We studied whether elderly women at risk for fractures receive primary care treatment to prevent fracture. We found that across Europe, women at risk are often not identified, and less than half of such women receive appropriate treatment. Finally, women diagnosed with osteoporosis are much more likely to receive treatment. Purpose: To examine the relationship between risk factors for fragility fracture (FF) and osteoporosis (OP) treatment gap in elderly women across Europe, and compare the prevalence of risk factors between countries. Methods: Demographic and clinical information was collected from women ≥ 70 years visiting primary care physicians in Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the UK. Increased risk of FF was defined by the presence of 1 or more criteria (history of fracture, 10-year fracture probability, or T-score ≤ - 2.5). Results: There were 3798 women in total. Treatment gap (proportion at increased risk of FF not receiving treatment for OP) varied from 53.1 to 90.8% across countries, and the proportion of patients at increased risk of FF varied from 41.2 to 76.1%. Across countries, less than 50% of patients with increased risk of FF had a diagnosis of OP. Previous fracture was the most common risk factor, with similar prevalence across most countries; other risk factors varied widely. The treatment gap was reduced in patients with an OP diagnosis in all countries, but this reduction varied from 36.5 to 79.4%. The countries with the lowest rates of bone densitometry scans (Poland, France, and Germany; 8.3-12.3%) also had the highest treatment gap (82.2 to 90.8%). Conclusions: This study highlights differences across Europe in clinical risk factors for fracture, rates of densitometry scanning, and the rates of OP diagnosis. More emphasis is needed on risk assessment to improve the identification and treatment of elderly women at risk for fracture.
In many countries, osteoporosis is predominantly managed by primary care physicians; however, management after a fragility fracture has not been widely investigated. We describe osteoporosis care gaps in a real-world patient cohort. Our findings help inform initiatives to identify and overcome obstacles to effective management of patients after fragility fracture. Purpose A fragility fracture is a major risk factor for subsequent fracture in adults aged ≥ 50 years. This retrospective observational study aimed to characterize post-fracture management in Canadian primary care. Methods A total of 778 patients with an index fragility fracture (low-trauma, excluding small bones) occurring between 2014 and 2016 were identified from medical records at 76 primary care centers in Canada, with follow-up until January 2018. Results Of 778 patients (80.5% female, median age [IQR] 73 [64–80]), 215 were on osteoporosis treatment and 269 had osteoporosis diagnosis recorded prior to their index fracture. The median follow-up was 363 (IQR 91–808) days. Of patients not on osteoporosis treatment at their index fracture, 60.2% ( n = 339/563) remained untreated after their index fracture and 62.2% ( n = 23/37) continued untreated after their subsequent fracture. After their index fracture, fracture risk assessment (FRAX or CAROC) was not performed in 83.2% ( n = 647/778) of patients, and 59.9% ( n = 466/778) of patients did not receive bone mineral density testing. Of patients without osteoporosis diagnosis recorded prior to their index date, 61.3% ( n = 300/489) remained undiagnosed after their index fracture. At least one subsequent fracture occurred in 11.5% ( n = 86/778) of patients. Conclusion In the primary care setting, fragility fracture infrequently resulted in osteoporosis treatment or fracture risk assessment, even after multiple fragility fractures. These results suggest a fragility fracture is not recognized as a major risk factor for subsequent fracture and its occurrence does not prompt primary care physicians to intervene. These data urge initiatives to identify and overcome obstacles to primary care physicians’ effective management of patients after fragility fractures.
There is considerable pressure in the pharmaceutical industry to advance better molecules faster. One pervasive concern for protein-based therapeutics is the presence of potential chemical liabilities. We have developed a simple methodology for rapidly de-risking specific chemical concerns in antibody-based molecules using prior knowledge of each individual liability at a specific position in the molecule’s sequence. Our methodology hinges on the development of sequence-aligned chemical liability databases of molecules from different stages of commercialization and on sequence-aligned experimental data from prior molecules that have been developed at Amgen. This approach goes beyond the standard practice of simply flagging all instances of each motif that fall in a CDR. Instead, we de-risk motifs that are common at a specific site in commercial mAb-based molecules (and therefore did not previously pose an insurmountable barrier to commercialization) and motifs at specific sites for which we have prior experimental data indicating acceptably low levels of modification. We have used this approach successfully to identify candidates in a discovery phase program with exclusively very low risk potential chemical liabilities. Identifying these candidates in the discovery phase allowed us to bypass protein engineering and accelerate the program’s timeline by 6 months.
In Spanish primary care (PC), the prevalence of fragility fractures (FF) in subjects ≥ 70 years old is high, especially in women. One-third of subjects with an FF lacked osteoporosis (OP) diagnosis and >50% were not currently receiving OP medication. An improvement of the FF management in this population is needed. Purpose In Spanish PC, the prevalence of FF is high, especially in women. One-third of subjects with a FF lacked an OP diagnosis and more than half were not currently receiving OP medication. Several studies reported underdiagnosis/undertreatment of OP in PC among elderly subjects with FF. To date, no such data exist for Spain. The purpose is to estimate the prevalence of FF in the elderly population (≥ 70 years old) and to describe the characteristics, risk factors, comorbidities, and OP diagnosis and treatment rates of subjects with FF in Spanish PC centers. Methods This is an observational, retrospective study in Spain consisting of two phases. Phase A included all subjects ≥ 70 years old listed in the center’s medical records from November 2018 to March 2020. Phase B included subjects with FF and prior consultation at the center for any reason. Subjects were excluded only if they had previously participated in another study. Primary outcomes were prevalence of FF (phase A) and characteristics of subjects with at least one FF (phase B). Results The overall prevalence of FF was 17.7% among subjects visiting medical centers for any reason (24.1% women vs. 8.0% men) (30 PC centers from 14 Spanish regions). Vertebral (5.1%) was the most prevalent fracture. Of 665 subjects in phase B, most (87%) were women and ≥ 80 years old (57%), suffered mainly major OP fracture (68%), and had multiple comorbidities (≥ 2, 89.2%). While two-thirds had OP diagnosis and 61.1% received OP medication anytime in the past, 56.8% were not currently receiving OP medication. Diagnosis and treatment rates were lower among men (43% and 38% vs. 70% and 65%, respectively). Conclusion Prevalence of FF was high, especially in women. One-third of subjects lacked OP diagnosis and ≥ 50% were not receiving OP treatment; diagnosis and treatment gaps were larger among men. This reinforces the need to improve the management of FF in the elderly population. However, as PC centers participating in this study had high OP experience that have the potential to do better in terms of diagnosis and treatment, caution in the generalization of these data should be taken.
Cell-to-cell signaling, or quorum sensing (QS), in many Gram-negative bacteria is governed by small molecule signals (N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, AHLs) and their cognate receptors (LuxR-type proteins). The mechanistic underpinnings of QS in these bacteria are severely limited due to the challenges of isolating and manipulating most LuxR-type proteins. Reports of quantitative direct-binding experiments on LuxR-type proteins are scarce, and robust and generalizable methods that provide such data are largely nonexistent. We report herein a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay that leverages (1) conserved tryptophans located in the LuxR-type protein ligand-binding site and synthetic fluorophore–AHL conjugates, and (2) isolation of the proteins bound to weak agonists. The FRET assay permits straightforward measurement of ligand-binding affinities with receptor—either in vitro or in cells—and was shown to be compatible with six LuxR-type proteins. These methods will advance fundamental investigations of LuxR-type protein mechanism and the development of small molecule QS modulators. A FRET-based assay using the conserved tryptophans of bacterial quorum-sensing LuxR-type proteins and synthetic fluorophore-acyl-homoserine lactone conjugates enables measurement of ligand-binding affinities either in vitro or in cells.
Fragility fractures (i.e., low-energy fractures) account for most fractures among older Canadians and are associated with significant increases in morbidity and mortality. Study results suggest that low-energy fracture rates (associated with surgical intervention and outcomes) declined slightly, but largely remained stable in the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Purpose/introduction This study describes rates of low-energy fractures, time-to-surgery, complications, and deaths post-surgery in patients with fractures during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Alberta, Canada, compared to the three years prior. Methods A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted using provincial-level administrative health data. Outcomes were assessed in 3-month periods in the 3 years preceding the COVID-19 pandemic and in the first two 3-month periods after restrictions were implemented. Patterns of fracture- and hospital-related outcomes over the control years (2017–2019) and COVID-19 restrictions periods (2020) were calculated. Results Relative to the average from the control periods, there was a slight decrease in the absolute number of low-energy fractures ( n = 4733 versus n = 4308) during the first COVID-19 period, followed by a slight rise in the second COVID-19 period ( n = 4520 versus n = 4831). While the absolute number of patients with low-energy fractures receiving surgery within the same episode of care decreased slightly during the COVID-19 periods, the proportion receiving surgery and the proportion receiving surgery within 24 h of admission remained stable. Across all periods, hip fractures accounted for the majority of patients with low-energy fractures receiving surgery (range: 58.9–64.2%). Patients with complications following surgery and in-hospital deaths following fracture repair decreased slightly during the COVID-19 periods. Conclusions These results suggest that low-energy fracture rates, associated surgeries, and surgical outcomes declined slightly, but largely remained stable in the first few months of the pandemic. Further investigation is warranted to explore patterns during subsequent COVID-19 waves when the healthcare system experienced severe strain.
Purpose/introduction The objective of this study was to describe osteoporosis-related care patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Alberta, Canada, relative to the 3-year preceding. Methods A repeated cross-sectional study design encompassing 3-month periods of continuous administrative health data between March 15, 2017, and September 14, 2020, described osteoporosis-related healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and treatment patterns. Outcomes included patients with osteoporosis-related healthcare encounters, physician visits, diagnostic and laboratory test volumes, and treatment initiations and disruptions. The percent change between outcomes was calculated, averaged across the control periods (2017–2019), relative to the COVID-19 periods (2020). Results Relative to the average control March to June period, all HCRU declined during the corresponding COVID-19 period. There was a reduction of 14% in patients with osteoporosis healthcare encounters, 13% in general practitioner visits, 9% in specialist practitioner visits, 47% in bone mineral density tests, and 13% in vitamin D tests. Treatment initiations declined 43%, 26%, and 35% for oral bisphosphonates, intravenous bisphosphonates, and denosumab, respectively. Slight increases were observed in the proportion of patients with treatment disruptions. In the subsequent June to September period, HCRU either returned to or surpassed pre-pandemic levels, when including telehealth visits accounting for 33–45% of healthcare encounters during the COVID periods. Oral bisphosphonate treatment initiations remained lower than pre-pandemic levels. Conclusions This study demonstrates the COVID-19 pandemic and corresponding public health lockdowns further heightened the “crisis” around the known gap in osteoporosis care and altered the provision of care (e.g., use of telehealth and initiation of treatment). Summary Osteoporosis has a known substantial care and management disparity, which has been classifed as a crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic created additional burden on osteoporosis patient care with healthcare encounters, physician visits, diagnostic and laboratory tests, and treatment initiations all declining during the initial pandemic period, relative to previous years.
Background: Limited health outcomes information exists for patients with mild to moderate plaque psoriasis (hereafter, referred to as psoriasis) prescribed topical treatment(s). Aim: We evaluated clinical characteristics of patients with systemic-naïve mild to moderate psoriasis after topical use in the United States. Methods: Data were drawn from 2017 to 2018 Adelphi Psoriasis Disease Specific Programme™, a point-in-time survey of physicians and adult psoriasis patients, capturing data on topical treatment at time of consultation prescribed to systemic-naïve patients with mild to moderate psoriasis (i.e. body surface area [BSA] ≤ 10%) at current treatment initiation. Patient clinical characteristics before/after topical use were evaluated descriptively. Results: Among 304 patients (median age 43.0 years; 53.6% female), mean time since diagnosis was 60.9 months. After a mean 6.9 months on their current topical, 14.5% of patients achieved ≥75% BSA reduction, 38.9% ≥50% BSA reduction, and 50.2% no BSA reduction. Residual psoriasis symptoms included scaling (76.5%), inflamed skin (65.9%), and itching (60.4%). Most patients (71.2%) had residual psoriasis in special body areas: nails (92.3%), palmoplantar (78.9%), scalp (75.9%), and face (65.8%). Conclusion: We found unmet need in topical treatment effectiveness in mild to moderate psoriasis patients, in terms of BSA reduction, symptoms, and special body areas affected.
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is associated with high mortality, highlighting an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. As stress-activated cardiac signaling cascades converge on the nucleus to drive maladaptive gene programs, interdicting pathological transcription is a conceptually attractive approach for HFrEF therapy. Here, we demonstrate that CDK7/12/13 are critical regulators of transcription activation in the heart that can be pharmacologically inhibited to improve HFrEF. CDK7/12/13 inhibition using the first-in-class inhibitor THZ1 or RNAi blocks stress-induced transcription and pathologic hypertrophy in cultured rodent cardiomyocytes. THZ1 potently attenuates adverse cardiac remodeling and HFrEF pathogenesis in mice and blocks cardinal features of disease in human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. THZ1 suppresses Pol II enrichment at stress-transactivated cardiac genes and inhibits a specific pathologic gene program in the failing mouse heart. These data identify CDK7/12/13 as druggable regulators of cardiac gene transactivation during disease-related stress, suggesting that HFrEF features a critical dependency on transcription that can be therapeutically exploited.
Objective: To assess the safety and biological activity of rozibafusp alfa, a first-in-class bispecific antibody-peptide conjugate targeting inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL) and B cell activating factor (BAFF), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: This phase 1b, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple ascending dose study included 34 patients (18-75 years; 82.4% female) with active RA (Disease Activity Score of 28 joints-C-reactive protein [DAS28-CRP] >2.6, on stable methotrexate) randomized 3:1 to receive rozibafusp alfa (n = 26, in four ascending dose cohorts of 70, 140, 210, and 420 mg) or a placebo (n = 8) subcutaneously once every 2 weeks for 10 weeks (six total doses), with 24 weeks of follow-up. The primary end point was the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Additional assessments included serum pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), immunogenicity, and RA disease activity measures (DAS28-CRP, Patient Global Assessment of Disease, and Physician Global Assessment of Disease). Results: TEAEs occurred in 96.2% and 87.5% of patients receiving rozibafusp alfa and the placebo, respectively; most were mild or moderate in severity. Two (7.7%) patients treated with rozibafusp alfa reported serious TEAEs; none were considered treatment related. Multiple doses of rozibafusp alfa showed nonlinear PK (mean t1/2 = 4.6-9.5 days) and dose-related, reversible PD (>90% ICOSL receptor occupancy in 210- and 420-mg cohorts; reduction in naïve B cells and increase in memory B cells in all cohorts). Five (20%) patients developed anti-rozibafusp alfa antibodies, with no apparent impact on safety. RA disease activity showed greater numerical improvement from baseline with rozibafusp alfa versus the placebo in the 210- and 420-mg cohorts. Conclusion: Multiple ascending doses of rozibafusp alfa were well tolerated, with PK and PD reflecting dual ICOSL and BAFF blockade. Findings support further clinical evaluation of rozibafusp alfa in autoimmune disease.
The diagnostic work-up for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires biomarker testing to guide therapy choices. This article is the second of a two-part series. In Part 1, we summarised evidence-based recommendations for obtaining and processing small specimen samples (i.e. pre-analytical steps) from patients with advanced NSCLC. Here, in Part 2, we summarise evidence-based recommendations relating to analytical steps of biomarker testing (and associated reporting and quality assessment) of small specimen samples in NSCLC. As the number of biomarkers for actionable (genetic) targets and approved targeted therapies continues to increase, simultaneous testing of multiple actionable oncogenic drivers using next-generation sequencing (NGS) becomes imperative, as set forth in European Society for Medical Oncology guidelines. This is particularly relevant in advanced NSCLC, where tissue specimens are typically limited and NGS may help avoid tissue exhaustion compared with sequential biomarker testing. Despite guideline recommendations, significant discrepancies in access to NGS persist across Europe, primarily due to reimbursement constraints. The use of increasingly complex testing methods also has implications for the reporting of results. Molecular testing reports should include clinical interpretation with additional commentary on sample adequacy as appropriate. Molecular tumour boards are recommended to facilitate the interpretation of complex genetic information arising from NGS, and to collaboratively determine the optimal treatment for patients with NSCLC. Finally, whichever testing modality is employed, it is essential that adequate internal and external validation and quality control measures are implemented.
Biomarker testing is crucial for treatment selection in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the quantity of available tissue often presents a key constraint for patients with advanced disease, where minimally invasive tissue biopsy typically returns small samples. In Part 1 of this two-part series, we summarise evidence-based recommendations relating to small sample processing for patients with NSCLC. Generally, tissue biopsy techniques that deliver the greatest quantity and quality of tissue with the least risk to the patient should be selected. Rapid on-site evaluation can help to ensure sufficient sample quality and quantity. Sample processing should be managed according to biomarker testing requirements, because tissue fixation methodology influences downstream nucleic acid, protein and morphological analyses. Accordingly, 10% neutral buffered formalin is recommended as an appropriate fixative, and the duration of fixation is recommended not to exceed 24–48 h. Tissue sparing techniques, including the ‘one biopsy per block’ approach and small sample cutting protocols, can help preserve tissue. Cytological material (formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded [FFPE] cytology blocks and non-FFPE samples such as smears and touch preparations) can be an excellent source of nucleic acid, providing either primary or supplementary patient material to complete morphological and molecular diagnoses. Considerations on biomarker testing, reporting and quality assessment are discussed in Part 2.
Purpose The recommended method for establishing a meaningful threshold for individual changes in patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores over time uses an anchor-based method. The patients assess their perceived level of change and this is used to define a threshold on the PRO score which may be considered meaningful to the patient. In practice, such an anchor may not be available. In the absence of alternative information often the meaningful change threshold for assessing between-group differences, the minimally important difference, is used to define meaningful change at the individual level too. This paper will highlight the issues with this, especially where the underlying measurement scale is not continuous. Methods Using the EORTC QLQ-C30 as an example, plausible score increments (“state changes”) are calculated for each subscale highlighting why commonly used thresholds may be misleading, including leading to sensitivity analyses that are inadvertently testing the same underlying threshold. Results The minimal possible individual score change varies across subscales; 6.7 for Physical Functioning, 8.3 for Global Health Scale and Emotional Functioning, 11.1 for fatigue, 16.7 for role functioning, cognitive functioning, social functioning, nausea and vomiting, pain and 33.3 for single items. Conclusions The determination of meaningful change for an individual patient requires input from the patients but being mindful of the underlying scale ensures that these thresholds are also guided by what is a plausible change for patients to achieve on the scale.
Autologous cell therapy has proven to be an effective treatment for hematological malignancies. Cell therapies for solid tumors are on the horizon, however the high cost and complexity of manufacturing these therapies remain a challenge. Routinely used open steps to transfer cells and reagents through unit operations further burden the workflow reducing efficiency and increasing the chance for human error. Here we describe a fully closed, autologous bioprocess generating MAGE-B2 TCR-T cells. This bioprocess yielded 5 – 12e9 MAGE-B2-specific TCR-expressing T cells, transduced at low MOIs, within 7 to 10 days, and cells exhibited an enriched memory T cell phenotype and enhanced metabolic fitness. It was demonstrated that activating, transducing, and expanding leuko-apheresed cells in a single bioreactor without a T cell enrichment step promoted lentivirus transduction efficiency while resulting in comparable level of T cell purity (~97%) as that of leukopak cells that went through CD8+ and CD4+ positive selection. The critical process parameters of the bioreactor, including culturing at a high cell density (7e6 cells/mL), adjusting rocking agitations during phases of scale up, lowering glycolysis through addition of 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), and modulating IL-2 levels, were shown to positively regulate TCR expression and cell doubling time, and promote resistance to effector-associated apoptosis of TCR-T cells. The bioprocess described herein supports scale-out feasibility by enabling processing of multiple patients’ batches in parallel within a Grade C cleanroom.
Background Breast cancer chemotherapy often carries a high risk of febrile neutropenia (FN); guidelines recommend prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), such as pegfilgrastim. Neulasta ® Onpro ® on-body injector (OBI) is a delivery device administering pegfilgrastim approximately 27 h after application. Methods This prospective study examined patients with breast cancer who received chemotherapy with a high risk of FN, receiving OBI (“OBI”) or other options (other G-CSF or none; “other”). The primary endpoint was FN incidence; secondary endpoints included chemotherapy delivery, adherence (G-CSF in all cycles), compliance (G-CSF day after chemotherapy), and FN incidence in patients receiving curative or palliative treatment. Results A total of 1776 patients with breast cancer were enrolled (OBI, n = 1196; other, n = 580). Across all cycles, FN incidence was lower for OBI (4.4% [95% CI, 3.3–5.6%]) than other (7.4% [5.3–9.6%]). For curative treatment, the FN incidence across all cycles was lower for OBI (4.6% [3.4–5.8%]) than for other (7.1% [5.0–9.3%]). For palliative treatment (OBI, n = 33; other, n = 20), 3 patients (15%) in the other and none in the OBI group had FN. After adjusting for baseline covariates, FN incidence remained lower for OBI (4.6% [3.5–6.1%]) versus other (7.8% [5.7–10.5%]). Adherence was higher for OBI (93.8%) than for other G-CSF (69.8%), as was compliance (90.5 and 53.2%, respectively). Chemotherapy dose delays/reductions were similar for OBI (4.7%/32.3%, respectively) and other (4.7%/30.0%) groups. Conclusion Pegfilgrastim OBI was associated with a lower FN incidence in patients with breast cancer compared to other options for FN prophylaxis. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT02178475, registered 30 June, 2014
Background: We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of nintedanib, an oral anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with pembrolizumab, an anti-PD1 immunotherapy, in patients with advanced solid tumors (PEMBIB trial; NCT02856425). Methods: In this monocentric phase Ib dose escalation cohort, we evaluated escalating doses of nintedanib (Dose level 1 (DL1) = 150 mg bid [bis in die, as twice a day]; DL2 = 200 mg bid, oral delivery) in combination with pembrolizumab (200 mg Q3W, IV). Patients received a 1-week lead-in dose of nintedanib monotherapy prior starting pembrolizumab. The primary objective was to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the combination based on dose limiting toxicity (DLT) occurrence during the first 4 weeks. Secondary objectives were to assess the anti-tumor efficacy and to identify the associated immune and angiogenic parameters in order to establish the recommended nintedanib dose for expansion cohorts. Flow cytometry (FC), Immuno-Histo-Chemistry (IHC) and electrochemiluminescence multi-arrays were prospectively performed on baseline & on-treatment tumor and blood samples to identify immune correlates of efficacy. Results: A total of 12/13 patients enrolled were evaluable for DLT (1 patient withdrew consent prior receiving pembrolizumab). Three patients at 200 mg bid experienced a DLT (grade 3 liver enzymes increase). Four patients developed grade 1-2 immune related adverse events (irAE). Eight patients died because of cancer progression. Median follow-up was 23.7 months (95%CI: 5.55-40.5). Three patients developed a partial response (PR) (ORR = 25%) and five patients (42%) had durable clinical benefit (DCB), defined as PR or stable disease (SD) ≥ 6 months. At baseline, patients with DCB had higher plasma levels of Tie2, CXCL10, CCL22 and circulating CD4+ PD1+ OX40+ T cells than patients without DCB. Patients with DCB presented also with more DC-LAMP+ dendritic cells, CD3+ T cells and FOXP3+ Tregs in baseline tumor biopsies. For DCB patients, the nintedanib lead-in monotherapy resulted in higher blood CCL3, Tregs and CCR4+ CXCR3+ CXCR5- memory CD4 T cells. After the first pembrolizumab infusion, patients with DCB showed lower IL-6, IL-8, IL-27 plasma levels. Conclusion: Nintedanib 150 mg bid is the recommended dose for combination with pembrolizumab and is currently investigated in multiple expansion cohorts. Early tumoral and circulating immune factors were associated with cancer outcome under nintedanib & pembrolizumab therapy. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02856425 . Registered August 4, 2016 - Prospectively registered.
Reproducible document standards, like R Markdown, facilitate the programmatic creation of documents whose content is itself programmatically generated. While programmatic content alone may not be sufficient for a rendered document since it does not include prose (content generated by an author to provide context, a narrative, etc.) programmatic generation can provide substantial efficiencies for structuring and constructing documents. This paper explores the programmatic generation of reproducible documents by distinguishing components that can be created by computational means from those requiring human-generation, providing guidelines for the generation of these documents, and identifying a use case in clinical trial reporting. These concepts and use case are illustrated through the listdown package for the R programming environment, which is is currently available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network.
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