Background Increasing evidence indicates the potential benefits of restricted fluid management in critically ill patients. Evidence lacks on the optimal fluid management strategy for invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. We hypothesized that the cumulative fluid balance would affect the successful liberation of invasive ventilation in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods We analyzed data from the multicenter observational ‘PRactice of VENTilation in COVID-19 patients’ study. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 and ARDS who required invasive ventilation during the first 3 months of the international outbreak (March 1, 2020, to June 2020) across 22 hospitals in the Netherlands were included. The primary outcome was successful liberation of invasive ventilation, modeled as a function of day 3 cumulative fluid balance using Cox proportional hazards models, using the crude and the adjusted association. Sensitivity analyses without missing data and modeling ARDS severity were performed. Results Among 650 patients, three groups were identified. Patients in the higher, intermediate, and lower groups had a median cumulative fluid balance of 1.98 L (1.27–7.72 L), 0.78 L (0.26–1.27 L), and − 0.35 L (− 6.52–0.26 L), respectively. Higher day 3 cumulative fluid balance was significantly associated with a lower probability of successful ventilation liberation (adjusted hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.95, P = 0.0047). Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. Conclusions In a cohort of invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, a higher cumulative fluid balance was associated with a longer ventilation duration, indicating that restricted fluid management in these patients may be beneficial. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04346342 ); Date of registration: April 15, 2020. Graphical abstract
It is well established that elite football referees possess superior anticipatory skills in specific game scenarios such as when assessing foul situations. Referees might also have better anticipatory skills in other important scenarios such as when observing a long pass. In these often-occurring situations, a referee has to use visual information to anticipate the outcome of the pass, in particular to foresee any potential infringements that might occur when players battle for ball possession. However, little is known about if and how football referees might anticipate outcomes in these scenarios. The aim of the current study was therefore to analyse the visual anticipatory behaviour of football referees when long passes occur during actual football matches. Elite (N = 4) and sub-elite referees (N = 12) officiated an actual football match while wearing a mobile eye-tracker to analyse their gaze behaviour when long passes occurred (N = 196). The results revealed differences in the way that the elite and sub-elite referees tracked the ball and anticipated the outcome of the ball trajectories. The elite referees used a lower search rate (1.3 vs 1.8 fix/s; p < .05) and were more likely to direct their gaze towards the ball during the moment of kick (77 vs 52%; p < .05) and the early flight-phase of the pass (68 vs 45%; p < .05), and subsequently produced earlier anticipatory eye movements to the player(s) receiving the ball (at 50% vs 60% of the ball flight; p < .05). This earlier anticipation may help the elite referees to better pick-up relevant information about the receivers that could be vital in making adjudications about any potential infringement when the ball does arrive. Referee education programs can use the current study to highlight the importance of visual search behaviour and help referees to adapt a strategy that is beneficial for long-pass situations.
Providing high-quality feedback is essential for improving preservice teacher performance. Rather than post-lesson feedback, immediate performance feedback while teaching is considered effective. This article reports on developing and piloting a standardised tool for synchronous feedback. Eight teacher educators from a Dutch higher education institution were trained to use the tool (based on accepted models of teacher roles, observation criteria and feedback levels) with pre-recorded lessons. Interobserver reliability was good for teacher roles and sufficient for feedback levels. Positive evaluations of the tool and educators’ interest in its application, warrant further research into scalability and effectiveness of synchronous feedback delivery.
The potential for Artificial Intelligence is widely proclaimed. Yet, in everyday educational settings the use of this technology is limited. Particularly, if we consider smart systems that actually interact with learners in a knowledgeable way and as such support the learning process. It illustrates the fact that teaching professionally is a complex challenge that is beyond the capabilities of current autonomous robots. On the other hand, dedicated forms of Artificial Intelligence can be very good at certain things. For example, computers are excellent chess players and automated route planners easily outperform humans. To deploy this potential, experts argue for a hybrid approach in which humans and smart systems collaboratively accomplish goals. How to realize this for education? What does it entail in practice? In this contribution, we investigate the idea of a hybrid approach in secondary education. As a case-study, we focus on learners acquiring systems thinking skills and our recently for this purpose developed pedagogical approach. Particularly, we discuss the kind of Artificial Intelligence that is needed in this situation, as well as which tasks the software can perform well and which tasks are better, or necessarily, left with the teacher.
Ever since twin-family studies found that a substantial amount (± 40%) of the variation in well-being can be explained by genetic variation, several candidate genes have been proposed explaining this variation. However, these candidate gene and candidate gene-by-environment interaction studies have been surrounded by controversy regarding the validity and replication of their results. In the present study, we review the existing candidate gene literature for well-being. First, we perform a systematic literature search that results in the inclusion of 41 studies. After describing the results of the included studies, we evaluated the included candidate polymorphisms by (1) looking up the results for the studied candidate SNPs in a large well-being genome-wide association study, (2) performing association analyses in UK biobank (UKB) data for the candidate variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and the APOE ε4 allele, and (3) studying possible candidate interactions with positive and negative environmental moderators using UKB data. We find no support for any of the candidate genes or candidate gene-environment interactions for well-being, with the exception of two SNPs that were chosen based on genome-wide evidence. While the generalizability of our findings is limited by our phenotype and environment definitions, we strongly advise well-being researchers to abandon the candidate gene approach in the field of well-being and move toward genome-wide approaches.
Background App-based mobile health exercise interventions can motivate individuals to engage in more physical activity (PA). According to the Fogg Behavior Model, it is important that the individual receive prompts at the right time to be successfully persuaded into PA. These are referred to as just-in-time (JIT) interventions. The Playful Active Urban Living (PAUL) app is among the first to include 2 types of JIT prompts: JIT adaptive reminder messages to initiate a run or walk and JIT strength exercise prompts during a walk or run (containing location-based instruction videos). This paper reports on the feasibility of the PAUL app and its JIT prompts. Objective The main objective of this study was to examine user experience, app engagement, and users’ perceptions and opinions regarding the PAUL app and its JIT prompts and to explore changes in the PA behavior, intrinsic motivation, and the perceived capability of the PA behavior of the participants. Methods In total, 2 versions of the closed-beta version of the PAUL app were evaluated: a basic version (Basic PAUL) and a JIT adaptive version (Smart PAUL). Both apps send JIT exercise prompts, but the versions differ in that the Smart PAUL app sends JIT adaptive reminder messages to initiate running or walking behavior, whereas the Basic PAUL app sends reminder messages at randomized times. A total of 23 participants were randomized into 1 of the 2 intervention arms. PA behavior (accelerometer-measured), intrinsic motivation, and the perceived capability of PA behavior were measured before and after the intervention. After the intervention, participants were also asked to complete a questionnaire on user experience, and they were invited for an exit interview to assess user perceptions and opinions of the app in depth. Results No differences in PA behavior were observed (Z=−1.433; P=.08), but intrinsic motivation for running and walking and for performing strength exercises significantly increased (Z=−3.342; P<.001 and Z=−1.821; P=.04, respectively). Furthermore, participants increased their perceived capability to perform strength exercises (Z=2.231; P=.01) but not to walk or run (Z=−1.221; P=.12). The interviews indicated that the participants were enthusiastic about the strength exercise prompts. These were perceived as personal, fun, and relevant to their health. The reminders were perceived as important initiators for PA, but participants from both app groups explained that the reminder messages were often not sent at times they could exercise. Although the participants were enthusiastic about the functionalities of the app, technical issues resulted in a low user experience. Conclusions The preliminary findings suggest that the PAUL apps are promising and innovative interventions for promoting PA. Users perceived the strength exercise prompts as a valuable addition to exercise apps. However, to be a feasible intervention, the app must be more stable.
Background Many patients with metastatic breast cancer experience cancer- and treatment-related side effects that impair activities of daily living and negatively affect the quality of life. There is a need for interventions that improve quality of life by alleviating fatigue and other side effects during palliative cancer treatment. Beneficial effects of exercise have been observed in the curative setting, but, to date, comparable evidence in patients with metastatic breast cancer is lacking. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a structured and individualized 9-month exercise intervention in patients with metastatic breast cancer on quality of life, fatigue, and other cancer- and treatment-related side effects. Methods The EFFECT study is a multinational, randomized controlled trial including 350 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Participants are randomly allocated (1:1) to an exercise or control group. The exercise group participates in a 9-month multimodal exercise program, starting with a 6-month period where participants exercise twice a week under the supervision of an exercise professional. After completing this 6-month period, one supervised session is replaced by one unsupervised session for 3 months. In addition, participants are instructed to be physically active for ≥30 min/day on all remaining days of the week, while being supported by an activity tracker and exercise app. Participants allocated to the control group receive standard medical care, general written physical activity advice, and an activity tracker, but no structured exercise program. The primary outcomes are quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30, summary score) and fatigue (EORTC QLQ-FA12), assessed at baseline, 3, 6 (primary endpoint), and 9 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes include physical fitness, physical performance, physical activity, anxiety, depression, pain, sleep problems, anthropometric data, body composition, and blood markers. Exploratory outcomes include quality of working life, muscle thickness, urinary incontinence, disease progression, and survival. Additionally, the cost-effectiveness of the exercise program is assessed. Adherence and safety are monitored throughout the intervention period. Discussion This large randomized controlled trial will provide evidence regarding the (cost-) effectiveness of exercise during treatment of metastatic breast cancer. If proven (cost-)effective, exercise should be offered to patients with metastatic breast cancer as part of standard care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT04120298. Registered on October 9, 2019.
In this Lesson from the Field, we examine changes in the burden experienced by caregivers of persons who experience homelessness associated with lack employment, employability or education, and mental health challenges when the care recipient receives support from an outreach professional known as a social street worker (herein identified as worker). In addition, we focus on caregivers' perception of change in the quality of their relationship with the person for whom they care and whether the caregivers receive support from the worker. In the Netherlands, due to the transformation toward a participation society, persons living in compromised circumstances must increasingly rely on caregivers for support and shelter instead of relying on services, such as support from social community teams. Workers provided by a Dutch organization covering the northwest of the Netherlands gained the consent of their clients to contact the clients' caregivers. Caregivers were invited to participate in the research and completed consent. A total of 111 caregivers of persons receiving support from workers completed surveys. Caregivers who had more contact with the worker worried less about the person for whom they provided care. No changes were found regarding tension between caregivers and the person for whom they cared. Most caregivers (73%) perceived positive changes in the quality of the relationship with the person for whom they provided care, and 52% received support from the worker. Most carers did not perceive changes in their burden, but did perceived positive changes in the quality of the relationship with the person for whom they cared and received support themselves. Our study underpins the need to recognize the caregiver's burden of caregivers who support marginalized people, to connect with these caregivers, and to support them.
Background: Children with asthma can decrease the impact of their disease by improving their physical activity (PA). However, health care providers lack interventions for children with asthma that effectively increase their PA levels and achieve behavior change. A technology-supported approach can positively influence PA and physical functioning in children. Objective: The aims of this study were to develop a technology-supported intervention that facilitates health care providers in promoting PA for children (aged 8 to 12 years) with asthma and to systematically describe this developmental process. Methods: Intervention mapping (IM) was applied to develop a blended and technology-supported intervention in cocreation with children with asthma, their parents, and health care providers. In accordance with the IM framework, the following steps were performed: conduct a needs assessment; define the intervention outcome, performance objectives, and change objectives; select theory-based intervention methods and strategies; create components of the intervention and conduct pilot tests; create an implementation plan; and create an evaluation plan. Results: We developed the blended intervention Foxfit that consists of an app with a PA monitor for children (aged 8 to 12 years) with asthma and a web-based dashboard for their health care provider. The intervention focuses on PA in everyday life to improve social participation. Foxfit contains components based on behavior change principles and gamification, including goal setting, rewards, action planning, monitoring, shaping knowledge, a gamified story, personal coaching and feedback, and a tailored approach. An evaluation plan was created to assess the intervention's usability and feasibility for both children and health care providers. Conclusions: The IM framework was very useful for systematically developing a technology-supported intervention and for describing the translational process from scientific evidence, the needs and wishes of future users, and behavior change principles into this intervention. This has led to the technology-supported intervention Foxfit that facilitates health care providers in promoting PA in children with asthma. The structured description of the development process and functional components shows the way behavior change techniques are incorporated in the intervention. Trial registration: International Clinical Trial Registry Platform NTR6658; https://tinyurl.com/3rxejksf.
Background Given the importance of the first 1000 days of a child’s life in terms of laying the foundations for healthy growth and development, parents are a logical target group for supporting health-related practices with regard to young children. However, little attention is paid to the influence of the wider social community on the health and development of young children during this crucial period. This includes grandmothers, who often have a significant influence on health-related practices of their grandchildren. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the influence of grandmothers on health related practices of their grandchildren during the first 1000 days, from the perspectives of both grandmothers and mothers with a Turkish background. Method This qualitative study in the Netherlands collected data during focus group discussions with grandmothers ( N = 3), interviews with grandmothers ( N = 18) and interviews with mothers ( N = 16), all with a Turkish background. Data was collected in the period between June 2019 and April 2021 and analysed using a thematic content analysis. Results The influence of grandmothers and the wider social community on health related practices during the first 1000 days of a child’s life is substantial and self-evident. The support of grandmothers is often rooted in various socio-cultural norms and practices. The mothers of young children can experience the guidance and pressure they receive from grandmothers and the wider social community as quite stressful. Conflicting views and practices tend to arise between grandmothers and mothers when a grandmother babysits. Both mothers and grandmothers often find it difficult to discuss these differences openly, for fear this might lead to a family conflict. Conclusion This study shows that grandmothers and the wider social community play an influential role in supporting a healthy first 1000 days of a child’s life. The strong involvement of grandmothers may lead to tension between the mothers and grandmothers when their ideas about healthy practices are not in agreement and may lead to unhealthy practices. In targeting this wider social community, it is important to consider the various socio-cultural factors that underlie the advice, support, practices and beliefs of the individuals involved.
Objectives: Most studies of knee osteoarthritis use isokinetic peak strength as a measure of muscle strength. However, estimated one-repetition maximum (1-RM) may have a stronger relationship than isokinetic peak strength with daily activities. The aim of this study was to test the following hypotheses: first, the estimated 1-RM is more strongly associated than isokinetic peak strength with daily activities; and secondly, the estimated 1-RM is most strongly associated with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), followed by the Get Up and Go test (GUG test) and the stair-climb test. Methods: Data were used for 177 patients with knee osteoarthritis from a randomized controlled trial on improving muscle strength. The patients had a mean age of 67.6 ± 5.8 years. Isokinetic peak strength was measured using a dynamometer, 1-RM was estimated with the 10-RM test, and physical performance was measured with the 6MWT, GUG test and stair-climb test, at the start and end of 12 weeks of resistance training. Linear regression analyses provided standardized betas (β) that were comparable between the different associations between measures of muscle strength and daily activities. Results: Compared with the estimated 1-RM, isokinetic peak strength was more strongly associated with all performance-based measures. The associations between the estimated 1-RM and performance-based tests were not ranked in the order hypothesized (6MWT, GUG test, stair-climb test). Conclusion: Contrary to the first hypothesis, isokinetic peak strength showed stronger associations with all daily activities than did estimated 1-RM. In addition, the second hypothesis regarding the activity-specific pattern for the 1-RM with regards walking, chair rising and stair climbing measurements was not confirmed.
Study design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: The aims of this study were (1) to validate the two recently developed SCI-specific REE equations; (2) to develop new prediction equations to predict REE in a general population with SCI. Setting: University, the Netherlands. Methods: Forty-eight community-dwelling men and women with SCI were recruited (age: 18-75 years, time since injury: ≥12 months). Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA) and skinfold thickness. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Personal and lesion characteristics were collected. SCI-specific REE equations by Chun et al.  and by Nightingale and Gorgey  were validated. New equations for predicting REE were developed using multivariate regression analysis. Results: Prediction equations by Chun et al.  and by Nightingale and Gorgey  significantly underestimated REE (Chun et al.: -11%; Nightingale and Gorgey: -11%). New equations were developed for predicting REE in the general population of people with SCI using FFM measured by SF-BIA and Goosey-Tolfrey et al. skinfold equation (R2 = 0.45-0.47; SEE = 200 kcal/day). The new equations showed proportional bias (p < 0.001) and wide limits of agreement (LoA, ±23%). Conclusions: Prediction equations by Chun et al.  and by Nightingale and Gorgey  significantly underestimated REE and showed large individual variations in a general population with SCI. The newly developed REE equations showed proportional bias and a wide LoA (±23%) which limit the predictive power and accuracy to predict REE in the general population with SCI. Alternative methods for measuring REE need to be investigated.
In early childhood, young children frequently engage in object-oriented play. According to cultural-historical activity theory,object-oriented play provides children with opportunities to learn about the characteristics and cultural applications of objects and materials. These characteristics are referred to as rules or affordances of objects and materials. To date, what kind of rules children explore and follow, and how they do so, has not been extensively studied, even though the understanding of children’s learning in object-oriented play is important for early childhood education. In the current explorative study, we analysed how six children aged between two and four years explore, follow, and impose rules during a 10-minute play activity in which they were presented with a fixed set of objects (e.g. oddly shaped blocks, boxes, abstract shaped puppets, etc.). Thematic analysis of video-observations revealed two themes: (1) children explore, follow and impose different types of rules using different strategies, increasing in complexity with age, and (2) children explore, follow or impose rules by various forms of repetition, with older children showing longer and more complex forms of repetition. In the discussion, these themes were interpreted using CHAT.
Aim The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a more ‘community-oriented’ baccalaureate nursing curriculum on students’ intervention choice in community care. Background Following a healthcare shift with increased chronic diseases in an ageing patient population receiving care at home, nursing education is revising its curricula with new themes (e.g., self-management) on community care. Although it seems obvious that students incorporate these themes in their nursing care interventions, this is unclear. This study investigates the effect of a redesigned curriculum on students’ care intervention choice in community nursing. Design A quasi-experimental quantitative study. Methods This study with an historic control group (n = 328; study cohorts graduating in 2016 and 2017; response rate 83%) and an intervention group (n = 152; graduating in 2018; response rate 80%) was performed at a University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands. The intervention group experienced a curriculum-redesign containing five new themes related to community care (e.g., enhancing self-management, collaboration with the patients’ social network, shared decision making, using health technology and care allocation). The primary outcome 'intervention choice in community nursing’ was assessed with a specially developed vignette instrument ‘Assessment of Intervention choice in Community Nursing’ (AICN). Through multiple regression analyses we investigated the effect of the curriculum-redesign on students’ intervention choice (more ‘traditional’ interventions versus interventions related to the five new themes). The control and intervention groups were compared on the number of interventions per theme and on the number of students choosing a theme, with a chi-square or T-test. Results Students who studied under the more community-oriented curriculum chose interventions related to the new themes significantly more often, F(1,461) = 14.827, p = <.001, R² =.031. However, more traditional interventions are still favourite (although less in the intervention group): 74.5% of the chosen interventions in the historic control group had no relation with the new curriculum-themes, vs. 71.3% in the intervention group; p = 0.055). Conclusions Students who experienced a more ‘community-oriented’ curriculum were more likely, albeit to a limited extent, to choose the new community care themes in their caregiving. Seeing this shift in choices as a step in the right direction, it can be expected that the community care field in the longer term will benefit from these better skilled graduates.
In this paper, we examine whether social class and class divides in social networks contribute to individuals' attachment to society. We argue that network segregation restricts individuals' social worlds, thereby diminishing societal attachment. Our research site is Chile, a country with relatively low social cohesion and one of the world's highest levels of economic inequality. We use large‐scale representative survey data collected in 2016 for the Chilean urban population aged 18–75 years (n = 2983) and interrelate indicators of well‐established dimensions and sub‐dimensions of societal attachment. Results of our regression analyses show that members of the upper middle class are more attached to society than their fellow citizens from other social strata. In addition, having more social contacts within one's own social class reduces attachment to society. In particular, network homogeneity lessens societal attachment for lower‐ and upper‐class individuals, but not so strongly in the middle class. We conclude that social cohesion in Chilean society would be enhanced not only by more equal opportunities but also by changes to the social settings in which social class segregation is (re)produced.
The ballistic resistance of a combined soft tissue simulant was studied, consisting of gelatine as a simulant for human muscle tissue and tanned cowhide (leather) as a simulant for human skin. The simulant was manufactured by applying cowhide to liquid ballistic gelatine, as the gelatine solidified in its mould. Combining a skin and muscle tissue simulant in this adhered way opens the possibility to produce purpose-built proxies for human body parts in ballistic studies or for forensic shooting incident reconstructions. Ballistic resistance of adhered cowhide – (bonded) to solidifying ballistic gelatine – was compared to that of the same material applied on gelatine blocks in loose condition. Ballistic resistance of tanned cowhide was found to be more consistent in adhered condition. This enhanced consistency is a benefit, increasing reproducibility of results in ballistic studies. Additionally, two ways to assess ballistic resistance of a skin simulant were described and compared. Logistic regression, from a number of measured velocities and associated (non)perforations is recommended for testing ballistic resistance.
Objectives : To improve transmural palliative care for acutely admitted older patients, the XX transmural care pathway was developed. Implementation of this care pathway was challenging. The aim of this study was to improve understanding why the implementation partly failed. Design : A qualitative process evaluation study. Setting/participants : 17 professionals who were involved in the XX program were interviewed. Methods : Online semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis to create themes according to the implementation framework of Grol & Wensing. Results : From this study, themes within four levels of implementation emerged: 1) The innovation: challenges in current palliative care, the setting of the pathway and boost for improvement; 2) Individual professional: feeling (un)involved and motivation; 3) Organizational level: project management; 4) Political and economic level: project plan and evaluation. Conclusion and implications : We learned that the challenges involved in implementing a transmural care pathway in palliative care should not be underestimated. For successful implementation, we emphasize the importance of creating a program that fits the complexity of transmural palliative care. We suggest starting on a small scale and invest in project management. This could help to involve all stakeholders and anticipate current challenges in palliative care. To increase acceptance, create one care pathway that can start and be used in all care settings. Make sure that there is sufficient flexibility in time and room to adjust the project plan, so that a second pilot study can possibly be performed, and choose a scientific evaluation with both rigor and practical usefulness to evaluate effectiveness.
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