Dynastic rule in republics is a global trend. Using a qualitative life-story-and-family-history method to compare two republican dynasties – the Assads of Syria and Kims of North Korea – this article examines how ruthless kin groups establish themselves in power, practice nepotism and corrupt republican institutions of government with dynastic succession. Focusing on sibling rivalry, a potentially destructive threat to dynasties, it contributes to an emerging political science literature on republican political families by exploring five factors that shape sibling conflict and cooperation.
This chapter first captures the pulse of France’s media reaction to President Obama over the years giving the sense of the “Obamania” that started the Obama mandate in 2008. It goes on to discuss the Obama Doctrine, which sets the philosophical and theoretical frame for Obama’s responses and actions on all his major foreign policy highs and lows with its transnational ally, France. Obama’s grand strategy showed a combination of continuity and change from his predecessor, George Bush. During Obama’s tenure, there was never a break in the harmony of values between the two countries. None of the bilateral differences took away from the essence of cordial and supportive Franco-American relations. The chapter concludes that despite the ups and downs, President Obama is still a favorite in France and Europe. What the future holds under President Trump for Franco-American transatlantic ties is still in flux.
People may express a variety of emotions after committing a transgression. Through 6 empirical studies and a meta-analysis, we investigate how the perceived authenticity of such emotional displays and resulting levels of trust are shaped by the transgressor’s power. Past findings suggest that individuals with power tend to be more authentic because they have more freedom to act on the basis of their own personal inclinations. Yet, our findings reveal that (a) a transgressor’s display of emotion is perceived to be less authentic when that party’s power is high rather than low; (b) this perception of emotional authenticity, in turn, directly influences (and mediates) the level of trust in that party; and (c) perceivers ultimately exert less effort when asked to make a case for leniency toward high rather than low-power transgressors. This tendency to discount the emotional authenticity of the powerful was found to arise from power increasing the transgressor’s perceived level of emotional control and strategic motivation, rather than a host of alternative mechanisms. These results were also found across different types of emotions (sadness, anger, fear, happiness, and neutral), expressive modalities, operationalizations of the transgression, and participant populations. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that besides the wealth of benefits power can afford, it also comes with a notable downside. The findings, furthermore, extend past research on perceived emotional authenticity, which has focused on how and when specific emotions are expressed, by revealing how this perception can depend on considerations that have nothing to do with the expression itself.
The aim of this article is to identify the main factors of the current crisis of the nation-state and to demonstrate how many of the voids left by this crisis are filled by religions. The main characteristic of the nation-state is the principle of sovereignty. The apogee of the nation-state is the political form (as well as a political need) of industrialization. National identity is possible only when the state proves to its citizens that the fact of being a member of it carries benefits and privileges and will always bring more. Today, the majority of nation-states, in particular the oldest great powers, no longer have this capability. The weakening of the nation-state began at the end of the 19th century. The first wave of globalization multiplied the cases of reciprocal interferences and trespassed on the theoretical impermeability of the sovereign states. The outcome of the First World War, with the creation of the first supranational body (the League of Nations), and much more the outcome of the Second World War, were two important steps of this crisis. The birth of the United Nations, and of other supranational bodies (the International Monetary Fund [IMF], the World Bank [WB], the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] …), as well as the creation of the first court called to judge an entire political class, were an assault on the principle of sovereignty. The second wave of globalization, characterized by the free circulation of goods, money, people and cultures, did the rest. Moreover, the countries that ‘invented’ the principle of sovereignty are today in relative decline as new powers are emerging. The nation-state is no longer able to keep its promises. The less effective states become at offering their citizens both meaning and social services, the more do religions tend to reoccupy the public stage. The less national and political legitimacy they have, the more powers use the religious tool against one another.
Job search is a dynamic self-regulated process during which job seekers need to stay motivated to secure a job. However, past research has taken a relatively static approach to examining motivation during the job search, in addition to ignoring how the quality of one’s motivation—ranging from autonomous to controlled—can influence job search processes. Adopting a within-person perspective, the current study extends self-determination theory (SDT) to the job search context to investigate (1) when autonomous and controlled motivations are more or less prevalent and (2) whether they influence job search effort through meta-cognitive strategies in differing ways depending upon the amount of time elapsed in the search. In a weekly study of new labor market entrants (Level-2 n = 149; Level-1 n = 691), results indicated that autonomous motivation decreased until the mid-point of the job search and then plateaued, whereas controlled motivation remained stable. Results also showed that autonomous motivation had a consistent, positive relation with meta-cognitive strategies, whereas the relation between controlled motivation and such strategies was negative early in the job search, but became positive as the job search progressed. Finally, the effects of motivation on job search effort occurred via meta-cognitive strategies differentially depending upon the time elapsed in the search. Combined, we provide a first glimpse into the dynamics of self-determined motivation on job search processes.
The tobacco Industry has been successful in making smoking socially acceptable for men and woman resulting in an ever-expanding global multibillion dollar business. Smoking has historically been attacked as a filthy habit, whether using chewing tobacco, pipes, and cigars. Cigarettes, the most common tobacco product, soil teeth and fingers and leave a pervasive, long-lasting odor in clothes, furnishings and hair. Smokers know that this habit does not improve long-term health prospects and that smoking frequently makes their throats sore, their breath bad and provokes coughing. Nonetheless, more than one-third of the global population over the age of 15 smokes, and they smoke 15 billion cigarettes a day.
This paper analyzes the importance of “total quality export marketing” for developing countries. After brief reviews of the literature on quality and export marketing, the paper examines Turkey, a country that has developed considerably in the last decade as a result of many liberal economic policies. At present, however, Turkey finds itself competing for export markets against other industrializing countries that are, like Turkey, good sources of labor-intensive products. Unless Turkey makes the customer the focus of its export marketing efforts to achieve global competitiveness, it may not be able to continue its export success.
The main objective of this research is to explore the acculturation process characteristic of Hispanic consumers. Studies of various ethnicities in the U.S. have generally concluded that immigrants follow the assimilation process, one in which they will give up practices associated with their homeland and progressively adopt those of the host country (Gordon 1964; O’Guinn and Faber 1985). More recent studies about Hispanic acculturation in the U.S. have hypothesized that Hispanics do not fit the assimilation paradigm (Lieberson and Waters 1988; Penaloza 1994). Some authors have adopted the ethnic-resilience theory (that focuses on ethnic solidarity, in-group cohesiveness, and culture reassertion as means to avoid assimilation and protect the group against discrimination) to explain some behavioral patterns among the Hispanics (Porter and Bach 1985).
Brand piracy and counterfeiting have emerged as major problems for global firms. Despite increasing efforts to improve mechanisms for the international enforcement of intellectual property rights, neither companies nor governments in industrialized countries appear able to curb the increasing supply and demand for counterfeits. Estimates suggest that the value of counterfeit goods in the world market has grown by 1100% since 1984, and a decline is not in sight.
In the instant analysis that followed, pundits dubbed the 2014 midterms an election “wave” for the Republican Party. Our article argues that “wave” is one of the most abused terms in American political discourse. Although political waves do exist, our article argues that they come in a variety of shapes, are created by a constellation of factors beyond anti-incumbency, and can have a number of different effects on the next national election cycle. Our analysis shows that the 2014 wave (if there was a wave in the ocean) was neither as large as pundits suggested nor as politically impactful as some spinners have claimed. Elections are determined by terrain and climate, both of which favored Republicans in 2014. Republicans captured or defended Senate seats where they should have in nine deep-red states. Focusing on gubernatorial and Senate campaigns in seven purple states, we see that Republicans won eight out of the 12 contests and five out of the nine most competitive contests. Although there has been an immense amount of attention to turnout, our analysis demonstrates that Republican victories were sometimes due to turnout, sometimes due to performance among independents, and sometimes due to a combination of these factors. This mixed picture complicates the analysis of the Republican victories, suggesting that the Rising American Electorate (youth, minorities, women) will not simply carry the Democrats to victory in 2016, and that anti-Obama public opinion alone will not be enough to deliver the White House to Republicans. It also provides yet more evidence that there is not a one-size-fits-all strategy when it comes to campaign focus and targeting.
The establishment of political channels that allowed long-standing rivals Brazil and Argentina to pursue co-operation in the nuclear realm is commonly attributed to the work of civilian Presidents José Sarney and Raúl Alfonsín as well as to the re-establishment of democratic regimes in both countries in the 1980s. Nevertheless, archival research, recently declassified documents, and oral-history interviews confirm the hypothesis that these efforts actually date back to the 1960s. The initiative gained momentum in the 1970s with the settlement of the Itaipu-Corpus dispute over common freshwater resources and joint opposition to the United States’ non-proliferation policy. This article addresses the process which led to the establishment of stable forms of co-operation between Brazil and Argentina in the nuclear realm. It explores four different strategies adopted by each country in order to obtain access to nuclear technology and exert regional leadership: alignment with the United States (thereby relinquishing nuclear autonomy); establishment of strategic partnerships with alternative Western powers; development of indigenous technology through secret programmes; and bilateral co-operation at the regional level. The international context, domestic factors, and personal attitudes are taken into account with the aim of providing a comprehensive analysis of co-operation and trust-building processes in a non-Western setting. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07075332.2013.864987#.UuOP7xA1jIU
The aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the corporate governance in the banks in Macedonia and some recommendation for strengthening corporate practices of banks. The banks in Macedonia have crucial importance in financial intermediation in the economy. Given the prevailing role of banking institutions as a source of finance in Macedonia, the good corporate governance of banks is of the utmost importance. By the implementation of good corporate practices the banks become more efficient, transparent, safe and attractive to investors. Macedonian banking law defines the framework for corporate governance in banks. However, the largest significance for the establishment of good corporate practices is the adoption of special by-laws for the basic principles of the corporate governance in a bank. There are eight principles, which will be analyzed in this chapter. The principles more clearly define standards for good corporate governance and seek to strengthen the control role of the management, adequate risk management and effective internal control systems and enhance role of internal audit. Improvement of corporate governance will contribute to the creation of a better, stronger and more sustainable banking system in the country. Strengthened corporate governance in banks remains an important objective for the development of the financial sector and the real economy.
The money markets are at the heart of the recent financial crisis and are the subject of substantial news coverage. However, much of what was reported showed a lack of understanding of money markets in general and, specifically, a lack of understanding as to why the financial crisis unfolded as it did in these markets; the purpose of this paper is to discuss what actually happened and why. Specifically, we discuss: (1) the economic role of the money markets, (2) the institutional features of the money markets central to the financial crisis and, (3) what actually happened in the various money markets.
To work effectively in the global business arena, managers need a strong set of intercultural management skills. When dealing with clients, co-workers, and other stakeholders at home or abroad, managers with cross-cultural competence have a distinct competitive advantage in the multicultural marketplace. Although generally accepted as a valuable asset for doing business, cross-cultural competence defies easy definition. This study attempts to conceptualize the complex term from the practitioner's point of view. What does cross-cultural competence mean to global managers? From their perspective, which aspects of culture do business people need to understand? From the universe of cultural beliefs, values, attitudes, and country-specific information, what should an executive, with limited time, focus on to develop a basic level of cultural competence? This study asked Mexican managers what they needed to know about culture to do business with the U.S. In the process, they consistently identified certain basic components of cultural competence. Responses were surprisingly similar among the managers, indicating they had a clear picture of which cultural essentials were most important for global executives to learn. The results of the study reveal a working definition of cultural competence for global managers. This research also provides trainers and business educators a content framework for a short-term training program, based on the global managers’ perceptions of cross-cultural competence.
Many studies have been conducted about environmentally concerned consumers in Europe and North America. this article examines the attitudes and environmentally concerned behaviors of consumers in Bangkok, Thailand. The relationship between attitudes towards control over action to preserve the environment and reported environmental behavior is of particular interest. Differences in behavior were found between consumers who felt they had more control over actions to preserve the environment and those consumers who felt they had less control.
The sharing and transfer of knowledge and best practices across the organization have long been recognized as a critical driver of a firm's capabilities and performance. In fact, Gupta and Govindarajan (1991) maintained that MNCs exist primarily because of their superior ability to transfer knowledge internally relative to the ability of markets. This paper examines factors that influence the success of intrafirm, cross-border knowledge transfers. We investigate the critical context similarity between best-practice source and recipient units and the impact of critical context similarity on transfer eventfulness. We argue that best practices are embedded within a set of 5 central contextual elements, which are critical to the firm's ability to utilize them. A model is developed and tested that explains the impact of context in enabling or inhibiting best-practice transfers. Our findings suggest that critical context dissimilarity inhibits best-practice transfers. The impact of congruence among the source and recipient units along the dimensions of culture, strategy, decision-making, environment and technology affects the eventfulness of the transfer in terms of time, budget and satisfaction. Additionally, the effect of the fit between the practice characteristics, and the transfer mechanisms employed, is examined.
MuhawiIbrahim and KanaanaSharif, Speak, Bird, Speak Again: Palestinian Arab Folktales (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989). Pp. 434. - Volume 23 Issue 3 - Issa Peters
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