American Association for the Advancement of Science
Recent publications
We surveyed literature on measurements of indoor particulate matter in all size fractions, in residential environments free of solid fuel combustion (other than wood for recreation or space heating). Data from worldwide studies from 1990 to 2019 were assembled into the most comprehensive collection to date. Out of 2752 publications retrieved, 538 articles from 433 research projects met inclusion criteria and reported unique data, from which more than 2000 unique sets of indoor PM measurements were collected. Distributions of mean concentrations were compiled, weighted by study size. Long‐term trends, the impact of non‐smoking, air cleaners, and the influence of outdoor PM were also evaluated. Similar patterns of indoor PM distributions for North America and Europe could reflect similarities in the indoor environments of these regions. Greater observed variability for all regions of Asia may reflect greater heterogeneity in indoor conditions, but also low numbers of studies for some regions. Indoor PM concentrations of all size fractions were mostly stable over the survey period, with the exception of observed declines in PM2.5 in European and North American studies, and in PM10 in North America. While outdoor concentrations were correlated with indoor concentrations across studies, indoor concentrations had higher variability, illustrating a limitation of using outdoor measurements to approximate indoor PM exposures.
The history of the scientific enterprise demonstrates that it has supported gender, identity, and racial inequity. Further, its institutions have allowed discrimination, harassment, and personal harm of racialized persons and women. This has resulted in a suboptimal and demographically narrow research and innovation system, a concomitant limited lens on research agendas, and less effective knowledge translation between science and society. We argue that, to reverse this situation, the scientific community must reexamine its values and then collectively embark upon a moonshot-level new agenda for equity. This new agenda should be based upon the foundational value that scientific research and technological innovation should be prefaced upon progress toward a better world for all of society and that the process of how we conduct research is just as important as the results of research. Such an agenda will attract individuals who have been historically excluded from participation in science, but we will need to engage in substantial work to overcome the longstanding obstacles to their full participation. We highlight the need to implement this new agenda via a coordinated systems approach, recognizing the mutually reinforcing feedback dynamics among all science system components and aligning our equity efforts across them.
The report of the American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Human Rights proposes a definition of human rights in relation to psychology; reviews the relationship between human rights and the concepts that have historically guided APA (e.g., human welfare, public interest, and social justice); proposes an analytical Five Connections framework that defines the connections between psychology and human rights and uses that framework to review APA's recent and ongoing human rights activities; and makes recommendations for organizational mechanisms that can ensure APA's ongoing and visible commitment to human rights. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
The paper presents a longitudinal analysis of the evolution of new physics keywords co-occurrence patterns. For that, we explore the documents indexed in the INSPIRE database from 1989 to 2018. Our purpose is to quantify the knowledge structure of the fast-growing subfield of new physics. The development of a novel approach to keywords co-occurrence analysis is the main point of the paper. In contrast to traditional co-keyword network analysis, we investigate structures that unite physics concepts in different documents and bind different documents with the same physics concepts. We consider the structures that reveal relationships among concepts as topological and call them “physics senses”. Based on the notion of trajectory mutual information, the paper offers clustering of physics senses, determines their period of life, and constructs a classification of senses’ “authority”.
Scientists’ engagement with society on critical environmental and health issues is essential to reaching positive and equitable long-term outcomes. We argue that stronger institutional support for public engagement is necessary and that inclusive practices should be built into public engagement training and relationships. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)’s Center for Public Engagement with Science and Technology provides a model of support for scientists that we believe other scientific institutions can replicate and expand on. This model prioritizes representative and accessible science communication training, resources (e.g., funding and staff and peer support), opportunities to practice engagement, and rewards and incentives for doing engagement. We describe our programs in each of these areas and reflect on how well each builds scientists’ engagement skills and institutional capacity, and whether each embodies and models thoughtful, accessible, and representative engagement. Through these various approaches, the Center communicates to other scientific institutions that engagement by scientists should be valued, celebrated, and supported, and builds capacity for individual scientists to do effective engagement. We argue that these supports can be applied by other scientific institutions to reflect and incorporate society’s diverse needs and concerns, thus truly serving the public and making science and scientific institutions stronger for it.
Background: Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer is a dominantly inherited syndrome of colorectal cancer (CRC), with heightened risk for younger population. Previous studies link its susceptibility to the DNA sequence polymorphism along with Amsterdam and Bethesda criteria. However, those fail in term of applicability. Aim: To determine a clear cut-off of MSH2 gene expression for CRC heredity grouping factor. Further, the study also aims to examine the association of risk factors to the CRC heredity. Methods: The cross-sectional study observed 71 respondents from May 2018 to December 2019 in determining the CRC hereditary status through MSH2 mRNA expression using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the disease's risk factors. Data were analyzed through Chi-Square, Fischer exact, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and multiple logistics. Results: There are significant differences of MSH2 within CRC group among tissue and blood; yet, negative for significance between groups. Through the blood gene expression fifth percentile, the hereditary CRC cut-off is 11059 fc, dividing the 40 CRC respondents to 32.5% with hereditary CRC. Significant risk factors include age, family history, and staging. Nonetheless, after multivariate control, age is just a confounder. Further, the study develops a probability equation with area under the curve 82.2%. Conclusion: Numerous factors have significant relations to heredity of CRC patients. However, true important factors are staging and family history, while age and others are confounders. The study also established a definite cut-off point for heredity CRC based on mRNA MSH2 expression, 11059 fc. These findings shall act as concrete foundations on further risk factors and/or genetical CRC future studies.
Circular economies are often framed as addressing a trio of problems: environmental degradation, economic stagnation, and social ills, broadly defined. Our paper centers on this last claim – that circular economies promise social benefits. There is a dearth of literature focused on the social dimensions of circular economies (Geissdoerfer, Martin, Paulo Savaget, Nancy M. P. Bocken, and Erik Jan Hultink. 2017. “The Circular Economy – A New Sustainability Paradigm?” Journal of Cleaner Production 143 (February): 757–768. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.048.), and even less attention to the meaning of social justice in the context of circular economies, let alone how it might be enacted in policy and practice. Drawing on data generated from focus groups with circular economy experts and a content analysis of US-based governmental, NGO, and business literature on circular economies, we explore whether and how justice emerges in circular economy discourse. We explore the narratives that these actors use to describe justice, and the barriers they see in achieving just and inclusive circular economies. We aim to identify the ways in which social justice is defined and discussed – or not – by the actors who seem to be most actively pushing for a circular economy (CE). Our work addresses the critical need to articulate clearly what it is we mean by social justice in relation to the CE. For if the CE is to contribute to sustainable social transformations, justice must be more than a buzzword – the CE must be just by design.
The focus of attention regarding the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic has been on direct health outcomes and the macroeconomic impacts of control measures. Here we review the available evidence about the food security impacts of the pandemic on pastoralists in Eastern and Western Africa. While pastoralism occurs on more than 50% of the world's land area, the landscapes that pastoralists exploit tend to be remote and highly variable arid and semi-arid lands with low population densities. Over time pastoralists have developed sophisticated mechanisms to enhance their self-sufficiency. At the same time, remoteness and sociopolitical marginalization have resulted in higher rates of food insecurity and underdevelopment among pastoralists relative to more sedentary populations. These dynamics tend to be intractable to standardized food security, malnutrition, and economic development interventions. The COVID-19 pandemic is contributing to a worsening of food security trends in pastoralist areas of East and West Africa due to a multiplicity of factors, including the closure of livestock markets, movement restrictions, disruptions of supply chains and livestock production inputs, reduced frequency and quality of human and animal healthcare delivery, and lost income from complementary livelihoods. It opens, however, space for innovations that may contribute to the food-secure future of pastoralism, including adapting a One Health approach that addresses the social, economic, and environmental health determinants of food security among African pastoralists.
The emergence of new cell and gene-based therapies (CGTs) utilizing innovative technologies has recently intensified. Long-standing efforts in publicly funded biomedical research have resulted in breakthrough therapeutic approaches for patients with devastating and life-threatening diseases. Transformative gene-based therapeutic tools include human genome editing technologies, refined transposon systems, and synthetic immunoreceptors, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell and natural killer cell engineered immunotherapies. Cancer has been a leading disease target, with the treatment of B cell malignancies yielding compelling clinical outcomes, resulting in the regulatory approval of several CAR T cell therapies. Concurrently, intensive research on solid tumor indications is underway. Similarly, rare diseases are prominent targets for gene therapy and gene editing technologies. Founded on these scientific advances, next-generation CGTs are expected to transform into treatment options for a wider spectrum of conditions. Moreover, while these treatments, to-date, target mostly patients with advanced illnesses, future therapies may be introduced at earlier disease stages, even as primary therapeutic options. Here, we highlight some of the obstacles inherent in CGT evidence generation and research reproducibility and recommend concerted actions on how they can be overcome.
Loss of sciatic innervation of the popliteal lymph node causes IFN-γ–dependent lymph node expansion.
The study of environmental communication originated as a diverse multidisciplinary field encompassing a wide array of communicator perspectives. However, as the field evolved, mass media and journalism became its perceived scholarly focus. As a result, environmental communication processes may be less well-understood across other settings, such as scientific and research institutions, non-governmental organizations, and federal agencies. To understand how communicators describe their goals, ethics, and strategies within these contexts, we conducted a three-part study of researchers and practitioners working on environmental issues in the Washington, DC, region between October 2019 and January 2020. Employing Q methodology, we identified four distinct perspectives: capacity-builders, translators, policy and decision-supporters, and cultural changemakers. Each of these perspectives is associated with a different range of goals, ethics, and strategic approaches. We describe graduate educational competencies for each of the perspectives and discuss implications for the design of communication research to meet practitioners’ needs. https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/6YPGS9PBCAHM4VGPBXSD/full?target=10.1080/17524032.2020.1862890
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Rodrigo Pérez Ortega
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Eric Hand
  • Science Magazine
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