The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
The application of a fair tariff for electricity pricing is aimed at controlling demand and promoting sustainability by motivating homeowners to use household appliances as well as heating and cooling systems that offer increased energy efficiency. It is possible to structure the price levels such that customers (typically those who have increased demands for electricity) are encouraged to lower their overall demand. The reorganisation of electrical subsidies within the residential sector has considerable importance for the country’s economy as well as for more effective management of the consumption of electricity and the resulting effects on the environment, which lays the foundation for more sustainable development. In the current research, data from 260,000 regular customers paying standard electricity tariffs were gathered and the energy usage of in excess of 1,000 energy-subsidised District Electricity Distribution Company (IDECO) members of staff was recorded over a period of two years (2017 and 2018). A comparison was made between the two aforementioned groups to investigate the outcomes of energy subsidies on energy usage as well as consumption patterns within the residential sector. The results of the analysis indicated that on average, normal homeowners used approximately 297 kWh/month, whereas customers whose electricity was subsidised consumed approximately 615 kWh/month. In both winter and summer, there was an increase in the amount of energy consumed, particularly among those receiving subsidies, as the demand for heating and cooling was raised. The application of electricity tariffs (with no subsidisation) provides a means of controlling the demand profile that is particularly effective. The structure of tariffs can motivate customers (typically those electricity consumption levels are high) to lower their overall consumption in addition to peak demand (which has the consequence of limiting the strain on the grid and power stations) by requiring them to pay for electricity at maximum prices.
This research aimed to evaluate the thermal performance of rooftop PV as a shading element on uninsulated roof-related HVAC energy consumption of buildings in a moderate dry–warm climate zone. A transient-state 3D distributed thermal model was developed of the PV-added rooftop components. Photovoltaic (PV) solar rooftops as shading devices were constructed using Integrated Environmental Solution-Virtual Environment Software to predict the reduction and increase in heating and cooling loads connected with the roof floor each month. The impact of rooftop PV systems on a building’s roof-related energy burden was quantified about a low-rise residential building in a moderate dry–warm climate zone represented by the city of Amman in Jordan. The results indicated that PV roof structure reduced heat gain by 10.87% during the summer and increased heat loss by 3.8% during the winter. In the summer season, the electricity demand for indoor cooling declined, but the demand for indoor heating increased slightly. The investigation focused on a middle-income home in Jordan’s capital, Amman. The limitations imposed by building rooftops on the use of PV were also investigated in this research and the findings validate the importance of providing environmental authorities, the construction industry, and ordinary individuals with important guidelines on the use of renewable energy to heat and cool buildings. Consequently, this analysis enhances awareness of a building’s overall energy needs, which are crucial for the future design of sustainable buildings.
Contemporary atypical skyscrapers in United Arab Emirates became the landmarks of the city and secured the urban competitiveness via innovative building design. These contemporary skyscrapers use non-linear geometry of structural frames, it is impossible to design these structures with conventional design methods. The objective of this paper is to examine the unit technologies for structural design of an atypical skyscraper and propose an optimal structural design process. As a methodology, the status of atypical skyscraper optimization technologies is analyzed, the status of data exchange among structural analysis programs, BIM software and FEM analysis programs are examined, and the case studies of some landmark buildings in United Arab Emirates designed by well known companies such as SOM, AECOM, and Salama Structural Engineers are explored. The result has shown that the unit technologies for optimizing atypical skyscrapers can follow four phases: Concept Design Phase, Schematic Design Phase, Design Development Phase and Construction Documentation Phase.
This paper presents an evaluation of east–west oriented photovoltaic power system. The evaluation is done based on a simplified model for east–west oriented photovoltaic system. This model is developed mathematically then implemented by using Matlab. The model is also validated by a commercial software and experimental data. After that, a comparison between east–west oriented photovoltaico system and south oriented photovoltaic system in terms of cost of energy and technical requirement is conducted. In addition to that, the benefits of using east–west oriented photovoltaic system are discussed in this paper. Results show that the proposed model is accurate in predicting the output power of east–west oriented photovoltaic system. It is also found that east–west oriented photovoltaic system requires less land area. Moreover, it is found that east–west oriented photovoltaic system requires less cost for mounting piles and steel structure, and less costs of the interfacing power substation especially in case of photovoltaic systems slanted at high tilt angle. However, it is found as well that the south oriented photovoltaic system produces more energy than east–west oriented photovoltaic system. It is also found in this research that there is no significant difference between the costs of energy for both systems. Finally it is concluded that for direct grid interfacing east–west oriented PV system can provide smoother power injection to the grid with fewer harmonic and less reverse power. On the other hand, south oriented photovoltaic system is preferred when high power injection is required.
Polysplenia Syndrome is a rare condition that refers to the presence of 2 or more spleens in association with other thoracoabdominal abnormalities. Here, we report a case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with acute lower abdominal pain and was diagnosed with polysplenia syndrome after obtaining a CT scan of her chest, abdomen and pelvis. Diagnostic imaging also revealed the presence of a wandering spleen hanging in the lower abdomen and upper pelvic cavity and showing signs of infarction. The patient underwent splenectomy afterward and splenic torsion was confirmed intraoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first reported case of wandering spleen torsion in a patient with polysplenia syndrome. Physicians should keep in mind the possibility of a wandering spleen torsion presenting in various locations when dealing with polysplenia syndrome patients complaining of abdominal pain.
Background CKD-associated pruritus (chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus) is one of the common symptoms in hemodialysis patients, with a major effect on sleep quality because it occurs at night. The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of pruritus among hemodialysis (HD) patients and its impact on sleep and investigate factors associated with pruritus and sleep quality. Methods A cross-sectional study began in January until March of 2021 in HD centers of four different hospitals in the West Bank, Palestine. Patients with HD aged 18 years or older were included in our investigation. Pruritus and sleep problems were assessed by a 5-D itching score and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score. Results Of 280 HD patients, 250 were accepted to participate in our study. The mean age of the participants was (54.9 ± 15.08). 62.8% were male, and 42.4% of the participants were elderly (age ≥ 60yrs). Pruritus was observed in 121 (48.4%). The 5-D itching score had a median [IQR] of 5.0[5.0–15.0], and 57.2% had a score ≥ 6 points. Severe pruritus was reported in 28.1% of patients. The score was significantly associated with residency (p = 0.033) and chronic comorbidities (p = 0.026). The PSQI score has a median [IQR] of 8[5–12], and 66.4% are poor sleepers with a score of < 5. The score was significantly associated with age (p = 0.017), marital status (p = 0.022), occupational status (p = 0.007), chronic comorbidities (p > 0.001), chronic medication (p = 0.008), severity of pruritus (p = 0.003) and duration of pruritus (p = 0.003). Regression analysis showed that the 5-D itching score and the total number of comorbidities were significantly associated with the PSQI score. Conclusions Pruritus is a widespread complication among HD patients in Palestine. Pruritus also has major effects on sleep quality and is associated with poor sleep quality.
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic, the demand and supply for many products fluctuated. Thus, many companies around the globe have repurposed their operations and reconfigured their supply chains (SCs) to switch production and produce new products. Literature provided various models and frameworks to explain the concepts of supply chain resilience. However, it remains unclear how companies could quickly and temporarily repurpose their SCs and what are the required capabilities during the COVID‐19 crisis. Therefore, this study investigates the role of developing dynamic capabilities such as manufacturing, logistics, production capacity and procurement in facilitating production changeover. Based on 36 semistructured interviews conducted with multinational corporations, the study findings demonstrate four specific capabilities known as the 4Rs: retooling, repurposing, recalibrating and reconfiguring. Hence, the study provides a conceptual framework of operational resilience to understand how production changeover could be achieved. In addition, this 4Rs framework helps decision‐makers to improve SC resilience and capabilities when facing a crisis such as COVID‐19.
Nanomaterials (nano-sized carbon allotropes) are extremely normal, particularly graphene (G), single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, CNTs, and SWCNTs), and their synthetic derivatives, including graphene oxide (GO), are extensively applied for corrosion mitigation. This article depicts the main characteristics of covalent and non-covalent functionalization of CNTs, G, and GO and their utilization as anti-corrosion materials in various surface coatings compositions. Synthetically changed CDs and GO have astounding dispersibility/solubility in the aqueous electrolytes. The synthesis, characterization and applications of functionalized nanomaterials for corrosion mitigation have been reviewed and discussed with the relevant examples. In addition to this, the advantages of this material as an anti-corrosion material have been also discussed.
Background Cancer patients frequently experience unrelieved pain as a significant symptom. However, several studies have found that cancer-related pain is frequently undertreated. Purpose This study aimed to understand the pain experiences of cancer patients who were newly engaged in a multidisciplinary pain management program (PMP) at King Hussein Cancer Centre and still receiving cancer treatments and cancer pain management. Methods A qualitative study design and semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data from 21 cancer patients who were purposefully selected. All patients had advanced cancer, including skeleton metastases. All female participants had breast cancer, and all male participants had prostate cancer. Results It was found that the patient−healthcare professional relationship and satisfaction with services emerged as two themes in healthcare professionals' pain management. Conclusion The results from this study can offer a new understanding of the knowledge related to satisfaction of patients with cancer in terms of the quality of pain management. Additional qualitative studies are required to replicate the findings in populations from different backgrounds, ethnicities, and cultures experiencing cancer pain.
In the current study, a tetra-functional aromatic epoxy pre-polymer namely, tetraglycidyl methylenedianiline (TGMDA) was synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) spectral techniques.The rheological properties were tested using an advanced rheometer in isopropyl alcohol. The effect of temperature and solution concentration on the viscosity of the aromatic prepolymer epoxy solution was evaluated. The study of shear rheology was performed at different temperatures of solutions of the epoxy prepolymer in isopropyl alcohol on solutions of mass concentration (%; 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, and 5%) and temperatures (298–328 K). The energies of the frontier mleculr orbitals, as calculated by B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d, p) and 6-311++G (3d, 3p) basis sets permit the prediction of the chemical reactivity and stability of the TGMDA molecule. The thermochemical estimations of the studied compounds were also calculated and discussed. The heat of formation and Gibbs's free energy of the reactants and products were determined and analyzed. The study, likewise, showed that the reactions are endothermic and spontaneous in the reverse direction at 298.15 K. Non-linear optics (NLO) study concluded the existence of the opposite relationship between the and the HOMO-LUMO energy gap values . The anti-corrosive property of TGMDA for carbon steel (CS) corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was evaluated using several electrochemical and theoretical methods. The TGMDA showed highest efficiency of 96.5 % at 10−3M concentration. Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the response significantly affected the metal surface-inhibitor interaction, giving molecular proof to the geometry and the adsorption
In this work, the effective adsorption and the subsequent photodegradation activity, of TiO 2 brookite nanoparticles, for the removal of anionic dyes, namely, Alizarin Red S (ARS) and Bromocresol Green (BCG) were studied. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of both dyes' concentration, contact time, and temperature. Photodeg-radation experiments for the adsorbed dyes were achieved using ultraviolet light illumination (6 W, λ = 365 nm). The single adsorption isotherms were fitted to the Sips model. The binary adsorption isotherms were fitted using the Extended-Sips model. The results of adsorption isotherms showed that the estimated maximum adsorption uptakes in the binary system were around 140 mg g −1 and 45.5 mg g −1 for ARS and BCG, respectively. In terms of adsorption kinetics, the uptake toward ARS was faster than BCG molecules in which the equilibrium was obtained in 7 min for ARS, while it took 180 min for BCG. Moreover, the thermodynamics results showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous for both anionic dyes. All these macroscopic competitive adsorption results indicate high selectivity toward ARS molecules in the presence of BCG molecules. Additionally, the TiO 2 nanoparticles were successfully regenerated using UV irradiation. Moreover, molecular dynamics computational modeling was performed to understand the molecules' optimum coordination, TiO 2 geometry, adsorption selectivity, and binary solution adsorption energies. The simulation energies distribution exhibits lower adsorp-tion energies for ARS in the range from − 628 to − 1046 kJmol −1 for both single and binary systems. In addition to that, the water adsorption energy was found to be between − 42 and − 209 kJmol −1 .
Background Cellulose polymers with multidentate chelating functionalities that have high efficiency for toxic metal ions present in water were designed, synthesized, and analyzed. The synthesis was carried out by reacting microcrystalline cellulose extracted from the solid waste of the olive industry with tert-Butyl acetoacetate (Cell-AA), produced cellulose with β-ketoester functionality was then reacted with aniline and the amino acid glycine to produce Cell-β-AN and Cell-β-GL, respectively. Results The adsorption efficiency of the three polymers toward Pb(II) and various toxic metal ions present in sewage was evaluated as a function of adsorbent dose, time, temperature, pH value, and initial ion concentration to determine optimum adsorption conditions. The three polymers showed excellent efficiency toward about 20 metal ions present in a sewage sample collected from the sewer. The adsorption process follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model with a second-order of adsorption rate, the calculated qe values (2.675, 15.252, 20.856 mg/g) were close to the experimental qe values (2.133, 13.91, 18.786 mg/g) for the three polymers Cell-AA, Cell-β-AG and Cell-β-AN, respectively. Molecular Dynamic (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed on the three polymers complexed with Pb(II). Conclusion The waste material of the olive industry was used as a precursor for making the target cellulose polymers with β-Amino Ester Pendant Group. The polymer was characterized by SEM, proton NMR, TGA, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The efficacy of adsorption was quantitative for metal ions present in a real sample of wastewater and the efficiency didn’t drop even after 7 cycles of use. The results indicate the existence of strong complexation. The thermodynamic study results showed a spontaneous bonding between of Pb(II) and the polymers pendant groups expressed by the negative value of the Gibbs free energy.
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a significant influence on nutritional status. There have been several studies on dietary habits and nutritional status in connection with COVID-19. However, there has been no research on the bibliometric analysis of these papers. Therefore, our objective was to assess the most relevant scientific research on nutrition and COVID-19, as well as to assess current hot themes. Methods We obtained data from the Scopus database on June 30, 2021. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes were conducted based on the Scopus. Collaboration and term analysis was performed using VOSviewer software version 1.6.16. Results At the time of data collection, there were 177,946 documents in COVID-19. Scopus found 1885 articles related to nutrition and COVID-19 after narrowing the search to those terms. This includes 1309 (69.44%) research articles, 268 (14.22%) review papers, and 308 other types of document. The USA was the largest producer, with 24.83% of the documents, followed by Italy with 11.88% ( n = 224), the UK with 10.82% ( n = 204), and China with 7.59% ( n = 143). The most active institution was Sapienza Università di Roma ( n = 30, 1.59%). The leading journal in COVID-19 nutrition research was Nutrients ( n = 115, 6.10%). The article with 310 citations published by Di Renzo et al . in 2020 was the most influential reference. The hot topics were stratified into three clusters: (1) “Food security in the COVID-19 pandemic”; (2) “nutritional determinants and COVID-19 outcomes”; and (3) “changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences”. Conclusions This is the first bibliometric research to offer comprehensive information on COVID-19 and nutrition in the published literature. Research will likely be helpful to scholars and policymakers. This study sheds light on the growth and development of nutrition and covid-19-related research and should contribute to the expansion of the global frontier in the major hot topics, including “food security in the COVID-19 pandemic”; “nutritional determinants and COVID-19 outcomes”; and “changes in diet habits during the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences”.
Glutamatergic chemical synapses mediate excitatory neurotransmission by the ion flow through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission abnormalities may play a role in neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases, and compounds that can modulate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) signaling have been studied for decades as possible therapies for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, and epilepsy. Here, we aimed to determine the modulating effect of allosteric regulators on AMPA receptors by comparing their actions on AMPA-evoked currents, desensitization, and deactivation rate in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) recombinant AMPAR subunits. In this study, patch-clamp electrophysiology was performed to examine how the AMPA subunit responded to benzodioxole (BDZ) derivatives. Our results showed that the BDZ derivatives affected AMPARs as negative modulators, particularly BDZs (8, 9, and 15), where they increased the desensitization rate and delayed the deactivation process. The BDZ compounds were utilized in this study as AMPA modulators to investigate fundamental and clinical AMPA receptor processes. We test BDZs as negative allosteric AMPAR modulators to reestablish glutamatergic synaptic transmission. These efforts have resulted in important molecules with neuroprotective properties on AMPA receptors.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is among leading causes of mortality in Occupied Palestinian territories and providing data on its level of management using pharmacological and dietary approaches is important to provide policy makers of possible gaps in clinical practice. Aims: we aimed to study the level of control of recently diagnosed patients with DM2 and patterns of pharmacological treatment and dietary intakes in relation to clinical endpoints. Methods: we used semi-structured questionnaire, medical records, anthropometric measurements and biochemical measurements to assess plasma glucose, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), medical and medication history, measurement of obesity Results 105 participants were included in this analysis with few missing data for some sub-analysis. Average age was (56.8 ± 8.1 y), medians for glucose (160 (150, 180)mg/dl ), Triglyceride (TG (155 (140, 170) mg/dL ), HbA1C (8 (7, 9)%). Metformin was associated with best HbA1C control compared to groups who used insulin (p< 0.01). Also, HbA1C and glucose were different across fish intake categories. Nuts were associated with modest improvement in HbA1C. Plasma TG was not modified by study variables. Conclusion Metformin, fish intake and nuts intake were associated with improvement in glucose and HbA1C among diabetic patient in Palestinian territories.
Genetic factors are relevant for both eating disorders and body weight regulation. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) for anorexia nervosa (AN) detected eight genome-wide significant chromosomal loci. One of these loci, rs10747478, was also genome-wide and significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). The nearest coding gene is the Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein 2 gene (PTBP2). To detect mutations in PTBP2, Sanger sequencing of the coding region was performed in 192 female patients with AN (acute or recovered) and 191 children or adolescents with (extreme) obesity. Twenty-five variants were identified. Twenty-three of these were predicted to be pathogenic or functionally relevant in at least one in silico tool. Two novel synonymous variants (p.Ala77Ala and p.Asp195Asp), one intronic SNP (rs188987764), and the intronic deletion (rs561340981) located in the highly conserved region of PTBP2 may have functional consequences. Ten of 20 genes interacting with PTBP2 were studied for their impact on body weight regulation based on either previous functional studies or GWAS hits for body weight or BMI. In a GWAS for BMI (Pulit et al. 2018), the number of genome-wide significant associations at the PTBP2 locus was different between males (60 variants) and females (two variants, one of these also significant in males). More than 65% of these 61 variants showed differences in the effect size pertaining to BMI between sexes (absolute value of Z-score >2, two-sided p < 0.05). One LD block overlapping 5′UTR and all coding regions of PTBP2 comprises 56 significant variants in males. The analysis based on sex-stratified BMI GWAS summary statistics implies that PTBP2 may have a more pronounced effect on body weight regulation in males than in females.
Introduction Hepatitis A virus infections are mostly asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic, and generally this disease has a benign course and resolves spontaneously. However, intrahepatic and rarer extrahepatic manifestations can complicate typical cases of acute hepatitis. Pleural effusion is an extremely rare extrahepatic entity with 20 cases reported in literature. Case presentation We report herein a recent case of both pleural effusion and ascites accompanying hepatitis A infection in a 5-year-old middle eastern child, diagnosed using serological testing and imaging studies, who was treated with supportive management with full resolution after 2 weeks. In addition, we review available literature regarding hepatitis A virus associated with pleural effusion using PubMed and summarize all reported cases in a comprehensive table. Results Literature contains 20 reported cases of serology-confirmed hepatitis A virus presenting with pleural effusion, most in the pediatric population with average age at presentation of 9 years 8 months. The majority of reported patients had right-sided pleural effusion (50%) or bilateral effusion (45%), while only 5% presented with pleural effusion on the left side. Hepatomegaly and ascites occurred concurrently in 80% and 70% respectively. Supportive treatment without invasive procedures (except one chylothorax case) yielded complete recovery in 95% of cases, while only one case progressed to fulminant liver failure followed by death. Conclusion Acute hepatitis A virus rarely presents with pleural effusion, usually following a benign course with spontaneous resolution in most patients. Pleural effusion does not change the prognosis or require any invasive treatment. Thus, further invasive procedures are not recommended and would only complicate this self-resolving benign condition.
The performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar panels is dependent on certain factors, such as dust effects. Even though Palestine’s energy issues are well-known, no research has been undertaken on the soiling effect on solar energy generation in Palestine’s climatic circumstances. The study’s findings can aid Palestine’s efforts to achieve long-term energy sustainability and solar energy use. Outdoor research was conducted in Tulkarm, Palestine, to explore the impact of dust on PV systems. The current study examined the impact of dust accumulation based on the Mediterranean climate. To accomplish this, a one-year experiment was conducted from 1 January to 31 December 2021. An 85-kW PV power plant at Tulkarm was utilized in the study. Knowing the efficiency reduction over time will aid in minimizing cleaning expenses by selecting the most appropriate cleaning interval. The results concluded that in January, February, November, and December, there will be a two-month cleaning period, monthly cleaning in March and October, as well as two weeks of cleaning in April and May. It may also be concluded that the plant should be cleaned weekly throughout the months of June, July, August, and September. This recommendation is necessary to maintain the PV panel plant operating at peak efficiency.
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