-sided p-value
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